Senior Seminar 2 Winter 2011 ISP 4860 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Senior Seminar 2 Winter 2011 ISP 4860


1
Senior Seminar 2 Winter 2011ISP 4860
  • Section 001 (Bowen)
  • Class 7, February 28
  • Course web site www.is.wayne.edu/drbowen/SenSemW1
    1

2
Agenda
  • Pictures
  • New on course website
  • Late / returned / future assignments
  • Content
  • Ecosystem Services (review and extension)
  • Food and Fish
  • Water
  • Approaches to Solutions
  • Writing
  • Planning for Chapters 2 and 3
  • Grammar

3
New Course resources
  • www.is.wayne.edu/drbowen/SenSemW11
  • Global Warming
  • History
  • Ecology
  • Unintended Ecological Consequences
  • Fish and Food
  • Japan Recalls Whaling Fleet
  • Consumption
  • Consumers hanging on to stuff longer
  • Rising world energy demand
  • Earth monitoring examples
  • Earth Observer
  • Google Earth Engine

4
Assignments Coming Up
  • Past choice of topic, Paper Planner for Chapter
    1, List of references, file via Moodle
  • This Week - February 28 draft of Chapter 1 (the
    overview chapter, file via Moodle)
  • Next week (March 7) Drafts of Chapters 2 and 3
    (status and trends, file via Moodle)
  • Two weeks (March 14) Spring Break
  • Three weeks (March 21) Revised Chapter 1

5
Topics
  • Jeff Blake Globalization
  • Baron Crumpler Sustainable food for the 21st
    century
  • Juanita Hatcher Water - polluted rivers in North
    America
  • William Hurt Energy Efficiency
  • Pamela Jones Urbanization
  • Jennifer Kelley disease/development with an
    emphasis on indigenous groups in Central America
  • Loreese Lee Water Abuse
  • Michele Norris populations that are being
    affected because of the destruction of fish
    (commercially or environmentally) as a food
    source
  • Diane Smith Government funding for meeting the
    needs of treatment for diseases in the low
    income, poverty areas

6
Research portfolio
  • Self-assessment will be repeated two more times
    during semester
  • March 7, next week (self-assessment)
  • April 4 (self-assessment and Instructor
    assessment)

7
Late Assignments
  • Still three people without Moodle accounts
  • Elaine Hawkins
  • Cardale Patterson
  • Shannel Redding
  • Choice of topic same three missing
  • Chapter 1 Planner missing Juanita Hatcher,
    Elaine Hawkins, William Hurt, Cardale Patterson,
    Shannel Redding

8
Late Assignments
  • List of References eight missing
  • Jeff Blake, Juanita Hatcher, Elaine Hawkins,
    William Hurt, Michele Norris, Cardale Patterson,
    Shannel Redding, Diane Smith
  • Draft of Chapter 1 ten missing
  • Jeff Blake, Baron Crumpler, Juanita Hatcher,
    Elaine Hawkins, William Hurt, Loreese Lee,
    Michele Norris, Cardale Patterson, Shannel
    Redding, Diane Smith

9
Late Assignments
  • Reminders
  • Putting work off makes it pile up
  • Putting work off means forgetting how
  • Part of grade is getting work in on time

10
So What?
  • If you are more than a week behind, get help
  • From me
  • Office hours one hour before class
  • Or Tue and Thu 230 330 in 216 Physics
  • Telephone, email, IM, make appointment
  • Research Librarians
  • In person, at any WSU library

11
Citations with Web Example
12
Lists of References
  • Most references look good.
  • Some that I have questions about noted in
    feedback.
  • MLA name is Works Cited (without the quotes)
  • Some have very incomplete bibliographic
    information. See The Everyday Writer or the MLA
    website on the course website.

