Subtitling in the Multimodal Context of Translated Film - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Subtitling in the Multimodal Context of Translated Film PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 48a5a7-YmM4N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Subtitling in the Multimodal Context of Translated Film

Description:

Subtitling in the Multimodal Context of Translated Film Chris Taylor University of Trieste Kristiansand 21 October 2005 SUBTITLES The basic premise of this talk is ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:340
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 80
Provided by: www2Units2
Learn more at: http://www2.units.it
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Subtitling in the Multimodal Context of Translated Film


1
Subtitling in the Multimodal Context of
Translated Film
  • Chris Taylor
  • University of Trieste
  • Kristiansand 21 October 2005

2
SUBTITLES
  • The basic premise of this talk is that subtitles,
    as a semiotic resource, ADD to the meaning-making
    potential of a multimodal text such as a TV ad.
    or a film.
  • If they are done well (a huge provviso) they ADD
    to the pleasure, interest, emotion or other
    cognitive process experienced by the viewer.
  • They ADD to and do not detract from the
    hermeneutic process as a whole.

3
TRANSLATED FILM
  • Film has been translated since its earliest
    beginnings in the silent era.
  • And in the beginning there were
  • subtitles
  • intertitles
  • Eg The Clash of Wlolves

4
(No Transcript)
5
multimodal text within a multimodal text
  • Modern subtitles also perform this function in a
    more subtle way.
  • For example Kubricks Barry Lyndon, a film in
    any case much given to the visual verbal channel
    information, comments, letters, dicuments, etc.

6
Barry Lyndon
  • The seduction scene between Barry and Lady
    Lyndon is based exclusively on a long series of
    knowing glances. Schubert and the Faites vos
    jeux of the gaming tables provide the
    background.
  • There is only one utterance, on the part of Lady
    lyndon Samuel, Im going outside for a breath
    of fresh air

7
Barry Lyndon subtitled
  • A subtly placed, clear to read subtitle here
  • Samuel, esco a prendere un po daria
  • accompanying the lady as she moves out to the
    veranda and also Barrys self-congratulatory
    expression, adds to the complicity and avoids the
    intrusion of an alien voice where the enunciation
    is brimming with covert intent.

8
but with talkies
  • came the advent of dubbing especially in those
    countries with strict laws governing the
    intrusion of foreign languages (and cultures).
  • and the larger European countries have
    continued along this path, achieving excellent
    results.

9
but led Sergio Viaggio to say
  • Film dubbing is the least studied of all the
    branches of translation
  • . and subtitling?

10
The subtitling vs. dubbing debate
  • Views differ considerably, but a recently
    published work in Italy lays the battle ground in
    no uncertain terms.
  • Tradurre per il doppiaggio Paolinelli and Di
    Fortunato.
  • After a detailed consideration of the financial
    aspects, the authors list the drawbacks of
    subtitling

11
Drawbacks
  • 1. Reduction of text (eg. Natural Born Killers
    9,758 words to 12,737)
  • 2. Invasion of screen
  • 3. Reading takes up half length of film!
  • 4. Continuous jumping from centre to bottom of
    screen
  • 5. No pedagogic value in context of cinema
  • AND

12
The main drawback?
  • 6. Subtitles, given the preponderance of
    audiovisual material of foreign origin, give more
    nobility to the source text than the target
    text, and are therefore an instrument of creeping
    linguistic and cultural colonialism.

13
theres worse to come
  • I sottotitoli, quindi, si riducono a un semplice
    ausilio alla comprensione della trama, ma non
    possono, per ragioni strutturali, svolgere
    nessuna funzione di trasposizione linguistica.
  • Subtitles are a mere guide to understanding but
    for structural reasons unable to fulfil any
    language transposition function.

14
and more
  • Laddove poi ci riferiamo in particolare ai
    film comici il dialogo si fonda su giochi o
    ripetizioni di parole, il sottotitolo è costretto
    a distruggere la coerenza del discorso, e con
    esso lespressione comica.
  • Where there are plays on words or repetition
    subtitles necessarily ruin the coherence of the
    discourse and any comic element gets lost.

15
other typical shortcomings
  • all seeming redundancy is eliminated
  • translation is limited to an understanding of
    the plot
  • the ideational function of language is favoured
    at the expense of the interpersonal and the
    textual

16
how?
  • Typical interpersonal markers of a verbal nature
    (discourse markers, phatic devices, hedges, etc.)
    are omitted.
  • The textual function is mostly present in the
    other semiotic modalities a mere list of
    subtitles lacks many cohesive and structural
    components.

