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FEM 3335 Sustainable Cities

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FEM 3335 Sustainable Cities Assoc Prof Dr Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashid, APPM Department of Social & Development Science Faculty of Human Ecology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FEM 3335 Sustainable Cities


1
FEM 3335 Sustainable Cities
  • Assoc Prof Dr Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abd Rashid,
    APPM
  • Department of Social Development Science
  • Faculty of Human Ecology
  • Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • sharifah_at_putra.upm.edu.my

2
Content
  • Sustainable Cities
  • - Why the focus on cities?
  • - Definitions and Basic Principle
  • - What makes a city sustainable?
  • Urban 21 Conference Quality of Life
  • New Concepts
  • Compact City Eco City Healthy City Safe
    City
  • Practice

3
Why the Focus on Cities?
  • The majority of the global population live in
    cities in 2008 and predictions suggest that the
    figure will have reached 70 by 2050.
  • Furthermore, cities are currently responsible
    for up to 70 of global greenhouse gas emissions
    but only take up 2 of the world's land area.
  • This shows that the scale of the sustainability
    challenge in the urban built environment is vast,
    tackling it is vital to creating long-term,
    systemic and sustainable change.
  • Ref Eugenie Birch and Susan Wachter
  • Global Urbanization

4
Basic sustainability principles
In the Sustainable Society, Nature is not
subject to systematically increasing... 1
concentrations of substances from the Earths
crust. 2 concentrations of substances produced
by society. 3 degradation by physical means. 4
people are not subject to conditions that
systematically undermine their capacity to meet
their needs or the needs of future generations.
5
Sustainable City
  • Being a sustainable city means "improving the
    quality of life in a city, including ecological,
    cultural, political, institutional, social and
    economic components without leaving a burden on
    future generations...."
  • Urban21 Conference, Berlin, July 2000

6
Pillars of Sustainable City
  • " Economy, ecology and social cohesion are the
    pillars of a sustainable city. These must be in
    balance and therefore require an integrated
    approach. Dialogue is the basic principle for
    achieving this for Local Agenda 21."

7
Sustainable City
  • Cities have become the focal points as major
    consumers and distributors of goods and services.
    However, many cities tend to be large consumers
    of goods and services, while draining resources
    out of external regions that they depend on. As a
    result of increasing consumption of resources,
    and growing dependencies on trade, the ecological
    impact of cities extends beyond their geographic
    locations.

8
Problems and Pressures of Cities
  • Cities are increasingly becoming the engines of
    national economic growth and the magnets for new
    residents flooding in from rural areas.
    Globalization is having a significant effect on
    cities, forcing them to compete for international
    business with other cities worldwide and within
    their own countries.
  • As a result, the sustainability of cities is
    under pressure. Decision-makers at all levels are
    faced with the task of how to resolve urban
    problems from transportation to waste management,
    from drinking water supply to the preservation of
    urban green space

9
A city is only considered to be sustainable when
  • It follows a development path where the present
    progress does not take place at the expense of
    future generations (i.e. bad planning, debt,
    environmental degradation, etc. does not export
    present problems to the future).  
  • There is an equilibrium between different issues.
    In other words, the goal is an across-the-board
    development, instead of handling issues one by
    one.

10
SUSTAINABLE BALANCE
  • Environmental Integrity
  • Economic Vitality
  • Community Well Being
  • Cultural Enhancement
  •  

PEOPLE, PLANET, PROSPERITY AND PRESERVATION
11
The concept of Sustainable Cities
  • http//blog.cunysustainablecities.org/tag/architec
    ture/
  • http//www.urbanlab.com/h2o/
  • http//growingwater.com/
  • http//www.sustainablecitiesnet.com/
  • http//www.livingcityblock.org/

12
What Are the Major Population Trends in Urban
Areas?
  • Urbanization continues to increase steadily and
    the numbers and sizes of urban areas are growing
    rapidly, especially in developing countries.