13
Citations and Works Cited
  • Web example on Works Cited page
  • Page ID is first thing
  • Kenya Population. World Population Prospects
    The 2006 Revision. Feb. 2009. United Nations
    Population Division. 2/11/09. http//esa.un.org/un
    pp/p2k0data.asp.
  • Citation (Kenya Population)

14
Citations and Works Cited
  • Citation what goes in the Chapter itself
  • Web page example
  • First choice for citation is author name (not
    present in this example)
  • If no author name go to second choice which is
    page title (used this in this example)
  • If no title, third choice for ID would be name of
    organization
  • If no page numbers, then citation is just top
    choice from above

15
Citations and Works Cited
  • On Works Cited page
  • Author (if given)
  • Title (if given)
  • Print publication information (if given)
  • Electronic publication information
  • Access information (including date accessed and
    URL in angle brackets ltgt

16
Content Ecosystem Services
  • Review

17
Content Ecosystem Services
  • Ecosystem services
  • In SOP, Prospects for Biodiversity
  • E.S. emphasize what the natural world does for
    us and put a dollar value on it
  • Not 100 precise do we include aesthetic values
    such as beauty and relaxation, and what are they
    worth in ?
  • One estimate (link on course website) 16-54T,
    when world GDP was 18T
  • Much of estimated value outside of markets

18
Ecosystem Services
  • Another list (Science article)
  • Atmospheric gas regulation
  • Climate regulation
  • Disturbance regulation
  • Water regulation
  • Water supply Storage and retention of water
  • Erosion control and sediment retention
  • Soil formation
  • Nutrient cycling
  • Waste treatment
  • Pollination
  • Biological regulations of populations
  • Habitat for resident and transient populations
  • Food production
  • Raw materials (e.g. lumber)
  • Genetic resources
  • Recreation
  • Cultural

19
Ecosystem Services
  • Biodiversity
  • Importance indicates how reliable that service
    is
  • Biodiversity is the raw material for adapting to
    changes
  • If biodiversity decreases, extinction gets closer
  • Without biodiversity, cannot genetically adapt to
    changes
  • Humans can adapt in other ways than genetic but
    natural world cannot

20
Ecosystem Services
  • Biodiversity
  • We are in the midst of large wave of extinctions
    one of biggest ever
  • May be due to us
  • Deforestation pressures to gain farmland
  • We dont even know what most of the species are
  • Fresh and saltwater overfishing, loss of
    diversity
  • Fish are adapting stay small, propagate early
  • May not be healthy in long run
  • Cropland - monoculture

21
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
  • UN project to do a comprehensive assessment of
    all ecosystems
  • Years before and after 2000
  • Four areas of Ecosystem Services
  • Provisioning (water, food, fiber, etc.)
  • Regulating (air and water purification, flood
    control, etc.)
  • Cultural (Aesthetic, spiritual, recreational,
    etc.)
  • Supporting the other three (nutrient recycling,
    soil formation, etc.)

22
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
  • General findings that are worse than previously
    thought
  • Unfamiliar ecosystems in trouble also
  • Interactions between ecosystems
  • Unsustainable use
  • Examples overfishing, overgrazing, overlogging
    (Michigan)
  • Gap between world rich and poor is increasing

23
Biodiversity
  • Pretty sure species are disappearing at a high
    rate
  • Suspicion we might be a big cause (not that we
    are evil, but that we are ignorant)
  • We can adapt to change quickly, and the species
    we tend to we can help
  • But wild species take thousands of generations
    (insects and pests do well!)
  • Forests, coral reefs, wetlands all shelter the
    young of many species from predation

24
Biodiversity
  • We need to become smarter about this
  • Until then we probably need to be more cautious
  • Is there a risk to us?
  • We dont know, but maybe

25
Content Food / Fish
26
Content Food / Fish
  • Fish Pp 29 - 36
  • Food
  • (Security) Pp 108 110
  • (Security) Pp 154 - 159

27
Fish
  • Much overfishing around the world
  • US has relatively good control here
  • Keep fishing allowances down so that stock is
    replenished
  • Countries where fish is more important in diet
    often overfish as population and prosperity grow
  • Subsidies to fishermen can make little sense
  • Factory Trawlers full processing plants

28
Fish
  • Coastal fish more numerous but overfished
  • Trend is to have to fish further from shore,
    deeper waters, for fish that were once rejected
    (Figure 3 Pg 42)

29
Factory Trawlers
30
Food
  • Issue today is Food Security we have enough
    food, but many people do not have a reliable
    supply
  • Pests, spoilage, pilfering
  • However, recent gains are stalling, food no
    longer rising as fast as population
  • For 10,000 years, farmers selected best of
    local crop
  • Much more productive of food for humans than
    original wild versions

