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New Empires in the Americas

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Title: New Empires in the Americas


1
New Empires in the Americas
  • Chapter 2

2
Chapter 2 Timeline page 35
1416 1492 1533 1609 1619 1738
Prince Henry the Navigator establishes a center for naval exploration at Sagres, Portugal Christopher Columbus lands in the Bahamas Francisco Pizarro and his men kill Inca leader Atahualpa Henry Hudson makes his first voyage to North America The first Africans in North America arrive in Jamestown Former slaves built Fort Mose, the first free black settlement in North America
3
Chapter 2 Timeline
1519 1519 1534 1548 1587 1520-1860
Ferdinand Magellan led an expedition to circumnavigate the world Hernan Cortez landed in Mexico and conquered the Aztec Empire Conquistador Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire Fernandez de Oviedo reported the effects of European diseases on the Taino people of Hispaniola The Roanoke Colony disappeared 12 million Africans were shipped across the Atlantic to the Americas
4
Chapter 2 Timeline
1624
Peter Minuit bought Manhattan Island for the Native Americans for 24. He also founded the towns of New Amsterdam (New York) and New Sweden.
5
Fort Mose, Florida (Page 33 FL 2)
  • In 1738, former slaves built Fort Mose, the first
    free black settlement in North America.

6
Section 1 Europeans Set Sail
  • The Big Idea
  • Europeans explored the world, searching for new
    lands and new trade routes.
  • Main Ideas
  • Vikings were skilled sailors, and they were the
    first Europeans to reach North America.
  • Prince Henry the Navigator established a school
    for sailors and provided financial support that
    enabled the Portuguese to start exploring the
    oceans.
  • Portuguese sailors sailed around Africa and found
    a sea route to Asia.

7
Main Idea 1 Vikings were skilled sailors, and
they were the first Europeans to reach North
America.
  • Vikings came from Scandinavia.
  • They raided countries throughout Europe and
    developed large trading networks.
  • In 1000 Leif Eriksson sailed from Norway to the
    North American coast after having been blown off
    course by a storm.
  • Landed on the Labrador Peninsula in present-day
    Canada
  • Sailed further south to Newfoundland and perhaps
    even into New England
  • Created a North American settlement, but attacks
    by Native Americans and the areas isolation
    prompted the Vikings to return to Europe

8
Main Idea 2 Prince Henry the Navigator
established a school for sailors and provided
financial support that enabled the Portuguese to
start exploring the oceans.
Henry the Navigator
  • Made great advances in exploration in the 1400s
  • Prince Henry built an observatory and founded a
    school of navigation.
  • Financed research by mapmakers and shipbuilders
  • Paid for expeditions to explore the coast of
    Africa

9
The Caravel page 39
10
Advancement of Exploration
Motivations for Exploration
  • To find sea routes to develop additional trade
    with Asia
  • To spread Christianity and convert more people
  • Many Europeans wanted to learn more about Asia
    and its culture.

Technological Advances
  • Better instruments made it possible for sailors
    to travel the open seas.
  • The astrolabe enabled navigators to use the stars
    to chart location.
  • The Portuguese began designing ships that were
    smaller, lighter, and easier to steer.
  • Caravels used triangular sails that allowed ships
    to sail against the wind.

11
Sea Routes in Asia page 40
12
Main Idea 3 Portuguese sailors sailed around
Africa and found a sea route to Asia.
  • In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias led an exploration from
    Portugal southward along African coast,
    discovering the southern tip of Africa, the Cape
    of Good Hope.
  • In 1497 Vasco da Gama sailed around the Cape of
    Good Hope and landed in India, winning the
    European race for a sea route to Asia.

13
Results of Exploration
  • As Portuguese sailors explored the west coast of
    Africa, they negotiated for gold, ivory, and
    slaves.
  • Devastated African communities
  • Broke up many families
  • Led to increased warfare among kingdoms
  • Slaves were sent to Europe and to islands in the
    Atlantic where they endured brutal living
    conditions.
  • New trade increased Portuguese wealth and power.
  • Other European countries launched their own
    voyages of exploration.

