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Assessing the effect of IB curriculum and local curriculum on primary students knowledge of Self-Directed Learning Dr Penny Van Deur Penny.vandeur_at_flinders.edu.au – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Assessing the effect of IB curriculum and local curriculum on primary students


1
Assessing the effect of IB curriculum and
local curriculum on primary students knowledge
of Self-Directed Learning
  • Dr Penny Van Deur
  • Penny.vandeur_at_flinders.edu.au
  • Flinders University
  • Adelaide-Australia

2
School curriculum and inquiry
  • School curriculum, a set of planned learning
    experiences ( Marsh, 2004 Braggett, 1997),is the
    foundation of instruction and assessment that
    takes into account valued learner qualities
    (Fogarty, 1997).
  • Curriculum documents need to provide the basis
    for teachers to plan development of inquiry
    through classroom activities.
  • Curriculum could provide guidance for teachers to
    plan, implement and monitor the development of
    inquiry in classrooms (Marsh, 2004).

3
Self-Directed learning and Curriculum
  • A database search showed little to no attention
    has been given to discussions of assessing the
    processes of Self-Directed Learning (SDL) in
    relation to curriculum in Australian schools.
  • Constructivist-based local curriculum framework
    has been implemented in South Australian primary
    schools
  • An increasing number of government and
    independent schools are adopting the
    International Baccalaureate (IB) programme
  • IB is based on constructivist views of learning
    and has an inquiry approach to much of the
    curriculum.
  • An inquiry approach is important for the
    development of SDL since it provides motivation
    to carry it out.

4
IB and Local curriculum
  • The IBs Primary Years Programme (PYP) has an
    explicit focus on inquiry
  • -IBs PYP explicitly supports development of
    inquiry and students knowledge of SDL
  • Local curriculum framework has an implicit focus
    on inquiry.
  • -Local curriculum framework may be providing less
    support for teachers to develop inquiry and
    students knowledge of SDL.
  • IB literature outlines the benefits of IB
    approach- this claim needs research support

5
IB-PYP- structured inquiry (Hill, 2006)
  • Programme of Inquiry run as part of the
    Primary Years Programme (PYP).
  • PYP uses a student profile as a reference to help
    teachers and students to establish goals, plan
    units of inquiry and assess performance.
  • PYP Profile -students are inquirers who will be
    able to conduct purposeful, constructive
    research, be risk takers able to explore new
    roles, ideas and strategies, and be reflective as
    they consider their own learning by analysing
    their personal strengths and weaknesses in a
    constructive manner. (IBO, official
    literature, 2000)

6
Programme of Inquiry- an explicit focus on inquiry
  • The Programme of Inquiry (50 of the school
    program) stresses that students should develop
    skills for research and self-management,
    attitudes of confidence and independence, and be
    able to carry out reflection.
  • Teachers and students in this program try to
    answer three questions
  • What do we want to learn?
  • How will we learn it?
  • How will we know when we have learned it? (IBO
    official literature, 2000).
  • Teachers and students in PYP schools which run
    the Programme of Inquiry are in an educational
    context in which inquiry is a fundamental part of
    the school curriculum.

7
Self-Directed Learning is a learning process
  • Through SDL teachers help students learn how to
    set goals, identify resources, develop learning
    activities, make decisions and evaluate ideas and
    create and share products. (Treffinger,1993, p.
    438)
  • In order to carry out SDL, students need to be
    aware of what they do and do not understand, be
    able to set learning goals, identify what they
    need to learn more about, plan and select
    strategies and be able to monitor whether or not
    goals have been met (Hmelo-Silver, 2004).

8
SDL as an inter-relationship between the roles of
self and other variables.
  • Self variables - attitudes and dispositions
    which influence the way students approach tasks,
    their initiative, effort, and persistence when
    difficulties arise.
  • Individual motivation exerts an influence through
    the processes of self-efficacy and causal
    attributions, which act to encourage students to
    make an effort to carry out SDL strategies, find
    resources, and persist when running into
    difficulties.
  • Meta-cognitive strategies of planning, checking
    and reflecting are used as an inquiry is being
    carried out.
  • Knowledge of SDL is one of the self
    characteristics, and is built up as students
    engage in SDL and incorporate this knowledge into
    their self-regulated learning strategies.
  • The other, or external influences comprise the
    school contexts role in supporting inquiry
    requiring SDL which gives students the
    opportunity to take responsibility for their
    learning.