31
Green Revolution
  • 1980s Green Revolution
  • Government-financed research centers for major
    grains
  • Found best rice genes from around world, put them
    in one type
  • Done for all major grains
  • Done through normal plant breeding, just select
    the breeds and put them together
  • Came to require many resources irrigation,
    fertilizer, pesticides (monoculture)

32
Green Revolution ? GMOs
  • 1980s Green Revolution
  • Often too expensive for poor farmers
  • Now, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
  • Private commercial development
  • Select genes from across species, even between
    plants and animals
  • Transfer directly, without breeding
  • Can decrease need for resources but seed is
    expensive

33
GMOs
  • Genes make proteins, so plant has proteins from
    different species
  • Can tailor crops to type of farmland, etc.
  • But proteins are from foods, so known to be safe
    for human consumption Frankenfood
  • DB like chewing strawberries and hamburger
    together
  • Still, controversial in much of developed world
  • Because of resource savings, poor farmers have
    little choice, but still expensive

34
Food Supply
  • Biggest need for more food will come from
    prosperity, if this leads to eating higher on
    the food chain/web.
  • Factory farms generate large amounts of animal
    waste, can be an environmental and aesthetic
    hazard
  • Climate Change can disrupt agriculture
  • HIV/AIDS disrupting populations, killing adults
  • Education needed to apply modern methods

35
Food and Trade Policy
  • US subsidizes food exports
  • US farmers well organized, dependent
  • US Food aid often requires purchase of food from
    US
  • Local farmers in poor countries often cannot
    compete with these subsidized prices

36
World Controversy
  • Modern mechanized agriculture Vs improved earlier
    methods, e.g. less plowing (just make a slit)
  • Arguments
  • Ecosystem cant take increase requirements for
    water, fertilizer, pesticides, plus do not like
    GMOs
  • Earlier methods, even improved, cant produce
    enough food

37
Content Water
38
Water
  • How we consume water
  • Domestic drinking, bathing, sanitation
  • Agricultural irrigation, animals
  • Industrial, including electricity
  • Not equally distributed
  • A few countries have most of the fresh water
  • Asia 60 of population, 30 of fresh water
  • Conflicts if river, lake shared
  • Many people do not have adequate access
  • Water-borne diseases often preventable

39
Water Use by Sector
Region Agriculture Industry Domestic
Developing countries 81 11 8
Industrial countries 46 41 13
World 70 20 10
40
Water
  • Water supply today characterized by large
    infrastructure projects
  • Dams
  • Aqueducts (enclosed) and canals (open, evap)
  • Water and sewage plants
  • Displaced people
  • In US, many smaller flood-control dams without
    efficient generators being torn down
  • Water heavy, bulky, expensive to transport

41
Sources with Problems
  • Rivers without flow into ocean
  • Colorado, Nile, Yellow, others
  • Disappearing lakes
  • Lake Chad (Africa), Aral Sea (Asia), Sea of
    Galilee, Dead Sea
  • Overpumping of aquifers (what feeds wells),
    unsustainable
  • Loss of habitat
  • River beds
  • Wetlands

42
Water Scarcity
43
Water
  • Often a source of international conflict
  • Middle East
  • Some degree of water scarcity
  • Today, 40 of world population needs more water
  • 2025 over 75 estimated to need more water
  • Much growth in poor cities already short of water
  • Much water is wasted evaporation, leakage from
    pipes 45

44
Water Conflicts
  • Fewer than might be expected
  • Farmers Vs Cities
  • Connection between water and food
  • Upstream Vs Downstream
  • Example Israel/Palestine
  • Israel 2x population but 7x water

45
Goals and Challenges
  • UN goal to reduce by half by 2105 the population
    without adequate access
  • Not on target
  • Problems with this goal
  • Regional international water conflicts
  • Unsustainable groundwater use
  • Climate Change
  • Declining ability to monitor water use
  • Long lead times, uncertain projections
  • Much population growth in poor cities with
    unsustainable water use already

46
Possible New Approaches
  • Focus on basic human needs
  • Pricing to encourage efficient sustainable use
  • Low/no water use in sanitation
  • Efficient industry
  • Drip agriculture, furrows to slow runoff
  • Recycling suit quality to use
  • Include all stakeholders in planning