13
Economy
URBANIZATION
Population
14
Half of the Worlds Population Live in Urban Areas
  • Urbanization
  • Urban growth
  • Natural increase
  • Immigration from rural areas
  • Pushed from rural areas to urban areas
  • Pulled to urban areas from rural areas

15
cont
  • Four major trends
  • Proportion of global population living in urban
    areas is increasing
  • Number and size of urban areas is mushrooming
  • Megacities, hypercities
  • Urban growth slower in developed countries
  • Poverty is becoming increasingly urbanized
    mostly in developing countries

16
Urban Areas in Crisis
  • Severe air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • 50 Unemployment
  • Deafening noise
  • Overcrowding
  • Traffic congestion
  • Inadequate public transportation
  • slums (barrios), squatter settlements, ghettos,
    etc
  • What progress is being made?

17
Global Outlook Satellite Image of Major Urban
Areas Throughout the World
18
What Are the Major Urban Resource and
Environmental Problems?
  • Most cities are unsustainable because of high
    levels of resource use, waste, pollution, and
    poverty.
  • But whats the alternative?

19
Urbanization Has Advantages
  • Centers of
  • Economic development
  • Innovation
  • Education
  • Technological advances
  • Jobs
  • Environmental advantages

20
Urbanization Has Disadvantages
  • Huge ecological footprints
  • Lack vegetation
  • Water problems
  • Concentrate pollution and health problems
  • Excessive noise
  • etc

21
Inputs
Outputs
Energy
Solid wastes
Waste heat
Food
Air pollutants
Water
Water pollutants
Raw materials
Greenhouse gases
Manufactured goods
Manufactured goods
Noise
Money
Wealth
Information
Ideas
22
Permanent damage begins after 8-hour exposure
Noise Levels (in dbA)
85
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
Earphones at loud level
Normal breathing
Quiet rural area
Rainfall
Vacuum cleaner
Lawn mower
Rock music
Boom cars
Normal conversation
Quiet room
Chain saw
Thunderclap (nearby)
Average factory
Military rifle
Air raid siren
Whisper
23
Life Is a Desperate Struggle for the Urban Poor
in Developing Countries
  • Slums
  • Squatter settlements
  • Shantytowns
  • Terrible living conditions
  • What can governments do to help?

24
Global Outlook Extreme Poverty Forces Hundreds
of Millions to Live in Slums
25
Mexico City Extreme example
  • Urban area in crisis
  • Severe air pollution
  • Water pollution
  • 50 Unemployment
  • Deafening noise
  • Overcrowding
  • Traffic congestion
  • Inadequate public transportation
  • 1/3 live in slums (barrios) or squatter
    settlements
  • What progress is being made?

26
Cities Can Grow Outward or Upward
  • Compact cities
  • Hong Kong, China
  • Tokyo, Japan
  • Mass transit
  • Dispersed cities
  • U.S. and Canada
  • Car-centered cities

27
Motor Vehicles Have Advantages and Disadvantages
(1)
  • Advantages
  • Mobility and convenience
  • Jobs in
  • Production and repair of vehicles
  • Supplying fuel
  • Building roads
  • Status symbol
  • Disadvantages
  • Largest source of outdoor air pollution
  • Accidents death and injury
  • Helped create urban sprawl
  • Traffic congestion

28
Reducing Automobile Use Is Not Easy, but It Can
Be Done
  • Full-cost pricing high gasoline taxes
  • Difficult to pass in the United States
  • Strong public opposition
  • Mass transit not an option in most cities
  • Dispersed nature of the U.S.
  • A tax shift?

29
cont
  • Raise parking fees
  • Tolls on roads, tunnels, and bridges into major
    cities
  • Car-sharing
  • Charge a fee to drive into a major city

30
Some Cities Are Promoting Alternatives to Car
Ownership
  • Bicycles
  • Heavy-rail systems
  • Light-rail systems
  • Buses
  • Rapid-rail system between urban areas