14
Portuguese Routes of Exploration page 41
15
Section 2 Europeans Reach the Americas
  • The Big Idea
  • Christopher Columbuss voyages led to new
    exchanges between Europe, Africa, and the
    Americas.
  • Main Ideas
  • Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic
    Ocean and reached a continent that was previously
    unknown to him.
  • After Columbuss voyages, other explorers sailed
    to the Americas.

16
Main Idea 1 Christopher Columbus sailed across
the Atlantic Ocean and reached a continent that
was previously unknown to him.
  • Christopher Columbus, a sailor from Genoa, Italy,
    heard stories of great wealth in Asia.
  • He persuaded King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of
    Spain to pay for an expedition across the
    Atlantic.
  • On August 3, 1492, Columbus set sail across the
    Atlantic with three ships.
  • On October 12, 1492, he reached the Americas.
  • Columbus thought he could reach Asia by sailing
    west across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain.

17
Columbuss Voyages, 1942-1504 page 43
18
Columbus in the Americas
  • Columbus and his crew landed in the Bahamas, on
    an island he named San Salvador.
  • He called the native people Indians because he
    thought he was in the Indies.
  • Columbus was interested in gold, not the culture
    of the native people.
  • He made three more voyages to the Americas.
  • The impact of Columbuss voyages on the world was
    not realized until years after his death.
  • Columbus was concerned about creating towns,
    controlling the collecting of gold, mayors of
    towns, priest, and a church.

19
Impact of Columbus
  • Changed the way Europeans thought of the world
    and their place in it.
  • Began a new era of interaction between Europe and
    the Americas.
  • Created conflict as countries vied to add lands
    to their empires.
  • In 1493 Pope Alexander VI, from Spain, decreed
    the Line of Demarcation through the Atlantic
    Ocean that allowed Spain to claim all lands west
    of the line.
  • Portugal and Spain then signed an agreement, the
    Treaty of Tordesillas, which moved the Line of
    Demarcation 800 miles further west.

20
Main Idea 2 After Columbuss voyages, other
explorers sailed to the Americas.
3. America was named for Amerigo Vespucci, who
sailed to South America in 1501.
Vespucci
Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed Central America to
discover the Pacific Ocean.
Balboa
4. Ferdinand Magellan headed an expedition in
1519 that eventually circumnavigated, or sailed
around, the world.
Magellan
21
The Columbian Exchange
  • Explorers brought plants, animals, and diseases
    to the New World of the Americas and brought
    back plants and animals to the Old
    WorldEurope, Asia, and Africa.
  • The Columbian Exchange is the name given to this
    transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between
    Europe and the Americas.
  • Explorers brought horses, cattle, pigs, and
    grains such as barley and wheat to the Americas.
  • Europeans took back such American plants as corn,
    tomatoes, tobacco, and cocoa.

22
The Columbian Exchange page 45 Exit Ticket
  • The Columbian Exchange brought new foods and
    products to Europe and the Americans.
  • The Columbian also brought slaves from Africa to
    the Americas.

23
Columbian Exchange
24
Triangular Trade page 92
25
Section 3 Spain Builds an Empire
  • The Big Idea
  • Spain established a large empire in the Americas.
  • Main Ideas
  • Spanish conquistadors conquered the Aztec and the
    Inca empires.
  • Spanish explorers traveled through the
    borderlands of New Spain, claiming more land.
  • Spanish settlers treated Native Americans
    harshly, forcing them to work on plantations and
    in mines.

26
Main Idea 1 Spanish conquistadors conquered the
Aztec and the Inca empires.
  • Conquistadors were Spanish soldiers who led
    military expeditions in the Americas.
  • Hernán Cortés led a military expedition to Mexico
    in 1519.
  • Cortés heard of a wealthy land ruled by a king
    named Moctezuma II.