47
US Water Productivity
SOP, Pg 66
48
Recycling - Suiting Quality to Use
  • Potable (drinkable) is highest quality
  • Now, all water is potable
  • Could use bathwater for watering lawn or flushing
  • Can be done industrially also

49
Water and
  • Water and Food
  • Water and Global Warming
  • Water and Population
  • Water and Development
  • Water and Ecosystem
  • Water and Disease
  • Water and Urbanization
  • Water and Sustainability

50
Content Approaches to Solutions
51
Approaches to SolutionsSupply or Demand?
Area Increase Supply Reduce Demand
Food fish GMOs (agriculture) Fish farming Eat lower on food chain
Water Purification, desalination More efficient agriculture, recycling
Energy Biofuels, nuclear, drill Efficiency
  • Solutions often offered as either-or
  • Must be smart about increasing supply

2/28/11
Senior Seminar 2, Class 7
51
52
Approaches to SolutionsSupply or Demand?
Increase Supply Reduce Demand
Pro Cannot be sure of cutting demand enough Could make present supply sufficient, even reduce it, better for ecosystem
Con Expensive, hard for poorest to adopt , may harm ecosystem May be a hard sell
2/28/11
Senior Seminar 2, Class 7
52
53
Approaches to SolutionsSupply or Demand?
  • If neither approach can be guaranteed, is it
    prudent to have both in hand?
  • Can we find another path to prosperity besides
    stuff? E.g. virtual stuff?
  • Base needs water, food, air
  • Virtual stuff even here, especially for food
    make lower on the food chain eat like higher
    on the food chain
  • Even some helps
  • Other needs could be more virtual if done well

2/28/11
Senior Seminar 2, Class 7
53
54
Writing
55
WritingWords That Sound the Same
  • More words that sound alike
  • perspective Vs prospective
  • dual Vs duel
  • conscience Vs conscious
  • do Vs due
  • verses Vs versus
  • site Vs sight
  • who's Vs whose
  • feat Vs feet
  • read Vs reed
  • vary Vs very
  • rigor Vs rigger

56
WritingExplanations
  • If you explain a term, name or acronym, do this
    the first time you use it. Examples
  • A term not in common use, such as Battery
    Electric Vehicle
  • Always spell out an acronym
  • If you are going to put the title of a book in
    the body of your paper, do this the first time
    you use it.
  • If you are going to describe a person, such as
    Kennedy, either naming this person as the author
    of a book, or to describe his/her qualifications

57
WritingExplanations
  • Do not assume that your reader knows an uncommon
    piece of information before you explain it. The
    explanation comes
  • Before the useOR
  • Possibly later in the same sentenceOR
  • At the latest in the very next sentence.

58
WritingWord Choice
  • who Vs whom which one to use?
  • Alternate phrasings, to avoid being repetitive
  • Nouns name e.g. Kennedy, author, writer,
    authority, expert, precede with this
  • Verbs writes, claims, asserts, points out, tells
    us, documents (include an object as in documents
    this)

59
WritingJoining Words
  • Two words used as one adjective (modifies a noun
    or another adjective) are joined with a hyphen
    (unless the joined form is a word in its own
    right).
  • Hyphen examples
  • my recently-purchased computer
  • my just-refurbished home
  • a wholly-owned car
  • a highly-regarded authority

60
WritingJoining Words
  • Two words used as one adjective (modifies a noun
    or another adjective) are joined with a hyphen
    (unless the joined form is a word in its own
    right).
  • Non-hyphenated examples
  • every day Vs everyday
  • I do this every day
  • my everyday china
  • no where Vs nowhere
  • bridge to nowhere

61
Small Groups
  • Answer questions from cards
  • Answer goes on separate paper
  • Report is names plus answers
  • Done when report is in

62
Writing (Review)
  • Sentences
  • Verb, Subject, Complete Thought
  • Sentences incomplete (part), runon (two)
  • Number (singular one, plural more)
  • Do not change without a reason and a warning to
    reader
  • Tense (past, present, future)
  • Do not change without a reason and a warning to
    reader

63
Writing (Review)
  • Punctuation
  • Apostrophe for contraction or possession but not
    pluralization
  • Words that sound alike
  • Common, get a dictionary or a list