31
TRADE-OFFS
Bicycles
Advantages
Disadvantages
Affordable
Little protection in an accident
Produce no pollution
Do not protect riders from bad weather
Quiet
Impractical for long trips
Require little parking space
Can be tiring (except for electric bicycles)
Easy to maneuver in traffic
Take few resources to make
Lack of secure bike parking
32
TRADE-OFFS
Mass Transit Rail
Advantages
Disadvantages
Expensive to build and maintain
Uses less energy and produces less air pollution
than cars
Cost-effective only along a densely populated
corridor
Requires less land than roads and parking areas
for cars
Commits riders to transportation schedules
Causes fewer injuries and deaths than cars
Can cause noise and vibration for nearby residents
Reduces car congestion in cities
33
TRADE-OFFS
Buses
Advantages
Disadvantages
Can lose money because they need low fares to
attract riders
Can be rerouted as needed
Can get caught in traffic and add to pollution
Cost less to develop and maintain than heavy-rail
system
Commits riders to transportation schedules
Can greatly reduce car use and air pollution
Noisy
34
TRADE-OFFS
Rapid Rail
Advantages
Disadvantages
Can reduce travel by car or plane
Expensive to run and maintain
Must operate along heavily used routes to be
profitable
Ideal for trips of 2001,000 kilometers (120620
miles)
Causes noise and vibration for nearby residents
Much more energy efficient per rider than a car
or plane
35
Potential Routes for High-Speed Bullet Trains in
the U.S. and Parts of Canada
36
How Important Is Urban Land Use Planning?
  • Urban land-use planning can help to reduce
    uncontrolled sprawl and slow the resulting
    degradation of air, water, land, biodiversity,
    and other natural resources.

37
Conventional Land-Use Planning
  • Land-use planning
  • Encourages future population growth
  • Economic development
  • Revenues property taxes
  • Environmental and social consequences
  • Zoning
  • Mixed-use zoning

38
Smart Growth Works
  • Smart growth
  • Reduces dependence on cars
  • Controls and directs sprawl
  • Cuts wasteful resource
  • Europe Compact Cities

39
SOLUTIONS
Smart Growth Tools
40
Preserving and Using Open Space
  • Urban growth boundary
  • U.S. states Washington, Oregon, and Tennessee
  • Municipal parks
  • U.S. cities New York City and San Francisco
  • Greenbelts
  • Canadian cities Vancouver and Toronto
  • Western European cities

41
Central Park, New York City, USA
42
How Can Cities Become More Sustainable and
Livable?
  • An ecocity allows people to choose walking,
    biking, or mass transit for most transportation
    needs recycle or reuse most of their wastes
    grow much of their food and protect biodiversity
    by preserving surrounding land.

43
New Urbanism Is Growing
  • Conventional housing development
  • Cluster development
  • New urbanism, old villageism
  • Walkability
  • Mixed-use and diversity
  • Quality urban design
  • Environmental sustainability
  • Smart transportation

44
Example of planning housing development that
gives priority and safeguard the natural
landscape the creek, rivers and pond are
maintained.
45
Creek
Undeveloped land
Marsh
46
Typical housing development
Fig. 22-18b, p. 605
47
Cluster
Creek
Cluster housing development
Cluster
Pond
48
The Ecocity Concept Cities for People Not Cars
  • Ecocities or green cities
  • Build and redesign for people
  • Use renewable energy resources
  • Recycle and purify water
  • Use energy and matter resources efficiently
  • Prevent pollution and reduce waste
  • Recycle, reuse and compost municipal waste
  • Protect and support biodiversity
  • Urban gardens farmers markets
  • Zoning and other tools for sustainability

49
Science Focus Urban Indoor Farming
  • Rooftop greenhouses
  • Sun Works designs energy-efficient greenhouses
  • Growing Power and Will Allen http//www.growingpow
    er.org/
  • Hydroponic gardens
  • Skyscraper farms
  • Ecological advantages and disadvantages
  • Growing localvore and organic food movement
  • http//www.foodfightthedoc.com/foodfight.html

50
Greenroofs EPA Building in Denver
51
Chinas Vision for an Ecocity
  • 2008 Dongtan, China, ecocity
  • Carbon neutral city use renewable resources for
    energy
  • Reduce the need for cars, or use electric- or
    hydrogen-powered cars
  • Public transportation