9
Objectives of the study
  • Hypothesis that knowledge of SDL is related to
    school curriculum
  • Objectives
  • 1.to identify the effectiveness of teaching and
    assessing knowledge of SDL in schools with the
    local curriculum and schools with IB-PYP.
  • 2.to investigate whether there were differences
    in primary students knowledge of SDL related to
    curriculum

10
Method
  • Participants
  • 6 schools were selected to participate in the
    teaching intervention and assessments (three with
    local curriculum and three with the IB-PYP
    curriculum)
  • Three pairs local curriculum (77 students in 3
    schools) and IB curriculum (73 students in 3
    schools) matched on the basis of having the same
    or nearby postcodes and similar school enrolment
    numbers.
  • In this two-stage stratified sampling, a
    students chance of being selected depends on
    whether or not the school attended was selected
    in the first instance.
  • 150 students (mean age 10 years 6 months) in Year
    5
  • Students were taught as a whole group in intact
    classrooms that represented their regular
    learning environment.
  • The four assessments were analysed according to
    curriculum groups.

11
Instrumentation
  • Learning At School Questionnaire
  • The Learning At School Questionnaire (LASQ)
    developed to assess primary students knowledge
    of SDL.
  • LASQ has 46 items grouped in sub-scales of
  • Motivation -statements about attitudes to SDL
    that contribute to dispositional orientation
    which influences behaviour statements about
    self-efficacy, causal attributions, and
    persistence.
  • Strategy -statements about learning strategies
    that can be employed in SDL
  • Context -statements about support available in
    the school environment for SDL.

12
Learning At School Questionnaire(LASQ)
  • Students completed the LASQ assessment on four
    occasions over six months (pre-test, immediate
    post-test following four lessons on SDL, delayed
    post-test at three months and delayed post-test
    at six months).
  • Students responded to 46 statements in LASQ by
    circling one of three response categories
    (Disagree scored 0, Unsure scored 1, Agree scored
    2).
  • This scoring is consistent with the Rasch model
    of ordered categories where three categories are
    used to gain an indication of the respondents
    ideal point (Andrich Luo, 2003).
  • High scores in any of the three sub-scales are
    interpreted to mean a high level of knowledge,
    while low scores mean a low level of knowledge.
  • The scores were analysed by curriculum groups.

13
Primary School Characteristics Inventory
  • Three subscales (50 items)
  • Motivation for student inquiry (31 items-
    assuming that students have some responsibility
    for learning, that teachers are encouraging or
    scaffolding them to assume appropriate levels of
    responsibility for their learning
  • eg No 19.The interests of students are evident
    in the work displayed)
  • Organisational structures that support inquiry (8
    items- assume that school administration has
    responsibility for external aspects that
    influence opportunities for inquiry learning in
    the school
  • eg. No 2.The management structures have been
    designed to involve all staff in decision making
    )
  • Structures supporting inquiry strategies in
    school (11 items-assume students can use
    strategies to summarise, reflect evaluate their
    learning at school
  • eg. No 21. Students are encouraged to give their
    opinion about topics.)

14
Instrumentation
  • Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices (Raven,
    1956)
  • Assessed students reasoning ability
  • Raw scores computed and standard scores
    calculated according to the Australian manual
    (Raven, Court Raven, 2000).
  • Mean scores were calculated using SPSS (2001,
    Version 11.0 for Windows), for students grouped
    by curriculum ( IB not IB).
  • Teachers Rating of Student Self-Directed
    Learning
  • 6 class teachers rated all 150 students as
    self-directed learners at school by responding
    with a rating to the statement
  • (childs name) is a self-directed learner at
    school.
  • - Likert scale with a low rating of 1 (never),
    a medium rating of 3 (sometimes) and a high
    rating of 5 (always).
  • The teachers ratings were completed once, before
    the lessons, and were analysed by curriculum
    groups.