27
Conquest of the Aztec Empire
  • Moctezuma II ruled the Aztec Empire from his
    capital city of Tenochtitlán.
  • The Aztecs had thousands of warriors.
  • Cortés had several hundred soldiers and sailors,
    as well as horses and guns.
  • Moctezuma welcomed Cortés but was seized by the
    Spanish and later killed during fighting.
  • The Spanish overthrew the Aztec Empire with the
    aid of the Aztecs enemies.
  • The Aztecs had also been weakened by smallpox and
    other diseases brought by the Spanish.

28
Pizarros Conquest of the Inca
  • Francisco Pizarro, another conquistador, led a
    military expedition to the Inca Empire in the
    Andes Mountains of South America.
  • The Inca ruled over territory that stretched from
    present-day Chile to Colombia.
  • Pizarros forces killed the Inca ruler.
  • Pizarro, with the aid of Native American allies,
    had conquered the Inca by 1534.

29
Early American Empires
Civilization Location/Leaders Characteristics/Culture Achievements/Technologies
Maya 1000 BC began farming 200 AD began forming cities 250-900 AD began forming large cities 1500 AD power had faded Mexico, Honduras, Belize, Guatemala Capital None King Pacal Religion many gods, Sun God, Moon God, Maize God, human sacrifice Government Theocracy studied the stars Crops beans, squash, avocados, maize Resources cotton, cacao, obsidian, jade, bird feathers, gold, deer, rabbits, monkeys Stone pyramids, temples, statues 365 day calendar, 260 day calendar Calendars that determined length of the year Observatories Number system and symbol for 0 Writing system of Detailed Written Records Books Canals, terraces, Hieroglyphics
Aztec Began in Mid-1100 AD 1521 AD Empire Ended Mexico Capital Tenochtitlan built in 1325 AD on Lake Texacoco Emperor Moctezuma II Religion many gods, human sacrifice Crops cotton, maize Formed alliances, controlled trade, collected tribute Huge Military Resources cotton, gold, silver, gems, bright feathers Stone pyramids, temples, statues Causeways, canals, Hieroglyphics Chinampas (floating gardens) Calendar Study astronomy Detailed Written records Jewelry and mask Artisans used gold, gems and bright bird feathers Women embroidered colorful designs of cloth they wove
Inca Began in Mid-1400s AD In 1537 AD Spanish began to rule the Empire South America Capital Cuzco Ruler Pachacuti Language Quechua Andes Mountains Religion many gods, rarely human sacrifice, mummies Crops maize, peanuts, potatoes, Resources -llamas Stone pyramids, temples, masonry Largest empire (over 12 million people) 10,000 miles of stone roads Terraces, Hieroglyphics Bridges Gold and silver jewelry, pottery Records kept with knotted cords called quipus Fine textiles
30
Spanish Explorations, 1513-1542 page 49
31
Spanish Settlements
  • The Spanish called their vast empire New Spain.
  • Jews, Muslims, and non-Christians were forbidden
    to settle there.
  • Royal officials ruled the empire through
    viceroys, or royal governors.
  • Three types of settlements were established
  • Pueblos served as trading posts and centers of
    government.
  • Missions were founded by priests to convert local
    Native Americans to Catholicism.
  • Presidios, or military bases, protected towns and
    missions.
  • Settlers built El Camino Real, an extensive road
    system, to link the empire.

32
Reasons for Spanish Victory page 48
33
Spanish Viceroyalties, c 1700 page 50
34
Main Idea 2 Spanish explorers traveled through
the borderlands of New Spain,
claiming more land.
  • Many other Spanish explorers came to North
    America in the 1500s to find treasure.
  • Juan Ponce de León explored present-day Florida
    in 1513.
  • Hernando de Soto traveled through Florida and
    North Carolina in 1539.
  • Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, accompanied by a
    slave named Estevanico and a few others,
    journeyed on foot throughout the North American
    Southwest.
  • De Vacas account of their journey inspired
    Francisco Vásquez de Coronado to continue
    exploration, leading to the discovery of the
    Grand Canyon.
  • Spains American colonies helped make it wealthy.
  • Tons of gold and silver were brought to Spain
    from the Aztec and Inca empires.
  • Food was also grown in Mexico and Peru to support
    Spains expanding empire.