64
Sentence Discussion
  • What is wrong with these sentences?
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Title: Senior Seminar 2 Winter 2011 ISP 4860


1
Senior Seminar 2 Winter 2011ISP 4860
  • Section 001 (Bowen)
  • Class 7, February 28
  • Course web site www.is.wayne.edu/drbowen/SenSemW1
    1

2
Agenda
  • Pictures
  • New on course website
  • Late / returned / future assignments
  • Content
  • Ecosystem Services (review and extension)
  • Food and Fish
  • Water
  • Approaches to Solutions
  • Writing
  • Planning for Chapters 2 and 3
  • Grammar

3
New Course resources
  • www.is.wayne.edu/drbowen/SenSemW11
  • Global Warming
  • History
  • Ecology
  • Unintended Ecological Consequences
  • Fish and Food
  • Japan Recalls Whaling Fleet
  • Consumption
  • Consumers hanging on to stuff longer
  • Rising world energy demand
  • Earth monitoring examples
  • Earth Observer
  • Google Earth Engine

4
Assignments Coming Up
  • Past choice of topic, Paper Planner for Chapter
    1, List of references, file via Moodle
  • This Week - February 28 draft of Chapter 1 (the
    overview chapter, file via Moodle)
  • Next week (March 7) Drafts of Chapters 2 and 3
    (status and trends, file via Moodle)
  • Two weeks (March 14) Spring Break
  • Three weeks (March 21) Revised Chapter 1

5
Topics
  • Jeff Blake Globalization
  • Baron Crumpler Sustainable food for the 21st
    century
  • Juanita Hatcher Water - polluted rivers in North
    America
  • William Hurt Energy Efficiency
  • Pamela Jones Urbanization
  • Jennifer Kelley disease/development with an
    emphasis on indigenous groups in Central America
  • Loreese Lee Water Abuse
  • Michele Norris populations that are being
    affected because of the destruction of fish
    (commercially or environmentally) as a food
    source
  • Diane Smith Government funding for meeting the
    needs of treatment for diseases in the low
    income, poverty areas

6
Research portfolio
  • Self-assessment will be repeated two more times
    during semester
  • March 7, next week (self-assessment)
  • April 4 (self-assessment and Instructor
    assessment)

7
Late Assignments
  • Still three people without Moodle accounts
  • Elaine Hawkins
  • Cardale Patterson
  • Shannel Redding
  • Choice of topic same three missing
  • Chapter 1 Planner missing Juanita Hatcher,
    Elaine Hawkins, William Hurt, Cardale Patterson,
    Shannel Redding

8
Late Assignments
  • List of References eight missing
  • Jeff Blake, Juanita Hatcher, Elaine Hawkins,
    William Hurt, Michele Norris, Cardale Patterson,
    Shannel Redding, Diane Smith
  • Draft of Chapter 1 ten missing
  • Jeff Blake, Baron Crumpler, Juanita Hatcher,
    Elaine Hawkins, William Hurt, Loreese Lee,
    Michele Norris, Cardale Patterson, Shannel
    Redding, Diane Smith

9
Late Assignments
  • Reminders
  • Putting work off makes it pile up
  • Putting work off means forgetting how
  • Part of grade is getting work in on time

10
So What?
  • If you are more than a week behind, get help
  • From me
  • Office hours one hour before class
  • Or Tue and Thu 230 330 in 216 Physics
  • Telephone, email, IM, make appointment
  • Research Librarians
  • In person, at any WSU library

11
Citations with Web Example
12
Lists of References
  • Most references look good.
  • Some that I have questions about noted in
    feedback.
  • MLA name is Works Cited (without the quotes)
  • Some have very incomplete bibliographic
    information. See The Everyday Writer or the MLA
    website on the course website.