17
but in favour of subtitling
  • Hofstadter
  • In America we tend not to dub movies, to my
    personal
  • relief, so that we can experience the original
    voices and the
  • alien phonemes of a foreign film.
  • Subtitles are not a replacement of anything, but
    an
  • addition to a film they form an overlay, so
    that one has a
  • kind of simultaneous bicultural interpretation of
    what is
  • going on.
  • Multimodality in the service of intercultural
    communication.

18
Ivarsson
  • People want to hear the languages of the
  • rest of the world, but they want to be sure
  • they have understood them in their own
  • tongue too.
  • SUBTITLES SEEM TO BE THE ANSWER

19
But where do subtitles fit in the wider
translation picture?
  • The qualities of a good translator are not
  • few
  • Martin Luther
  • We are bound in two ways to our mother
  • tongue and to the mother tongue of the text
  • we are translating
  • Martin Heidegger

20
Delisle and Woodsworth
  • Translators (are) importers of foreign
  • cultural values and key players at some of
  • the greatest moments in history
  • .. (they) have played a determining role in
  • the development of their societies.

21
Voltaire
  • Woe to the makers of literal translations, who
    by rendering every word weaken the meaning!

22
but none of these people were thinking about
subtitles and we are dealing with a
recognisable variation on the general theme
23
Dolet (1540)
  1. The translator must fully understand the sense
    and meaning of the original, although he is at
    liberty to clarify obscurities
  2. The translator should have a perfect knowledge of
    both SL and TL
  3. The translator should avoid word for word
    renderings
  4. The translator should use forms of speech in
    common use
  5. The translator should choose and order words
    appropriately to produce the correct tone.

24
Ivarsson and Carrolls good practice
  • 1. Subtitlers must always work with a copy of the
    production, a copy of the dialogue list and a
    glossary
  • 2. It is the subtitlers job to spot the
    production and translate and write the subtitles
    in the language required.
  • 3. Translation quality must be high with due
    consideration of all idiomatic and cultural
    nuances.
  • 4.. 25 7.

25
so what are subtitles?
  • an independent stratum midway between speech
    and writing
  • Kovacic
  • or a subcategory of either?
  • (Answers please)

26
but now lets move to MULTIMODAL TEXTS
  • Multimodality refers to the diverse ways in
    which a number of distinct semiotic resource
    systems are both co-deployed and
    co-contextualised in the making of a
    text-specific meaning.
  • Paul Thibault

27
(No Transcript)
28
Column 3 The visual image
29
Application of multimodal transcription to film
translation
  • BY
  • - simplifying the descriptions
  • - doubling up some columns
  • - eliminating other columns
  • - adding a translation column
  • the MT proved useful in deciding translation
    strategies for subtitling film.

30
Insert video Citroen
31
(No Transcript)
32
Comment 1
  • Full meaning comes from various sources, both
    overt and covert -
  • gloomy atmosphere
  • sparse facilities
  • evocation of areas such as East End of London
  • air of mystery (whats it about?)

33
(No Transcript)
34
Comment 2
  • Its a boxer, doing typical boxer things.
  • Voice cockney accent! it is the East End of
    London.

35
Comment 3 - translation
  • MAX subtitles eg. education purposes
  • DUBBING risk of making him eg Neapolitan
  • MIN subtitles give him same tough, taut
    talk.

36
(No Transcript)
37
Comment 4
  • These are not intrusive titles and can blend in
    perfectly with the holistic original product.

38
Comment 5
  • In definitiva, i sottotitoli dovranno risultare
    parte del film e la loro integrazione con
    loriginale sarà tale che essi diventeranno,
    pardossalmente, invisibili.
  • Nironi
  • (Subtitles must be part of the film and their
    integration with the original must be such that
    they become, paradoxically, invisible)

39
in terms of good practice
  • Good Practice 26
  • The subtitler should be aware that the translated
    title forms part of a multimodal whole and seek
    the best way to integrate it with the other
    semiotic modalities present.

40
Subtitles distinguishing features
41
Gottliebian thoughts
  • The fact that subtitles are additive leads us to
    compute them into our multimodal scheme, and the
    fact that they are synchronous makes their
    function as an integrated element clear.
  • And of course Gottlieb tells us that they are
    polymedial.

42
Gottlieb in Trieste
  • HG laid great emphasis on the aesthetic
    appearance of the titles (clarity, non
    intrusiveness, perfct synchronisation,
    acccessability) as well as their meaning-making
    role.