35
Catholicism in the Americas
  • Spain commanded priest to convert American
    Indians to Christianity.

36
Spanish America
Government Religion Labor
viceroyalties increased infrastructure bureaucracy taxes spread of Christianity enslavement cruel/harsh working conditions influx of new diseases
37
Main Idea 3 Spanish settlers treated Native
Americans harshly, forcing them to work on
plantations and in mines.
  • The encomienda system gave settlers the right to
    tax local Native Americans or make them work.
  • Most Spanish treated Native Americans like
    slaves.
  • Native Americans were forced to work on
    plantations, or large farms, to work in mines,
    and to herd cattle.
  • Bartolomé de Las Casas, a Spanish priest, wrote
    books and letters defending Native American
    rights.

38
Section 4 The Race for Empires
  • The Big Idea
  • Other European nations challenged Spain in the
    Americas.
  • Main Ideas
  • Events in Europe affected settlement of North
    America.
  • Several explorers searched for a Northwest
    Passage to the Pacific Ocean.
  • European nations raced to establish empires in
    North America.

39
Main Idea 1 Events in Europe affected
settlement of North America.
  • Martin Luther, a German priest, protested the
    practices of the Catholic Church in 1517 leading
    to a religious reform movement called the
    Protestant Reformation.
  • Reformers became known as Protestants.
  • The printing press, a machine that produces
    printed copies, helped spread the ideas of the
    Reformation.
  • Conflict between Catholics and Protestants in
    Europe often led to civil war.
  • King Henry VIII defied the pope and founded the
    Church of England, or Anglican Church, in 1534.

40
Spain and England Go to War
  • King Philip II used Spains wealth to lead a
    Counter-Reformation against the Protestants.
  • Philip sent the Spanish Armada to England to
    overthrow Queen Elizabeth and the Anglican
    Church.
  • The smaller English fleet defeated the Armada.
  • Spain was also weakened by economic problems,
    including inflation, a rise in the price of goods
    caused by an increase in the amount of money in
    use.
  • England, France, and the Netherlands challenged
    Spanish power in the Americas.

41
Main Idea 2 Several explorers searched for a
Northwest Passage to the Pacific Ocean.
Italian sailor John Cabot, sailing for the
English, searched for a passage to the Pacific
Ocean along the coast of Canada and Newfoundland.
This became the basis of Englands claim to North
America.
Cabot
Frenchman Jacques Cartier sailed down the Saint
Lawrence river all the way to present-day
Montreal, claiming lands for France.
Cartier
The English captain Henry Hudson led a Dutch
expedition to present-day New York in 1609.
Hudson
42
Northwest Passage page 55
43
Main Idea 3 European nations raced to establish
empires in North America.
  • Spanish and Portuguese were the early leaders in
    exploration and colonization of Central America,
    the Caribbean, and South America.
  • English, French and Dutch then focused on North
    America for expansion of their empires.

44
English Settlement
  • The English decided to found a colony in North
    America in the late 1500s.
  • Sir Walter Raleigh received a charter, a document
    giving him permission to start a colony.
  • He sent an expedition that landed in present-day
    North Carolina and Virginia.
  • The colony established at Roanoke by John White
    in 1587, in what is now Virginia, mysteriously
    disappeared.

45
European Exploration of the Americas, 1492-1682
page 56
46
Roanoke Colony page 54
  • Sir Walter Raleigh built a colony on Roanoke
    Island. The English colonist of Roanoke had a
    hard life. They fought with Native Americans and
    had trouble finding food.
  • John White resettled Roanoke in 15 87, after a
    few months he went back to England for supplies.
    When he returned he found the colony deserted.
    The only clue found to the fate of the colonist
    was the word Croatoan carved to a post. To this
    day no one is certain what happened to the lost
    colony at Roanoke.