13
Citations and Works Cited
  • Web example on Works Cited page
  • Page ID is first thing
  • Kenya Population. World Population Prospects
    The 2006 Revision. Feb. 2009. United Nations
    Population Division. 2/11/09. http//esa.un.org/un
    pp/p2k0data.asp.
  • Citation (Kenya Population)

14
Citations and Works Cited
  • Citation what goes in the Chapter itself
  • Web page example
  • First choice for citation is author name (not
    present in this example)
  • If no author name go to second choice which is
    page title (used this in this example)
  • If no title, third choice for ID would be name of
    organization
  • If no page numbers, then citation is just top
    choice from above

15
Citations and Works Cited
  • On Works Cited page
  • Author (if given)
  • Title (if given)
  • Print publication information (if given)
  • Electronic publication information
  • Access information (including date accessed and
    URL in angle brackets ltgt

16
Content Ecosystem Services
  • Review

17
Content Ecosystem Services
  • Ecosystem services
  • In SOP, Prospects for Biodiversity
  • E.S. emphasize what the natural world does for
    us and put a dollar value on it
  • Not 100 precise do we include aesthetic values
    such as beauty and relaxation, and what are they
    worth in ?
  • One estimate (link on course website) 16-54T,
    when world GDP was 18T
  • Much of estimated value outside of markets

18
Ecosystem Services
  • Another list (Science article)
  • Atmospheric gas regulation
  • Climate regulation
  • Disturbance regulation
  • Water regulation
  • Water supply Storage and retention of water
  • Erosion control and sediment retention
  • Soil formation
  • Nutrient cycling
  • Waste treatment
  • Pollination
  • Biological regulations of populations
  • Habitat for resident and transient populations
  • Food production
  • Raw materials (e.g. lumber)
  • Genetic resources
  • Recreation
  • Cultural

19
Ecosystem Services
  • Biodiversity
  • Importance indicates how reliable that service
    is
  • Biodiversity is the raw material for adapting to
    changes
  • If biodiversity decreases, extinction gets closer
  • Without biodiversity, cannot genetically adapt to
    changes
  • Humans can adapt in other ways than genetic but
    natural world cannot

20
Ecosystem Services
  • Biodiversity
  • We are in the midst of large wave of extinctions
    one of biggest ever
  • May be due to us
  • Deforestation pressures to gain farmland
  • We dont even know what most of the species are
  • Fresh and saltwater overfishing, loss of
    diversity
  • Fish are adapting stay small, propagate early
  • May not be healthy in long run
  • Cropland - monoculture

21
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
  • UN project to do a comprehensive assessment of
    all ecosystems
  • Years before and after 2000
  • Four areas of Ecosystem Services
  • Provisioning (water, food, fiber, etc.)
  • Regulating (air and water purification, flood
    control, etc.)
  • Cultural (Aesthetic, spiritual, recreational,
    etc.)
  • Supporting the other three (nutrient recycling,
    soil formation, etc.)

22
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
  • General findings that are worse than previously
    thought
  • Unfamiliar ecosystems in trouble also
  • Interactions between ecosystems
  • Unsustainable use
  • Examples overfishing, overgrazing, overlogging
    (Michigan)
  • Gap between world rich and poor is increasing

23
Biodiversity
  • Pretty sure species are disappearing at a high
    rate
  • Suspicion we might be a big cause (not that we
    are evil, but that we are ignorant)
  • We can adapt to change quickly, and the species
    we tend to we can help
  • But wild species take thousands of generations
    (insects and pests do well!)
  • Forests, coral reefs, wetlands all shelter the
    young of many species from predation

24
Biodiversity
  • We need to become smarter about this
  • Until then we probably need to be more cautious
  • Is there a risk to us?
  • We dont know, but maybe

25
Content Food / Fish
26
Content Food / Fish
  • Fish Pp 29 - 36
  • Food
  • (Security) Pp 108 110
  • (Security) Pp 154 - 159

27
Fish
  • Much overfishing around the world
  • US has relatively good control here
  • Keep fishing allowances down so that stock is
    replenished
  • Countries where fish is more important in diet
    often overfish as population and prosperity grow
  • Subsidies to fishermen can make little sense
  • Factory Trawlers full processing plants

28
Fish
  • Coastal fish more numerous but overfished
  • Trend is to have to fish further from shore,
    deeper waters, for fish that were once rejected
    (Figure 3 Pg 42)

29
Factory Trawlers
30
Food
  • Issue today is Food Security we have enough
    food, but many people do not have a reliable
    supply
  • Pests, spoilage, pilfering
  • However, recent gains are stalling, food no
    longer rising as fast as population
  • For 10,000 years, farmers selected best of
    local crop
  • Much more productive of food for humans than
    original wild versions

