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Croatia a land of thousand islands

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Title: Croatia a land of thousand islands


1
Croatiaa land of thousand islands
An overview of its history, culture and natural
beauty By Zdeslav Hrepic Fort Hays State
University
2
OVERVIEW
  • General facts and Geography
  • What we are proud of
  • History and Language
  • Art and Architecture
  • World heritage in Croatia (UNESCOs list)
  • Landscape
  • Music and Dances

3
HOW TO GET TO CROATIA?
4
CROATIA IS
On the cross roads between Central Europe and
the Mediterranean
5
GENERAL FACTS
  • Official name
  • REPUBLIC OF CROATIA
  • Official language
  • CROATIAN
  • Alphabet
  • LATIN

http//education.yahoo.com/reference/factbook/hr/m
ap.html
6
POPULATION AND RELIGION
4,437,460 (2001. Census)
Ethnic composition 89,6 Croats 4,5 Serbs
0,5 Bosnians 0,4 Italians 0,4 Hungarians
6,6 others
Religions 87,8 R. Catholic1,3 Islam0,9
Orthodox0,4 Protestant3,9 Atheists 3.0
Agnostics 2,2 Atheists
7
CAPITAL - ZAGREB
Church of St. Mark
Old town and Cathedral
8
COAT OF ARMS AND FLAG
today
7 ct.
16 ct.
9
ECONOMY - TOURISM
10
ECONOMY - SHIPBUILDING
Made in Split, Croatia
In the second half of the 1980-ties the Croatian
shipbuilding industry was at the third place in
the world, (after Japan and South Korea).
11
ECONOMY - AGRICULTURE
SOUTH CROATIA
12
ECONOMY - AGRICULTURE
NORTH CROATIA
13
RELIEF
14
ARCHIPELAGO
1,185 islands and rocks 66 inhabited One of 10
nations in the world with more than 1000
islands Total Coastline length 5,835 km (Islands
70 - Mainland 30 )
15
CROATIAN ARCHIPELAGO
According to American journal "Cruising World",
together with the Caribbean, among the best
sailing areas in the world.
16
BEACHES
17
BEACHES
18
LIGHTHOUSES
66 big stone lighthouses from 19 ct.
19
CROATIAN SHIPS
Sagina 10 11 ct.
"Dubrovnik Nava" 16 ct.
20
FALKUSA
Croatian fisherman boat (18 ct.)
21
WHAT WE ARE PROUD OF
22
SPORT - GORAN IVANISEVIC
WIMBLEDON CHAMPION 2001
..and welcome in his hometown - Split
Winner
23
NBA PLAYERS FROM CROATIA
Basketball team from Split - several times
European champions.
Radja vs. Rodman
Toni Kukoc
Zan Tabak
Drazen Petrovic
24
NATIONAL SOCCER TEAM
C R O A T I AThe Third Best Team in the World
Davor Suker won the Golden Boot for scoring the
most Goals (France 1998)
Note Croatia has less people than Brazil or
Germany has registered soccer players and
is a bit smaller in size than West Virginia!
25
DALMATIAN DOGNATIVE CROATIAN
101 DALMATIAN Dalmatia - the coastal part of
Croatia
Recognized as Croatian autochthonous breed
(FCI-153)
Croatian Mascot - 2000 Olympic games Sydney
26
CROATIA - HOMELAND OF CRAVATS
Every day worn by the 600 million men around the
world.
  • French - la Cravate German- die Krawatte
    English Cravat Italian - Cravatta
    Spanish - Corbata
    Portuguese - Gravata Irish -
    Carabhat Swedish - Kravatt
    Finnish - Kravatti
    Flemish - Krawaat Polish -
    Krawat Ukrainian - Kravatka
    Hungarian Kravat Croatian - Kravata