43
so now in answer to Mario Paolinelli
  • Comparing the dubbed and subtitled versions of
    the Marx Brothers Animal Crackers, and
    considering the following scene, the authors
    criticise the subtitled version

44
Example from Animal Crackers
  • Ex- pres President Wagstaff, now that you have
    stepped into my shoes
  • Wagstaff Oh, is that what I stepped in? I
    wondered If these are your shoes, the least
    you could do was have them cleaned.
  • (Groucho looks down with a look of disgust)

45
Subtitles
  • Ex- pres Ora che lei è nei miei panni
  • Wagstaff Mi chiedevo di chi erano! Poteva
    farli lavare.
  • (literal translation)
  • Ex- pres Now that you are in my clothes
  • Wagstaff I wondered whose they were. You could
    have had them washed.

46
Dubbing
  • Ex- pres Professor Wagstaff, ora che si è
    messo nei miei piedi
  • Wagstaff Ah, lì mi sono messo. Ecco da dove
    esala. Se questi sono i suoi, li mandi in
    lavanderia!
  • (literal translation)
  • Ex- pres Now that you have put yourself in my
    feet
  • Wagstaff Oh, there I put myself. Thats where
    the smell comes from. If these are yours,send
    them to the laundry.

47
Well
  1. The dubbed version uses an expression that does
    not exist in Italian (or English).
  2. The subtitled version uses the equivalent
    colloquial expression in Italian and is nice and
    succinct.
  3. The visual element (Groucho looking down at his
    feet and wrinkling his nose) is not misleading.
  4. THE WHOLE POINT IS THAT IN A MULTIMODAL TEXT THE
    MEANING COMES FROM ALL SIDES AND THESE SUBTITLES
    FIT IN WELL WITH THE REST OF THE SEMIOTIC
    BATTERY.

48
Natural Born Killers
  • The main objection to the subtitling of NBK was
    that the translation of the constant background
    of radio and television noise was sacrificed
    because of the inevitable condensation
    requirement.
  • But the meaning conveyed by this component was
    the evil influence of irresponsible (American)
    media and this proved clear from the general
    context of the film, particularly as heard in the
    original language.
  • This is the beauty of the multimodal text.

49
Shortcomings revisited
  • regarding the inevitable condensation
  • all seeming redundancy is eliminated
  • translation is limited to an understanding of
    the plot.

50
The Gottlieb Strategies
  • TRANSFER
  • EXPANSION
  • CONDENSATION
  • DECIMATION
  • DELETION
  • PARAPHRASE
  • IMITATION
  • TRANSCRIPTION
  • DISLOCATION
  • RESIGNATION

51
Caro Diario
  • Annalisa Sandrelli subjected Nanni Morettis
    Caro Diario to a thorough Gottliebian
    investigation by analysing the English and
    Spanish subtitled versions.

52
ENGLISH No.subtitles
transfer 661 661 66.3
condensation 165 165 16.5
decimation 45 45 4.5
paraphrase 35 35 3.5
deletion 35 35 3.5
imitation 33 33 3.3
transcription 11 11 1.1
expansion 9 9 0.9
resignation 3 3 0.3
dislocation 1 1 0.1
TOTAL 997 997 100
53
SPANISH No. subtitles
transfer 950 80.7
condensation 96 8.2
imitation 40 3.4
decimation 27 2.3
paraphrase 23 2
transcription 15 2.3
deletion 13 1.1
expansion 5 0.4
54
More objections
  • Paolinelli agrees that subtitlers need to
    possess ottime qualità di analisi linguistica
    as well as grande familiarità con i meccanismi
    narrativi cinematografici, but suggests that few
    practitioners possess these qualities.
  • So lets take a look at some subtitling from a
    multimodal point of view.

55
Insert video Ae Fond Kiss
56
Ae Fond Kiss
  • This multimodal text is pregnant with explicit
    and covert meaning
  • The tradition of the school in the private
    singing lessons cf. rough Glasgow background.
  • The enthusiasm of the teacher towards the girl
    who cant sing
  • The Scots accents of the (middle class)
    Pakistanis.

57
Ae Fond Kiss 2
  • This text cries out for subtitles
  • 1 to hear the different accents (Irish, Scots
    Scots, Pakistani Scots) - dubbing neutralises
    this aspect
  • 2. The words of the song are in any case
    unintelligible and would be farcical dubbed into
    another language
  • 3. The overlapping chat in the garden (which
    gives the scene such texture) does not require
    explicitation dubbing would have to be
    selective and would remove this important
    component completely.