31
Green Revolution
  • 1980s Green Revolution
  • Government-financed research centers for major
    grains
  • Found best rice genes from around world, put them
    in one type
  • Done for all major grains
  • Done through normal plant breeding, just select
    the breeds and put them together
  • Came to require many resources irrigation,
    fertilizer, pesticides (monoculture)

32
Green Revolution ? GMOs
  • 1980s Green Revolution
  • Often too expensive for poor farmers
  • Now, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
  • Private commercial development
  • Select genes from across species, even between
    plants and animals
  • Transfer directly, without breeding
  • Can decrease need for resources but seed is
    expensive

33
GMOs
  • Genes make proteins, so plant has proteins from
    different species
  • Can tailor crops to type of farmland, etc.
  • But proteins are from foods, so known to be safe
    for human consumption Frankenfood
  • DB like chewing strawberries and hamburger
    together
  • Still, controversial in much of developed world
  • Because of resource savings, poor farmers have
    little choice, but still expensive

34
Food Supply
  • Biggest need for more food will come from
    prosperity, if this leads to eating higher on
    the food chain/web.
  • Factory farms generate large amounts of animal
    waste, can be an environmental and aesthetic
    hazard
  • Climate Change can disrupt agriculture
  • HIV/AIDS disrupting populations, killing adults
  • Education needed to apply modern methods

35
Food and Trade Policy
  • US subsidizes food exports
  • US farmers well organized, dependent
  • US Food aid often requires purchase of food from
    US
  • Local farmers in poor countries often cannot
    compete with these subsidized prices

36
World Controversy
  • Modern mechanized agriculture Vs improved earlier
    methods, e.g. less plowing (just make a slit)
  • Arguments
  • Ecosystem cant take increase requirements for
    water, fertilizer, pesticides, plus do not like
    GMOs
  • Earlier methods, even improved, cant produce
    enough food

37
Content Water
38
Water
  • How we consume water
  • Domestic drinking, bathing, sanitation
  • Agricultural irrigation, animals
  • Industrial, including electricity
  • Not equally distributed
  • A few countries have most of the fresh water
  • Asia 60 of population, 30 of fresh water
  • Conflicts if river, lake shared
  • Many people do not have adequate access
  • Water-borne diseases often preventable

39
Water Use by Sector
Region Agriculture Industry Domestic
Developing countries 81 11 8
Industrial countries 46 41 13
World 70 20 10
40
Water
  • Water supply today characterized by large
    infrastructure projects
  • Dams
  • Aqueducts (enclosed) and canals (open, evap)
  • Water and sewage plants
  • Displaced people
  • In US, many smaller flood-control dams without
    efficient generators being torn down
  • Water heavy, bulky, expensive to transport

41
Sources with Problems
  • Rivers without flow into ocean
  • Colorado, Nile, Yellow, others
  • Disappearing lakes
  • Lake Chad (Africa), Aral Sea (Asia), Sea of
    Galilee, Dead Sea
  • Overpumping of aquifers (what feeds wells),
    unsustainable
  • Loss of habitat
  • River beds
  • Wetlands

42
Water Scarcity
43
Water
  • Often a source of international conflict
  • Middle East
  • Some degree of water scarcity
  • Today, 40 of world population needs more water
  • 2025 over 75 estimated to need more water
  • Much growth in poor cities already short of water
  • Much water is wasted evaporation, leakage from
    pipes 45

44
Water Conflicts
  • Fewer than might be expected
  • Farmers Vs Cities
  • Connection between water and food
  • Upstream Vs Downstream
  • Example Israel/Palestine
  • Israel 2x population but 7x water

45
Goals and Challenges
  • UN goal to reduce by half by 2105 the population
    without adequate access
  • Not on target
  • Problems with this goal
  • Regional international water conflicts
  • Unsustainable groundwater use
  • Climate Change
  • Declining ability to monitor water use
  • Long lead times, uncertain projections
  • Much population growth in poor cities with
    unsustainable water use already

46
Possible New Approaches
  • Focus on basic human needs
  • Pricing to encourage efficient sustainable use
  • Low/no water use in sanitation
  • Efficient industry
  • Drip agriculture, furrows to slow runoff
  • Recycling suit quality to use
  • Include all stakeholders in planning

