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Career Counseling in the Community College: Career Indecision Research

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California Community College Chancellor s Conference April 11, 2002 Career Counseling in the Community College: Career Indecision Research Merril A. Simon, Ph.D ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Career Counseling in the Community College: Career Indecision Research


1
Career Counseling in the Community College
Career Indecision Research
California Community College Chancellors
Conference April 11, 2002
  • Merril A. Simon, Ph.D., NCCC (simon_merril_at_smc.edu
    )
  • Esau Tovar, M.S. (tovar_esau_at_smc.edu)
  • Santa Monica College
  • 310/434-4012

2
Need for Project
  • High probationary rates
  • Low persistence rates
  • At-risk population
  • Replication with larger sample with pilot
    study

3
Career Indecision Research Questions
  • Does Career Indecision at Orientation to college
    impact first semester retention rates?
  • Does Career Indecision at Orientation to college
    impact persistence from semester one to two?
  • Does Career Indecision at Orientation to college
    impact success of community college students?

4
Funding for Study
  • Fund for Institutional Improvement--State of
    California Chancellors Office Competitive Grant
    (Santa Monica College, J. Gonzalez original P.I.
    currently E. Tovar)
  • Matriculation Grant (SMC)
  • Title III Federal funding

5
Career Theory Considerations
  • Krumboltz
  • Super
  • Holland

6
Intervention (1)
  • Orientation
  • Provided by team of  counseling and instructional
     faculty
  • Four hours (Cohort 2) 7.5 hours (Cohorts 3A,
    3B, and 4) versus a control group Orientation
    of  two hours in length

7
Intervention (2)
  • Orientation (continued)
  • Available for course credit
  • Utilized both social integration and involvement
    opportunities by the students.

8
Study Group
  • Five cohorts of randomly selected entering
    community college students at a large, urban,
    diverse institution.
  • Fall 1999 Spring 2001
  • Spring 2000 Fall 2001
  • Fall 2000
  • All indicated that they planned to transfer to a
    four-year institution as their initial goal at
    application
  • CFI Study Group 512 student participants

9
Student Information Collected
  • Demographic information collected
  • Including gender, ethnicity, age
  • Level of expressed commitment to major (high,
    medium, low)
  • Career Factors Inventory
  • First semester retention rate
  • First semester GPA (success rate)
  • Persistence rate to second semester

10
Career Factors Inventory
  • Twenty-one items
  • Purports to measure level and type of career
    indecision.
  • Normed previously on university and high school
    students, adult populations, and prison inmates.
  • Norms were established by a validation study
    completed within our study (Item 21 deleted).

11
Career Factors Inventory(Chartrand Robbins,
1997, Consulting Psych. Press) Four Factor Scales
  • Need for Career Information (NCI)
  • Need for Self-Knowledge (NSK)
  • Career Choice Anxiety (CCA)
  • Generalized Indecisiveness (GI)

12
Terminology Definitions as used in this study
  • Retention Completion of units by students who
    are enrolled at the time of the census date.
  • Persistence
  • Continued enrollment by students in the semester
    following the initial enrollment.
  • Success Achieving an overall GPA in enrolled
    classes of over 2.0 (on a 4.0 scale).

13
Primary Hypothesis
  • Being more career decided will impact the
    retention and persistence of entering community
    college students in a positive direction.
  • Based upon Preston Hamptons dissertation results
    with Calif. Comm. College under-represented
    students.

14
Overall Demographics
  • Gender
  • 54 females
  • 46 males
  • Age ranges
  • 4 lt 18 yrs
  • 91 18-22
  • 5 gt 22
  • Ethnicity
  • 39 Hispanic
  • 14 African American
  • 14 Asian
  • 23 Caucasian
  • 3 Filipino
  • 1 Native American
  • 6 Declined to State

15
Summary of Findings
  • Impact of Career Indecision Type Level
  • Success
  • Retention
  • Persistence

16
CFI Findings Consideration of Career Indecision
with Ethnicity
  • Minority vs. Non-Minority
  • Statistically significant difference with respect
    to Career Choice Anxiety
  • Non-minority are more anxious
  • Possible explanation
  • High vigilance may create higher anxiety, but
    that anxiety is productive toward reaching
    students goals.