47
French Empire in North America
First settlements were in Florida, but they were
soon destroyed and the settlers driven out by the
Spanish.
The explorations of Jacques Cartier and Samuel de
Champlain gave France a claim in the north, in
present-day Canada along the Saint Lawrence River.
The North American territory that spread out from
the St. Lawrence River in the late 1600s was
called New France.
Fur traders, explorers, and missionaries
populated the region.
René-Robert de La Salle claimed lands along the
Mississippi River and in the Mississippi Valley.
French settlers developed close trading
relationship with the Native Americans.
48
Dutch and Swedish Presence
  • New Netherland
  • The Dutch came to America for trade.
  • They settled land between the Delaware and Hudson
    rivers.
  • Manhattan Island was purchased from local Native
    Americans and called New Amsterdam.
  • New Sweden
  • Colonists settled along the Delaware River.
  • New Christina, the first Swedish settlement, was
    founded in 1638.
  • The Dutch conquered New Sweden in 1655.

49
Section 5 Beginnings of Slavery in the Americas
  • The Big Idea
  • Europeans forced millions of African slaves to
    work in their colonies.
  • Main Ideas
  • European diseases wiped out much of the Native
    American population, causing colonists to look
    for a new labor force.
  • Europeans enslaved millions of Africans and sent
    them to work in their colonies.
  • Slaves in the Americas created a distinct culture.

50
Main Idea 1 European diseases wiped out much of
the Native American population, causing colonists
to look for a new labor force.
  • Europeans were immune, or had a natural
    resistance, to diseases common in Europe like
    measles, smallpox, and typhus.
  • Native Americans had no resistance to these
    diseases, and millions died in the years after
    the Europeans arrived.
  • With a shortage of Native American workers,
    Spanish and Portuguese plantation owners had to
    find other sources of cheap labor.
  • Slaves from West Africa were brought to America
    and the African slave trade flourished.

51
Main Idea 2 Europeans enslaved millions of
Africans and sent them to work in their colonies.
  • In 1510 Spanish government legalized the sale of
    slaves in the colonies.
  • Most slaves came from the interior of Africa.
  • One out of every six slaves died along the Middle
    Passage, the voyage across the Atlantic Ocean to
    reach the Americas, because of horrible living
    conditions.
  • Slave trade led to the African Diaspora, as
    enslaved Africans were sent all across the world.
  • Colonial leaders worked to regulate slave
    treatment and behavior, but treatment of enslaved
    Africans varied.
  • Between the 1520s and 1800s about 12 million
    Africans were shipped across the Atlantic.

52
African Diaspora in the United States page 60
53
The Slave Trade
54
Main Idea 3 Slaves in the Americas created a
distinct culture.
  • Slaves in the Americas came from diverse
    backgrounds, but shared many customs and
    viewpoints.
  • They built upon what they had in common to create
    a new African American culture.

55
Slave Culture
  • Family
  • Vital part of slave culture
  • Provided a refuge, a place not fully under the
    slaveholders control
  • Faced many challenges, including being broken
    apart
  • Religion
  • Christianity blended with traditional African
    elements
  • Gave sense of self-worth and hope
  • Spirituals were a common form of religious
    expression.
  • Used songs and folktales to tell their stories of
    hope, sorrow, agony, and joy.
  • Art and Dance
  • Form of expression
  • Dances were important social events in slave
    communities.
  • Heavily influenced by African traditions.