47
US Water Productivity
SOP, Pg 66
48
Recycling - Suiting Quality to Use
  • Potable (drinkable) is highest quality
  • Now, all water is potable
  • Could use bathwater for watering lawn or flushing
  • Can be done industrially also

49
Water and
  • Water and Food
  • Water and Global Warming
  • Water and Population
  • Water and Development
  • Water and Ecosystem
  • Water and Disease
  • Water and Urbanization
  • Water and Sustainability

50
Content Approaches to Solutions
51
Approaches to SolutionsSupply or Demand?
Area Increase Supply Reduce Demand
Food fish GMOs (agriculture) Fish farming Eat lower on food chain
Water Purification, desalination More efficient agriculture, recycling
Energy Biofuels, nuclear, drill Efficiency
  • Solutions often offered as either-or
  • Must be smart about increasing supply

2/28/11
Senior Seminar 2, Class 7
51
52
Approaches to SolutionsSupply or Demand?
Increase Supply Reduce Demand
Pro Cannot be sure of cutting demand enough Could make present supply sufficient, even reduce it, better for ecosystem
Con Expensive, hard for poorest to adopt , may harm ecosystem May be a hard sell
2/28/11
Senior Seminar 2, Class 7
52
53
Approaches to SolutionsSupply or Demand?
  • If neither approach can be guaranteed, is it
    prudent to have both in hand?
  • Can we find another path to prosperity besides
    stuff? E.g. virtual stuff?
  • Base needs water, food, air
  • Virtual stuff even here, especially for food
    make lower on the food chain eat like higher
    on the food chain
  • Even some helps
  • Other needs could be more virtual if done well

2/28/11
Senior Seminar 2, Class 7
53
54
Writing
55
WritingWords That Sound the Same
  • More words that sound alike
  • perspective Vs prospective
  • dual Vs duel
  • conscience Vs conscious
  • do Vs due
  • verses Vs versus
  • site Vs sight
  • who's Vs whose
  • feat Vs feet
  • read Vs reed
  • vary Vs very
  • rigor Vs rigger

56
WritingExplanations
  • If you explain a term, name or acronym, do this
    the first time you use it. Examples
  • A term not in common use, such as Battery
    Electric Vehicle
  • Always spell out an acronym
  • If you are going to put the title of a book in
    the body of your paper, do this the first time
    you use it.
  • If you are going to describe a person, such as
    Kennedy, either naming this person as the author
    of a book, or to describe his/her qualifications

57
WritingExplanations
  • Do not assume that your reader knows an uncommon
    piece of information before you explain it. The
    explanation comes
  • Before the useOR
  • Possibly later in the same sentenceOR
  • At the latest in the very next sentence.

58
WritingWord Choice
  • who Vs whom which one to use?
  • Alternate phrasings, to avoid being repetitive
  • Nouns name e.g. Kennedy, author, writer,
    authority, expert, precede with this
  • Verbs writes, claims, asserts, points out, tells
    us, documents (include an object as in documents
    this)

59
WritingJoining Words
  • Two words used as one adjective (modifies a noun
    or another adjective) are joined with a hyphen
    (unless the joined form is a word in its own
    right).
  • Hyphen examples
  • my recently-purchased computer
  • my just-refurbished home
  • a wholly-owned car
  • a highly-regarded authority

60
WritingJoining Words
  • Two words used as one adjective (modifies a noun
    or another adjective) are joined with a hyphen
    (unless the joined form is a word in its own
    right).
  • Non-hyphenated examples
  • every day Vs everyday
  • I do this every day
  • my everyday china
  • no where Vs nowhere
  • bridge to nowhere

61
Small Groups
  • Answer questions from cards
  • Answer goes on separate paper
  • Report is names plus answers
  • Done when report is in

62
Writing (Review)
  • Sentences
  • Verb, Subject, Complete Thought
  • Sentences incomplete (part), runon (two)
  • Number (singular one, plural more)
  • Do not change without a reason and a warning to
    reader
  • Tense (past, present, future)
  • Do not change without a reason and a warning to
    reader

63
Writing (Review)
  • Punctuation
  • Apostrophe for contraction or possession but not
    pluralization
  • Words that sound alike
  • Common, get a dictionary or a list

64
Sentence Discussion
  • What is wrong with these sentences?
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