27
CROATIA
HOMELAND OF CRAVATS
A tradition introduced by Croatian soldiers who
wore a small neckerchief of silk or cloth, tied
in a knot around their necks. Accepted in Europe
during 1618-1648 when two regiments of Croatian
soldiers were serving Luis XIV. After la
Cravate become popular at French court, fashion
spread fast further.
28
OLDEST UNIVERSITIES
ZADAR 1396 and ZAGREB 1669
Bologna 1219 Padova 1220 Paris 1220 Oxford
1249 Lisabon 1290 Rome 1303 Cambridge
1318 Florence 1321 Praha 1348 Krakow 1364 Vienna
1365 Heidelberg 1385
ZADAR 1396 Rostock 1419 Glasgow 1453 Copenhagen
1479 Mainz 1494 Edinburgh 1582 Dublin 1591 Lwow
1661 ZAGREB 1669
Göttingen 1736 Erlangen 1743, Moscow 1775 Berlin
1809 Saint Petersburg 1819 London 1825 Helsinki
1826 Kiev 1834 Athens 1834 Tokyo
1881 Constantinople 1900
29
INVENTORS - PARASHUTE
Faust Vrancic (1551-1617) from Sibenik invented
and constructed a parashute and also performed a
first jumps in order to test it. Wrote famous
book on mechanics Machinae novae (61
constructions, Venice, 1595) - soon translated
from Latin into Italian, Spanish, French and
German A sketch of his well known Homo volans
(parachutist) appearing in Machinae novae - often
wrongly attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.
30
INVENTORS - PEN
Slavoljub Eduard Penkala (1871-1922) from Zagreb
invented a mechanical ball pen which is bearing
his name and now it is in everyday use.
31
NIKOLA TESLA (1856-1943)
The Inventor Who Changed the World
  • Born in Croatia (at that time within
    Austro-Hungary)
  • The father of alternating current technology,
    production and transmission of electrical energy
    as we know it today.
  • Great contribution in high frequency technology
    and wireless communications
  • More than 700 patents (manuscripts still top
    secret of US ministry of defense)
  • Refused to receive the Nobel prize which he had
    to share with T.A. Edison.
  • The unit for magnetic induction named after him

32
NIKOLA TESLA
When his mother died, in 1892, he paid a visit to
Zagreb, Croatian capital, where he gave a lecture
about alternating current. On that occasion he
said
As a son of my homeland I feel it is my duty to
help the city of Zagreb in every respect with my
advice and work and suggested to build
alternating current power plant.
I am equally proud of my Croatian motherland and
Serbian descent. N. Tesla
Teslas monument, carved by Croatian sculptor
Frano Krsinic, near Tesla's hydro power plant on
Niagara Falls.
33
TWO CROATIAN SCIENTISTS
ON THE MAP OF THE MOON
Rudjer Boskovic (1711-1787), name of the mountain
on the visible side. (forerunner of modern
physics for two centuries theory of atomic
forces)
Andrija Mohorovicic (1857-1936) name of the
mountain on the dark side (discovered
discontinuity in Earth crust named after him -
Moho-layer or Moho-discontinuity.
34
CROATS NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS
  • Lavoslav Ruzicka, of a Croat/Czech origin. Born
    in Vukovar, Croatia. Studied in Zagreb.
  • For discoveries in organic chemistry 1939.
  • Ivo Andric, A Croat born in Dolac, Bosnia and
    Herzegovina. Studied in Zagreb.
  • For literature, 1961.
  • Vladimir Prelog, a Croat born in Sarajevo, Bosnia
    and Herzegovina. Studied in Zagreb. For
    discoveries in organic chemistry, 1975.

35
FIRST PUBLIC THEATER IN EUROPE
1612 - ON ISLAND HVAR
In 1612 a theatre was built on the first floor of
an existing building (from 13th century).
36
FIRST PUBLIC THEATER IN EUROPE
Built by the efforts and contributions of all the
members of the community, regardless of class.
37
OPERA
  • Three Slavic nations who have national operas
  • Russians (M. I. Glinka in 1836, 1842),
  • Croats Vatroslav Lisinski composed the first
    Croatian national opera "Ljubav i zloba" ("Love
    and malice") in 1846.
  • Czechs (B. Smetana in 1862),
  • The most famous Croatian opera
    Ero s onoga svijeta, by Jakov
    Gotovac (1895-1982)
  • It has been translated into 9 languages and
    performed in about 80 countries.

38
LEGACY THE VINODOL CODE
  • One of the earliest and most important Croatian
    legal documents is The Vinodol Code, very
    different from the Roman law, written in the
    Glagolitic alphabet in 1288.
  • considered to be one of the most important
    documents of medieval Europe. Among the Slav
    Codes only the Rus Code Pravda is slightly
    older (1282).
  • It was unique in Europe by determining protection
    and integrity of women.
  • Introduces the institution of witnesses.

39
CITY OF DUBROVNIK
PEARL OF CROATIAN CULTURE
1317 - the first European pharmacy that has been
working continuously till these days was opened
there in in Franciscan monastery.
  • The first hospital (Domus Christi) in Dubrovnik
    was opened in 1347.