52
The Ecovillage Movement Is Growing
  • Ecovillage movement
  • Eco-hoods
  • 1993 ecovillage in Los Angeles, CA, U.S.
  • What is making it work?
  • http//www.laecovillage.org/
  • Other ecovillages
  • Success stories

53
Towards Healthy City Concept
  • Today environments have designed out physical
    activity
  • Excessive high energy food intake
  • Insufficient physical activity in daily life
  • Diminished social interaction

54
Background to Healthy Cities
  • The international Healthy Cities movement was
    first conceived in Canada in 1984 as a result of
    the Healthy Toronto 2000 Beyond Health Care
    symposium, and was launched in Europe in 1986 by
    the World Health Organization (WHO). The movement
    has since spread across the globe and now
    involves more than 3,000 municipalities.

55
Health Determinants in an urban setting
Social Environment
Genetic Predisposition
Life-style
Physical Environment
56
Physical Environment
Physical, chemical and biological systems
Housing, streets, and physical layouts
Geography, landscape and climate
Architecture
Ecological footprint
57
Social Environment
Culture, social and religious norms
Social structure, cohesion and participation
Traditional and formal social support networks
Economic opportunities, system and structure
Participation in economy and decision making
58
Behaviour
Healthy lifestyle
Social mindedness and consciousness
Self esteem happiness
Aspiration, ambition, dynamism
59
Living in a city health and quality of life
  • People live longer and healthier lives if
  • They breath clean air and drink safe water
  • They live in safe and comfortable housing
  • They have health supporting behaviour and
    easy access to health care services
  • They have meaningful jobs and income.
  • They have security
  • They have friends and feel they belong to their
    community
  • They can make choices for their lives.
  • They have a peaceful home
  • They have trees, plants and feel they relate to
    the architecture.

60
WATER SUPPLY
SANITATION
HEALTH SERVICES
HEALTHY CITY CONCEPT
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
INCOME GENERATION
SOCIAL SERVICES
61
The Aims of Healthy City Initiatives
  • Improve health and environmental services
  • Make people partners
  • Strengthen social support network
  • Stimulate economic development
  • Put health at center of city social and political
    agenda

62
CHARACTERISTICS OF A HEALTHY
COMMUNITY Healthy Unhealthy Optimism,
hope and 'we are in this together Cynicism "We
can do it 'Nothing works' Value intangibles
like vision and values Emphasis only on
tangibles Consensus building Polarisation Coll
aboration Confrontation Focus on the
future Debate the past Interdependence Par
ochialism Broad community participation Few do
everything Leadership renewal Same old
faces Think and act in long term Short term
thinking Listening Attacking Reconciliation
Hold grudges Win-win solutions Win-lose
solutions Politics of substance Politics of
personality Diversity and involvement Exclusion
Challenge ideas Challenge people Problem
solvers Blockers and blamers View challenges
as opportunities See themselves as
victims    
63
  • THE TWO MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING SAFETY
  • PEOPLE KNOWING EACH OTHER
  • PEOPLE ACTING TOGETHER
  • (According to Jody Kretzmann)

64
A Safe Environment
  • A safe environment is the foundation of a healthy
    city
  • Environment sustainability health for people
    Characterised by walkable neighbourhoods, local
    food production, quality open space and mixed
    local landuses
  • Sustainability policy is well entrenched in
    planning policy and practice

65
Conclusion Advantages of Sustainable Cities
  • By promoting sustainable urban form and function,
    cities become healthy, viable communities for
    citizens. Efficient urban form also helps protect
    the hinterland ecosystems that cities depend on.
    In many ways, the advantages to sustainable
    communities are underlined in the characteristics
    and definitions of urban sustainability. A good
    quality of life, natural open spaces, reduced
    waste, equality, access, lower crime, sense of
    community, clean air and water quality, and
    environmental diversity are just a few beneficial
    characteristics previously mentioned.

66
cont
  • The most important advantage of a sustainable
    city is that it follows such a development path
    that allows for an integral and long-term
    development without compromising future
    generations.

67
Thank You
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