15
Procedure
  •  Primary School Characteristics Inventory
  • School staff in each of the six schools completed
    the PSCI by responding to 50 statements. High
    scores high school support for inquiry low
    scores low school support for inquiry. Schools
    were grouped according to Primary School
    Characteristics Inventory scores as Low,
    Moderate and High in support for inquiry.
  •  
  • Learning At School Questionnaire (LASQ)
  • Students completed the LASQ assessment on 4 times
    over six months (pre-test, immediate post-test
    following four lessons on SDL, delayed post-test
    at three months and delayed post-test at six
    months). High scores in any of the three
    sub-scales are interpreted to mean a high level
    of knowledge, while low scores mean a low level
    of knowledge. The scores were analysed by school
    curriculum categories.
  •  
  •  The teaching intervention
  • Intact classes of Year 5 students in six schools
    were taught about SDL in four one-hour lessons in
    which active learning was encouraged. The
    students carried out activities and discussions
    in pairs, small groups and as class groups. Data
    on the students knowledge of SDL and its
    development were collected on four LASQ
    assessments and analysed in relation to school
    curriculum category. This was done so that
    conclusions could be drawn about the relationship
    of this school factor to knowledge of SDL.

16
Data analyses
  • Each sub-scale of the LASQ was Rasch scaled
    (Sheridan, Andrich Luo, 1997) in order to
    convert the raw scores to an interval scale on
    which the scores could be compared.
  • Descriptive analysis was carried out followed by
    Partial Least Squares (PLS) path analysis, that
    was employed to identify the strength of any
    influence of curriculum on knowledge of SDL.
  • Partial Least Squares path analysis, with latent
    variables, is a simple, powerful and flexible
    tool, for modeling relationships in complex
    social systems, such as schools.
  • LASQ subscales Motivation, Strategy and Context

17
ResultsDescriptive analysis
  • Primary School Characteristics Inventory
  • A total score was calculated for the teachers
    ratings for each of the six schools and each was
    assigned to a category of High (87 agreement),
    Moderate (71-86 agreement) or Low inquiry (70
    agreement or less).
  • Schools with the IB-PYP curriculum, support for
    inquiry -1(High), 2 (Moderate )
  • Schools with local curriculum -2 (Moderate ),
    1(Low ).
  •  
  • Ravens Standard Progressive Matrices
  • When schools were compared the students were of
    similar reasoning ability.
  •  The mean reasoning scores on Ravens Standard
    Progressive Matrices for school curriculum -Not
    IB, 106.08 IB, 107.83.
  • An SPSS analysis showed that class teachers in
    Not IB schools rated students at a mean score of
    3.32 and teachers in IB schools rated students at
    a mean score of 3.48. This indicated that
    teachers perceived students in the IB schools to
    be slightly more self-directed than those in Not
    IB schools.
  •  

18
Results
  • MANOVA identified that there were no significant
    differences between Not IB and IB schools on each
    LASQ sub-scale or over the four testings but
    scores for Motivation, Strategies and Context
    were higher in IB schools.
  • Due to the inconclusive results of descriptive
    analysis further exploration of the relationship
    of curriculum to knowledge of SDL was carried out
    using Partial Least Squares (PLS) path analysis.
  • PLS path analysis tests the proposition that
    knowledge of SDL is related to school curriculum,
    and teachers views of students as self-directed
    learners at school.
  •  

19
Partial Least Squares path analysis
  • PLS-Partial Least Squares (PLS) path analysis,
    that was employed to identify the strength of any
    influence of curriculum on knowledge of SDL.
  • PLS path analysis, with latent variables, is a
    simple, powerful and flexible tool, for modeling
    relationships in complex social systems, such as
    schools.
  • LASQ subscales Motivation, Strategy and Context
  • In the analysis the criterion variable was
    students Knowledge of SDL comprised of three
    sub-scales of Motivation, Strategy and Context.
    The antecedent variables were Gender and
    Reasoning while Engagement, School Context
    (comprised of school support for inquiry and
    curriculum) and Teacher operated as mediating
    variables.

20
PLS path model
  • The final path model shows the strength of
    student and school influences on knowledge of
    SDL.
  • Predictive relationships are shown in the model
    by single headed arrows.
  • Latent variables 3, 5 and 6 are endogenous
    variables that were influenced by one or more
    other variables in the model.
  • The latent variables of School Context, Gender
    and Reasoning were exogenous variables that
    functioned as antecedent variables and not as
    effects. They have values that may be influenced
    by variables that are not shown in the model
    (Vogt, 1999).
  • The lines from latent variables (Gender,
    Reasoning, Teacher, School Context, Engagement)
    indicate significant paths with the standardised
    coefficients shown.
  • The path coefficient is considered to be
    significant when it is more than twice its
    jack-knife standard error as it can be said to be
    replicable or repeatable.

