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Chapter 5: From Royalty to Independence

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Georgia and the American Experience Chapter 5: From Royalty to Independence, 1752-1783 Part 1 Study Presentation Mr. Smith s Classes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5: From Royalty to Independence


1
Georgia and the American Experience
Chapter 5 From Royalty to Independence,
1752-1783 Part 1 Study Presentation Mr.
Smiths Classes
2
Georgia and the American Experience
  • Section 1 The Colonial Period
  • Section 2 Georgia Becomes a Royal
    Colony

3
Section 1 The Colonial Period
  • Essential Question
  • What were the similarities and differences
    between the three colonial regions in terms of
    political, economic, and socio-religious
    development?

4
Section 1 The Colonial Period
  • What words do I need to know?
  • New England Colonies
  • Middle Colonies
  • Southern Colonies
  • apprentice
  • puritans

5
Comparing the Colonies
New England Colonies Middle Colonies Southern Colonies
Land and Climate cold rugged terrain with rocky soil milder climate rich soils mildest climate rich soils
Farming small family farms larger farms wheat large plantations tobacco, rice, silk, indigo
Other Industry shipbuilding, whaling, fishing, and furniture building manufacturing, mining, textiles, shipbuilding casks and barrels from longleaf pine forests
6
Colonial Transportation and Communication
  • Boats used for shipping and transportation
  • Stagecoaches were available, but slow mode of
    transportation
  • Ships traveled to ports along the coast
  • Many old Indian trails were used
  • Newspapers read in cities news often old when it
    arrived in rural areas

7
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9
The Royal Navy made ocean travel safe for English
ships.
10
Education in the Colonies
  • Schooling took place in home or church boys were
    taught practical skills
  • Girls learned homemaking skills
  • Apprentices learned specific skills from master
    craftsmen (artisans)
  • First public schools began in New England only
    boys attended
  • Wealthy families in South hired private tutors or
    had their sons schooled in Europe
  • Primitive Old Field Schools opened for boys
    from common families

11
Religion in Colonial Georgia
  • Anglican Church, or Church of England, made
    official church of Georgia colony in 1758
  • Church attendance expected shorter sermons and
    music common
  • Moravians and Jews also practiced religion in
    Georgia
  • Catholics were not welcome in GA

12
Leisure Activities in Southern Colonies
  • Fox hunting, horse races, week-long parties with
    friends and relatives popular
  • Food central to large social gatherings
  • Childrens games jump rope, hoops, tennis,
    London bridge, hopscotch, leap frog, yo-yos and
    puzzles
  • Storytelling

13
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15
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16
Romance and Marriage
  • Girls often married in their early teens
  • Courtships took place at dances, church, or
    during supervised home visits
  • Weddings were a day-long affair with great
    celebrations
  • Some wealthy families arranged marriages for
    business gain
  • Husbands were expected to provide wives could
    not own property

17
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19
Section 2 Georgia Becomes A Royal Colony
  • ESSENTIAL QUESTION
  • What political forces shaped Georgia after it
    became a royal colony?

20
Section 2 Georgia Becomes a Royal Colony
  • What words do I need to know?
  • proprietary colony
  • royal colony
  • parish
  • French and Indian War
  • palisades
  • cracker
  • independence

21
Change in Colonial Government Status
  • Proprietary Colony governed by a Board of
    Trustees
  • Georgia ceased to be Proprietary Colony in 1752
  • Royal Colony colony directly governed by the
    King
  • Georgia became a Royal Colony in 1752 some
    people returned to Georgia who had left the
    colony while it was proprietary

22
The First Royal Government
  • Naval Captain John Reynolds, first royal
    governor, arrived in 1754
  • Reynolds introduced the idea of self-government
  • Bicameral legislature set up Commons House of
    Assembly (Lower House) and Governors Council
    (Upper House)
  • Court of Conscience settled disputes overseen by
    justice of the peace
  • Only people owning 50 or more acres of land could
    vote

23
North America, 1754
  • Spain claimed Florida and Mexico
  • France claimed land from Louisiana to the Great
    Lakes, and parts of Canada New Orleans (south)
    and Detroit (north) anchored French settlements
  • Great Britain had established the 13 colonies
    along the Atlantic coast

24
Maine New Hampshire Massachusetts Rhode Island
Connecticut New York New Jersey
Pennsylvania Delaware Maryland Virginia North
Carolina South Carolina Georgia
25
French and Indian War Origins
  • France and Great Britain wanted the treasures of
    the American continent
  • Both countries feared the other would gain the
    most power
  • France had the stronger army with more
    experienced leadership British had better navy
  • Both sides were allied with certain Indian tribes

26
In the French and Indian War, France had the
stronger army and Britain had the stronger navy.
27
The French and Indian War
  • Both sides claimed the Ohio River Valley area
    (more than 200,000 square miles)
  • The French built several forts in the area many
    Indians sided with the French
  • The Virginia governor sent Captain George
    Washington with soldiers to Fort Necessity (near
    todays Pittsburgh) a battle erupted
  • The war soon spread to Europe by 1758, the
    British controlled the Ohio Valley
  • The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the war France
    gave up Canada to Great Britain
  • Sometimes considered the first world war

28
Georgia and the Wars Aftermath
  • Treaty of Paris set Georgias western boundary at
    the Mississippi River
  • Proclamation of 1763 (King George III) Georgias
    southern boundary set at St. Marys River
    Georgia colonists could not settle west of the
    Appalachian Mountains
  • Cherokee and Creek tribes gave up land claims
    north of Augusta and in the coastal region

29
Georgias First Assembly
  • First met in Savannah in 1755
  • Passed bills to repair and build roads
  • Organized a militia
  • Codes created to limit rights of slaves
  • Governor Reynolds was replaced in 1757 by Captain
    Henry Ellis

30
Governor Henry Ellis
  • Believed Savannah was one the worlds hottest
    places
  • Colonists immigrated to Georgia from South
    Carolina and the West Indies
  • Offered large land grants and slavery increased
    (3,600 slaves by 1759)
  • The economy flourished more farms and goods to
    buy
  • In 1761, Ellis became royal governor of Nova
    Scotia, in Canada

31
Governor James Wright
  • Wanted to expand Georgias western
  • lands to settlers
  • Completed Savannahs defenses by strengthening
    forts and building palisades (fences made of
    sharpened stakes)
  • Sunbury became Georgias official port of entry
  • Land purchases increased greatly
  • More schools established, but for upper class
    children

32
Georgia Crackers
  • People from Virginia and the Carolinas settled
    into middle and western parts of the colony
  • Plantation owners viewed them as undesirable
    people
  • Soon, these lower class peoples were called
    crackers, which was meant as an insult
  • Crackers were not welcome and thought of as ones
    who did not obey the colonys laws
  • Poor white trash

33
Crackers was a derogatory term for poor whites.
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