56
Slave Trade in the Americas
  • Causes
  • Effects
  • Native Americans dying from European diseases
  • Need for cheap labor for plantations
  • West Africans had immunity to most European
    diseases
  • African Diaspora
  • Middle Passage Deaths
  • Harsh/cruel treatment of enslaved Africans
  • Formation of African American culture

57
Chapter 2 Review page 65
58
Important Facts
  • Columbuss travels to the Americas created a
    conflict between Spain and Portugal
  • The Treaty of Tordesillas moved the Line of
    Demarcation 800 miles further west
  • The colonist of Roanoke abandoned the site for a
    reason that remains a mystery

59
Important Facts
  • Searches for the Northwest Passage were
    significant because they raised European interest
    in North America
  • Conquistadors biggest advantage in defeating the
    Aztec and the Inca was steel armor and weapons
  • The Columbian Exchange had deadly effects such as
    infecting Native Americans with new and deadly
    diseases

60
  • The Columbian Exchange had deadly effects such as
    infecting Native Americans with new and deadly
    diseases

61
Important Facts
  • Quebec was a small colony on the Saint Lawrence
    River which opened trading routes for the French

62
Important Facts
  • The El Camino Real was a network of paths
    connecting the communities of New Spain
  • Spain commanded priest to convert American
    Indians to Christianity or Catholicism
  • About 12 million Africans were shipped across the
    Atlantic as slaves between 1520s and 1860s

63
Important Facts
  • Colonist in need of cheap labor turned to slaves
    from West Africa because West African slaves had
    already built up immunity to European diseases
  • Dutch settlers practiced religious toleration
    because they thought it would attract more
    colonist
  • The Aztec Empire exist in present day Mexico

64
Important Facts
  • Many Native Americans died as a result of
    exposure to new diseases brought by European
    explorers.
  • King Phillip IIs launching of the Spanish Armada
    against Englands Queen Elizabeth I and her sea
    dogs showed that Spains religious allegiance was
    to the Catholic Church.

65
Important People
  • Ferdinand Magellan was the first explorer to
    circumnavigate the globe
  • Jacques Cartier claimed land for France during
    his two trips to Canada

66
Important People
  • Peter Minuit was a Dutchman who founded New
    Amsterdam and helped found New Sweden
  • Bartolome de Las Casas wrote books and letters
    defending the American Indians to change Spains
    way of governing the Americas. He wrote Brief
    Account of the Devastation of the Indies

67
Important People
  • Fernandez de Oviedo wrote there are not now
    believed to be at the present time five hundred
    persons left. He was writing about the effects
    of infection on the Taino people of Hispaniola

68
Important People
  • Francisco Pizarro was a Spaniard who led the
    defeat of the Inca
  • Juan Ponce de Leon landed on Puerto Rico in 1508,
    conquered it by 1511, and founded the city of San
    Jaun

69
Important People
  • Christopher Columbuss explorations were funded
    by king Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain
  • Hernan Cortez was a Spanish conquistador who led
    the destruction of the Aztec Empire
  • Vasco de Gama was the first European to discover
    a sea route to Asia
  • Leif Eriksson and his crew landed on the labrador
    peninsula in present day Canada

70
Important People
  • Prince Henry the Navigator helped Portugal become
    a leader in world exploration
  • Martin Luther publicly criticized the Roman
    Catholic Church with his ninety-five theses

71
Important People
  • Moctezuma II war the ruler of the Aztec Empire
  • Malintzin was the Indian Woman who helped Cortes
    win allies to fight the Aztecs

72
Important Terms
  • The ecomienda system granted the Spanish settlers
    the right to tax local American indians or make
    them work
  • Plantations large farms that grew just one kind
    of crop and made enormous profits for their owners

73
Important Terms
  • African Diaspora refers to the scattering of
    enslaved Africans all across the New World
  • Middle Passage describes the voyage taken by
    slaves across the Atlantic Ocean

74
Important Terms
  • Astrolabe aided explorers in finding new
    continents by allowing ship navigators to check
    location by charting the position of celestial
    bodies
  • Caravel a special type of ship that featured
    important advances in sailing technology

75
Important Terms
  • Presidios were Spanish military bases in New
    Spain or the Americas

76
Important Places
  • Tenochtitlan was capital of the Aztec Empire, it
    was located on a lake in Central Mexico
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