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Social Learning Theories

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Social Learning Theories Edwin H. Sutherland s Differential Association Theory 2. Ronald Akers Differential Reinforcement Theory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Learning Theories


1
Social Learning Theories
  • Edwin H. Sutherlands Differential Association
    Theory
  • 2. Ronald Akers Differential Reinforcement
    Theory

2
http//answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid200809
16224128AAQ8Y2j
  • I have a court date for shoplifting and need
    help? I'm 16 and shoplifted in El Paso, Texas ok
    so I know I made a mistake and I wont do this
    ever again. Don't reply if your going to say I'm
    stupid, cuz yea I already know I am. I got caught
    shoplifting in Claire's with 3 of my friends. I
    started the shoplifting idea, but I told them not
    to do it. They started stealing a lot of stuff,
    from Sears and Zumies and places like that but I
    was always scared I would get caught so I never
    stole. I just told them what I liked and they got
    it for me

3
Generic Assumptions
  • All behaviors are learned (not genetically
    programmed)
  • Including techniques, attitudes, drives, and
    rationalizations

4
How to paint with oil?
5
(No Transcript)
6
Learning
  • People learn to engage in crime, primarily
    through their association with others

7
Differential Association
  • Edwin H. Sutherland (1939)
  • Tell me who your friends are and I will tell you
    who you are..

8
Two things to look at
  • Self-similarity principle we tend to choose
    people who resemble us in terms of experience,
    training, worldview, and so on.
  • Proximity principle- people with similar
    background, experience, etc tend to live in the
    same neighborhood, go to the same school, work at
    the same department, etc.

9
Edwin H. Sutherland (1939)Differential
Association Theory
  • Criminal behavior is learned.
  • It is learned in interaction with other persons
    in a process of communication.
  • Learning of criminal behavior occurs within
    intimate personal groups.

10
Differential Association Theory
  • The learning includes
  • Techniques of committing the crime, which are
    sometimes very complicated, sometimes very
    simple
  • The specific direction of motives, drives,
    rationalizations, and attitudes.

11
Differential Association Theory
  • Motives and drives are learned from definitions
    of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable.
  • A person becomes delinquent because of an excess
    of definitions favorable to violation of law over
    definitions unfavorable to violations of law.

12
Differential Association Theory
  • Differential associations may vary in
  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Priority
  • Intensity

13
Differential Association Theory
  • 8. The process of learning criminal behavior
    involves all of the mechanisms that are involved
    in any other learning.

14
Ronald Akers Central concepts of Differential
Reinforcement Theory
  • Differential association (groups provide major
    social context for learning)
  • Definitions (attitudes/meanings)
  • Differential reinforcement (anticipated/actual
    rewards and punishments)
  • Imitation

15
Main Concepts
  • Differential association refers to direct
    association and interaction with others who
    engage in certain kinds of behavior or express
    norms, values, and attitudes supportive of such
    behavior, as well as the indirect association and
    identification with more distant reference groups
    .

16
Inner city
17
Suburb
18
Main Concepts
  • Definitions are ones own orientations,
    rationalizations, justifications, excuses, and
    other attitudes that define the commission of an
    act as relatively more right or wrong, good or
    bad, desirable or undesirable, justified or
    unjustified, appropriate or inappropriate.

19
Definitions
  • General Definitions - include religious, moral,
    and other conventional values and norms that are
    favorable to conforming behavior
  • Specific Definitions orient the person to
    particular acts. Thus, one may believe that
    stealing is bad, but stealing from bad
    people/drug dealers is O.K.

20
  • A person becomes delinquent because of an excess
    of definitions favorable to violation of law over
    definitions unfavorable to violation of the law
  • If DFC/DUC gt 1.0,
  • DFC weighted definitions
  • favorable to crime
  • DUC weighted definitions
  • unfavorable to crime

21
Definitions Unfavorable to Crime
  • Crime doesnt pay.
  • Marijuana causes brain damage and leads to
    cocaine and heroin.
  • Turn the other cheek when insulted.
  • Always be a law abiding citizen and youll be
    respected.
  • Dont drink and drive you can hurt someone.
  • Dont throw your life away by breaking the law!
  • Sinners will be damned for eternity.
  • Never rat on a fellow criminal or hold out on
    them.

22
Definitions Favorable to Crime
  • The Justice Department should be going after
    real criminals, not me!
  • Its technically not sex if there isnt
    penetration and if you dont touch her!
  • I can drive after five beers, no problem.
  • If someone questions your manhood, you have to
  • stand up for yourself.

23
Main concepts
  • Differential Reinforcement refers to the balance
    of anticipated or actual rewards and punishments
    that follow

24
Main concepts
  • Imitation refers to the engagement in behavior
    after the direct or indirect (e.g. in media
    depictions) observation of similar behavior by
    others

25
White-collar crime
  • Introduced by Edwin H. Sutherland during his
    presidential address at the American Sociological
    Society Meeting in 1939

26
Occupational Crime
  • Occupational crime occurs when crimes are
    committed to promote personal interests
  • Crimes that fall into this category include
    altering books by accountants and overcharging or
    cheating clients by lawyers

27
Sutherlands explanation
  • College graduate without history of criminal
    behavior
  • High level aspirations/ambitions
  • Aren't in deviant peers groups, and aren't poor
  • They live well-ordered lives for the most part
  • They are well respected at work and in community
  • Cheating clients by lawyers
  • New attitudes, drives, and rationalizations

28
Sutherlands explanation
  • Many major corporations require their employees
    to lie, cheat, steal and betray customers,
    competitors, inspectors and other employees
  • If the company steals from customers if the
    company violates pollution laws if the company
    converts pension plans to corporate purpose, the
    moral base is lost
  •  Follow the group/ leave/outlier

29
Crime Rates Predicted by Differential
SocialOrganization
30
Distribution of Definitions of Crime
31
Question to think.
  • Where did the first criminal come from?
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