17
CFI Findings Consideration of Career Indecision
with Ethnicity
  • African-Americans vs. Caucasians
  • African-Americans are less likely to have career
    choice anxiety (13.4 vs. 15.8 score average)
  • No statistical differences between Hispanics,
    Filipinos, Asian and Caucasian

16
15.5
15
14.5
14
13.5
13
12.5
12
African
White
American
18
CFI Findings Consideration of Career Indecision
with Ethnicity
  • Minority vs. Non-Minority
  • Found that there is greater Generalized Career
    Indecision in minority students (14.2) vs.
    non-minority students (12.2).

19
CFI Findings Consideration of Career Indecision
with Gender
  • Male vs. Female
  • There is a statistically
  • significant difference between the
    generalized
  • indecisiveness of males (13.7) and of females
    (14.0).

20
CFI Findings Consideration of Career Indecision
with Age
  • Age Groupings
  • The Need for Career Information (NCI) was
    significant across various age groups.
  • Interpretation
  • Students who are younger perceive they have a
    higher Need for Self-Information (NSI) than do
    older students.

21
CFI Findings Consideration of Career Indecision
with Age
  • Age Groupings
  • The Need for Self Knowledge (NSK) was significant
    across various age groups.
  • Interpretation
  • Students who are younger perceive they need more
    career information than do older students.

22
Factors Related to Academic Success
23
Findings related to GPA
  • African American males and females earned the
    greatest proportion of GPAs of lt 2.0.
  • African American males are 2-3 times more likely
    to earn GPAs below 2.0 as compared to Hispanic
    and Caucasian males.
  • Hispanic males are 2 times more likely to earn
    GPAs below 2.0, compared to Caucasian males.

24
Findings related to GPA
  • African American males and females are less
    likely to earn GPAs gt 3.0.
  • African American males are 4-6 times less likely
    to earn GPAs gt 3.0.

25
Findings Related to Success
  • H Students who are more career decided will
    be more successful.
  • Not found to be true in general, BUT there is a
    statistical significance reported by different
    age groups on the Need for Career Information
    (NCI) scale
  • Overall, must reject the hypothesis, but looking
    at individual items on the CFI, found the
    following results

Students under 18 18-22 have the highest NCI
scores 22.1 20.4, as compared to those over 22
years of age.
26
CFI Findings Career Indecision and
Grades/Persistence
  • 100 Probability of Persistence, if
  • Good Student GPA of 3.0-3.49
  • Possess a greater Need for Self-Knowledge (score
    of 16-20).
  • Possible Explanation
  • Self-awareness and ability combine to predict
    persistence.

27
Results Related toRetention
28
Findings related toRetention
  • Males only retention rateEthnicity x Retention
  • African-American males 73
  • Hispanic males 83
  • White males 91
  • plt.05 level.

29
Findings related to Retention
  • Females only retention rateEthnicity x
    Retention
  • African-American females 92
  • Hispanic females 89
  • White females 91

30
Findings related toRetention
  • 91 Probability of Retention, if
  • Generalized Indecision was higher (9-25 points)
  • Possess average to very high degree goal
    commitment.

31
Findings related to Retention
  • 91 Probability of Retention, if
  • Decision-making is more challenging (Item 4,
    score 2-5)
  • Are more relaxed about career decision-making
    (Item 8, score 1-3).
  • 81 Probability of Retention, if
  • Decision-making is more challenging
  • Feel more tense about making a career decision
    (score 4-5).