58
Ae Fond Kiss subtitles
  • 00065402 00065520
  • Ci sei? Bene.
  • 00070222 00070901
  • Un tenero bacio,
  • e poi ci separeremo

59
Subtitles 2
  • 00073916 00074118
  • cosi' ti puoi fare
  • un'idea di come sara'.
  • 00074118 00074412
  • Okay, allora facciamo una prova!
  • Aspetta un attimo.
  • 00074418 00074621
  • - Guarda un po'... Vado?
  • - Si', certo, vai.

60
Ae Fond Kiss - commentary
  • Within the multimodal text the subtitles leave
  • untouched the other semiotic modalities
  • the perspective in the various shots
  • the colours in the garden
  • the gaze vectors of the characters
  • the embarrassed body language of the girl
  • the clumsy movement of the father,
  • AND PARTICULARLY
  • - the suprasegmental elements the accents of
    the characters and the spontaneous nature of the
    exchanges.

61
Film Language
  • Recalling the lack of interpersonal markers in
    subtitles, it must be pointed out that film
    language itself has been shown to be lacking in
    this respect.

62
Comparison realistic/corpus
63
From script to screen
  • Comparisons between the original script of a film
    and a transcription of the actual dialogues
    practically always show discrepancies in favour
    of a more spoken language approach.

64
Philadelphia script
  • CHANDRA (O.S.)You want to apply the foundation as
    evenly as you can, Andy. You don't want to look
    like you've thrown it on with a spoon. 
  • ANDREW (O.S.)
  • Uh huh. CHANDRA
  • Okay. You try.

65
Insert video Philadelphia
66
Philadelphia transcription
  • Chandra
  • Okay, now, you gonna wanna apply the foundation
    as evenly as you can Andy, okay? Cos you dont
    want to look like youve thrown it on with a
    spoon, okay? So, okay, you try it.

67
Philadelphia - dubbing
  • Il fondotinta va applicato il più uniformemente
    possibile. Perché non sembri che te lo sei
    spalmato con un cucchiaio.

68
neutralisation
  • The risk of neutralising is ever present in film
    translation, but as the example shows, it is as
    present in dubbing as it is in subtitling. But at
    least in subtitling the original spoken
    language can be heard.
  • Furthermore, as Kovacic exhorts, there is no
    reason why subtitles should not capture elements
    of interpersonal language use.

69
An example from TV Six Feet Under
  • The American TV programme SIx Feet Under, set
    in a funeral home, exploits black humour and
    taboo language.
  • For the Italian audience both dubbed and
    subtitled versions were produced.
  • A study has shown that reactions to the
    programme were different depending on the
    translation mode adopted.
  • (Bucaria, University of Bologna)

70
Six Feet Under 2
  • Trials were carried out on sample groups
    selected according to age, sex, education,
    geographical location, etc.
  • As was expected, reactions to the programme
    differed between, for example, old ladies in
    traditional country villages and urban student
    populations.

71
Six Feet Under 3
  • But interestingly the dubbed version produced
    less disapproval among the traditional viewers
    than the subtitled version.
  • The reason, it emerged from questionnaires, was
    that the dubbing attenuated many of the taboo
    expressions and tempered the elements of black
    (sick) humour.

72
Six Feet Under 4
  • This finding explodes the myth that written
    texts tend to neutralise creative spoken
    language. The return to the written can prove a
    powerful integrating force
  • In the case of SFU, the subtitles ADD spice to
    the show in written form integrating with (1) the
    verbal force that can be heard in voice prosody
    and (2) the facial gestures that accompany ribald
    talk.

73
a drawback of dubbing
  • The most obvious drawback of dubbing, which
    emerges clearly from this example, is that it can
    cheat. Particularly in TV productions, the dubbed
    version can stray from the original way beyond
    what can be accepted as equivalent effect.
  • eg. Friends

74
Impact on students
  • In general they favour subtitles, and many have
    attempted to make their own subtitled versions of
    films, encouraged to use (not always
    successfully) the strategies they have learned in
    creating a more complete MULTIMODAL TEXT.

75
An example - Occident
  • The work of a (Rumanian) student who wished to
    show the inaccuracy of the English subtitled
    version and produce a more accurate Italian
    version of her own.
  • She succeeds despite the amateur attempt at
    synchrony.
  • The interesting thing is the text works even
    with two sets of titles cluttering up the
    screen.
  • It is another multimodal text.

76
Insert video Occident
77
Insert video The Shining dubbed
78
Insert video The Shining subtitled
79
I rest my case. Thank you very much
About PowerShow.com