21
1 R2 0.127, Q20.109 2 R20.415, Q20.402 3
R20.159, Q20.148   PLSPATH model of knowledge
of SDL for all times  
22
PLS path model of knowledge of SDL for all times
  • The final PLS path model shows significant paths
    from
  • -School Context (0.10) to Knowledge of SDL
  • -School Context (0.29) to Engagement
  • -School Context (0.13) to Teacher
  • -Teacher (0.22) to Engagement
  • -Engagement (0.12) to Knowledge of SDL
  • The combined effects of variables in this model
    explained only 13 (R2 .127) of the variation
    in the outcome between school and student
    influences. Although the amount of variance
    explained is small, 13 per cent is not trivial
    and still provides an indication of the factors
    influencing Knowledge of SDL.
  • The stability of the outcome measure reflected by
    the difference between R2 and Q2 (0.018)
    indicates that since R2 is 0.127, the model has
    satisfactory predictive relevance

23
Results PLS path analysis
  • There were significant influences on students
    knowledge of SDL exerted by school factors of
    school support for inquiry, curriculum focus on
    inquiry and teachers ratings of students as
    self-directed learners.
  • --An explicit focus on inquiry in the curriculum
    (IB) promoted knowledge of SDL
  • --An implicit focus on inquiry in the curriculum
    (Not IB-local curriculum) did not promote
    knowledge of SDL
  • This result is important because it shows that
    there are influences on students knowledge of
    SDL following a teaching intervention related to
    curriculum.

24
Discussion
  • School Context, comprised of Curriculum and
    School Inquiry, had a significant influence on
    knowledge of SDL indicating that an explicit
    focus on inquiry in the curriculum (IB) promoted
    knowledge of SDL.
  • The result suggests that teachers in schools with
    an explicit curriculum focus on inquiry, such as
    IB schools with the PYP, are likely to have
    greater school support for involving students in
    inquiry and increasing knowledge of SDL.
  • If SDL behaviour is selected based on knowledge
    of SDL, then schools with an explicit curriculum
    emphasis on inquiry, such as the IBs PYP, are
    likely to provide more support for students to
    become self-directing than nearby schools with
    the local curriculum.
  • Further research
  • Additional research is needed on assessment and
    teaching of SDL with a large sample of matched
    schools where one school has the IB-PYP
    curriculum and the other has the local
    curriculum.

25
References
  • Andrich, D. Luo, G. (2003). Measuring attitudes
    by unfolding a likert-style questionnaire. In
    J.P. Keeves (Ed.), International handbook of
    educational research in the Asia-Pacific region
    (Vol.2). (pp. 409-424). Dordrecht, Netherlands
    Kluwer Academic Publisher.
  • Braggett, E. (1997). Differentiated programs for
    primary schools. Melbourne, Victoria Hawker
    Brownlow Education.
  •  
  • Fogarty, R. (1997). Problem-based learning and
    other curriculum models for the multiple
    intelligences classroom. Melbourne Hawker
    Brownlow Education.
  • Hmelo-Silver. C.E. (2004). Problem-based
    learning What and how do students learn?
    Educational Psychology Review. 16(3), 235-266.
  • Hill, I. (2006). Do International Baccalaureate
    programs internationalise or globalise?
    International Education Journal. 7(1), 98-108.
  •  International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO).
    (2000). Diploma Programme, Middle Years
    Programme, Primary Years Programme. Geneva,
    Switzerland IBO.
  • Marsh, C. (2004). Becoming a teacher. (3rd.ed.)
    Frenchs Forest, NSW Pearson Education Australia.

26
References
  • Noonan, R.D. Wold, H (1988) Partial Least
    Squares Path Analysis. In J. P. Keeves (Ed.),
    Educational Encyclopedia. (pp.710-716). Oxford
    Pergamon.
  • Raven, J. (1956). Standard progressive matrices.
    New York Psychological Corporation.
  • Raven, J., Raven, J. C. Court, J.H. (2000).
    Section 3 Standard Progressive Matrices. Oxford,
    England Information Press Ltd.
  • Sheridan, B., Andrich, D. Luo, G. (1996).
    RUMM. Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Models.
    Perth Murdoch University.
  • SPSS (2001). SPSS for Windows, Version 11.0.
    Chicago, Illinois SPSS Inc.
  • Treffinger, D. J. (1993). Fostering effective
    independent learning through individualized
    programming. In J. S. Weaver-Hightower, M.
    (2003). The boyturn in research on gender and
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  • Vogt, W. P. (1999). Dictionary of statistics and
    methodology A non-technical guide for the social
    sciences. Thousand Oaks, California Sage
    Publications.
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