32
Findings related to Retention
  • 94 Probability of Retention, if
  • Need to clarify personal values (Item 3, score
    5).
  • 74 Probability of Retention, if
  • Lesser need to clarify personal values (score
    1-4)

33
Findings related to Retention
  • 100 Probability of Retention, if
  • Individual takes moderate amount of time in
    making decisions (Item 18, score 4).
  • 63 Probability of Retention, if
  • Very quick or very slow at making decisions
    (score 1-3, 5)

34
Summary of Career Related Factors Impacting
Retention
  • Higher Probability of Retention
  • The greater the need to clarify values
  • Perceiving decision making is challenging
  • Taking your time in reaching decisions.

35
Results Related to Persistence
36
Findings related toPersistence
  • Males only persistence rate Ethnicity x
    Persistence
  • African-American males1,2 50
  • Hispanic males1 68
  • Caucasian males 2 68
  • 1,2 plt.05 level

37
Findings related toPersistence
  • Females only Persistence rate Ethnicity x
    Persistence
  • African-American females1 74
  • Hispanic females2 72
  • Caucasian females1,2 62
  • 1,2 Approach plt.05 level

38
Findings related toPersistence Rates
  • Persistence x Career Choice Anxiety
  • Non-persisters had a lower mean score (14.9) in
    career choice anxiety.
  • Persisters had a higher mean score (16.0) in
    career choice anxiety.
  • Possible interpretation
  • Relates to vigilance or drive of student

39
Findings related to Persistence
  • 99 Probability of Persistence, if
  • First semester GPA of 2.5-2.99 or 3.5-4.0
  • Under 22 years of age
  • High Career Choice Anxiety (score of over 30)
  • 60 Probability of Persistence, if
  • First semester GPA of 2.5-2.99 or 3.5-4.0
  • Under 22 years of age
  • Low Career Choice Anxiety (score of 11-15)

40
Findings related to Persistence
  • 99 Probability of Persistence, if
  • First semester GPA of 3.0-3.49
  • Greater Need for Self-Knowledge (score 16-20)
  • Possible Explanation
  • Self-awareness and ability combine to predict
    persistence.

41
Findings related to Persistence
  • 81 Probability of Persistence, if
  • Physical manifestations of career choice anxiety
    as expressed through tight breathing.
  • 70 Probability of Persistence, if
  • Physical manifestations of career choice anxiety
    as expressed through loose breathing.
  • Possible Explanation Vigilance?

42
Findings related to Persistence
  • 93 Probability of Persistence, if
  • Little physical manifestation of anxiety (Item
    12)
  • No need for greater self-knowledge thru work
    exploration (Item 13, score 1-2).
  • 66 Probability of Persistence, if
  • Little physical manifestation of anxiety (Item
    12)
  • Greater self-knowledge thru work exploration
    (Item 13, score 3-5).
  • Possibly explained by the fact that they wish to
    focus on their college experience vs. on
    employment alone

43
Findings related to Persistence
  • 91 Probability of Persistence, if
  • Greater physical manifestation of anxiety (Item
    12)
  • Being moderately certain on decision making (Item
    19, score 3.
  • 73 Probability of Persistence, if
  • Greater physical manifestation of anxiety (Item
    12)
  • Being highly certain or highly uncertain on
    decision making
  • Note More uncertain students, find career
    decision-making more difficult.

44
Summary of Career Related Factors Impacting
Persistence
  • Higher Persistence Rates
  • Higher Career Choice Anxiety
  • Physical manifestation of anxiety (tight
    breathing)
  • Greater Need for Self-Knowledge
  • Who am I what are my values?
  • Being moderately certain about making most
    decisions

45
Career Counseling in the Community College
Career Indecision Research
California Community College Chancellors
Conference April 11, 2002
  • Merril A. Simon, Ph.D., NCCC (simon_merril_at_smc.edu
    )
  • Esau Tovar, M.S. (tovar_esau_at_smc.edu)
  • Santa Monica College
  • 310/434-4012
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