40
CITY OF DUBROVNIK
  • In 1296 Dubrovnik had a sewer system.
  • In 1377 Dubrovnik had the first quarantene in
    Europe.
  • An organized production of soap started in 1417.
  • The first orphanage was founded in 1432.

41
CITY OF DUBROVNIK
Dubrovnik have the oldest arboretum in Europe -
Trsteno, founded in 1498, with many rare plants.
42
CITY OF DUBROVNIK
Upon arrival in 7th ct., Croatians founded the
city on remainings of Roman settlement Ragusa.
The city walls were built between the 8th and
16th centuries.
After Croatia joined in union with Hungary (1102)
the Republic of Dubrovnik left the only really
free part of Croatia and kept its freedom until
Napoleon.
43
CITY OF DUBROVNIK
  • Ivan Gundulic (1589-1638) from Dubrovnik, one of
    the greatest Croatian poets wrote in Croatian
    language the well known patriotic verses devoted
    to Liberty
  • Oh beautiful, oh dear, oh sweet liberty,the gift
    that Almighty God gave us
  • Neither all the silver and gold,nor all the
    human livescan be payment to your pure beauty!
  • Flag of the Republic of Dubrovnik
  • The word LIBERTAS (Liberty)

44
CITY OF DUBROVNIK
  • One of 8 books of Dubrovnik statute from 1272
    contains exclusively regulations concerning
    Maritime Law, which is the oldest such document
    in the world.
  • Slave trade in the Republic of Dubrovnik was
    forbidden in 1418 (in the British Empire in
    1833).
  • Dubrovnik's 1395 Insurance Law is the oldest in
    Europe. It had all aspects of contemporary
    maritime insurance. This law is three centuries
    older than Lloyd's insurance, London, which dates
    from the end of 17th century.

45
CITY OF DUBROVNIK
"Dubrovnik Nava" 16 ct.
Republic of Dubrovnik built big fleet of sailing
ships. In 16th century, years of biggest
prosperity of Republic of Dubrovnik, their
mercantile marine had 170-200 ships. Besides
that, Dubrovnik had big armament navy.
46
HISTORY - ORIGINS
  • The earliest mention of
    the Croatian name
  • as Horovathos (Horvat Croat) - on
    two stone inscriptions in Greek language, from
    around the 200 A.D., found by the Black Sea (more
    precisely in the seaport Tanais on the Azov sea,
    Krim).
  • "Horoathos archon Tanaiton" ( Croat
    Mayor of Tanais) and "Synodos Horouathon
    (Convention of Croats).
  • Both tablets are held in the archeological museum
    in St Petersburg, Russia.

47
INVITATION BY EMPEROR
HERACLIUS
Emperor Heraclius invites the Croats to settle in
the Roman provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia (as
unable to defend the regions from the Avars) This
invitation was issued between 610 A.D. and 641
A.D., perhaps during the siege of Byzantium in
626. The migration was mostly complete by 678
when the Croatians sent a delegation to the Court
of Constantinople. Rome established contact
with the Croatians at the same time and converted
the tribes to Christianity through a treaty with
Pope Agatho in 680, making Croatia one of the
world's oldest Christian nations.
48
The Croatians were invited to settle in the Roman
provin-ces of Pannonia and Dal-matia by Emperor
Heraclius who was unable to defend the regions
from the Avars. This invitation was issued
between 610 A.D. and 641 A.D., perhaps during the
siege of Byzan-tium in 626. The migration was
complete by 678 when the Croatians sent a
delegation to the Court of Con-stan-tinople. Rome
established contact with the Croatians at the
same time and converted the tribes to
Christianity through a treaty with Pope Agatho in
680, making Croatia one of the world's oldest
Christian nations. A loose confederation of
duchies ruled by Bans (Viceroys), began to take
the shape of a unified state between 800 and 925.
By 887, the Croatians had become powerful enough
to defeat Venice at sea and exact a yearly
tribute for the next 150 years for the right to
navigate the Adriatic Sea.
49
800 A.D.
A loose confederation of duchies ruled by Bans
(Viceroys), began to take the shape of a unified
state between 800 and 925.
50
UPON ARIVAL IN TODAYS HOMELAND
  • The earliest known Croatian duke was Borna, who
    ruled from around 812 to 821.
  • Duke Trpimir ruled from 845 to 864. In 852 he
    issued the oldest known governmental document in
    the Latin script, where the Croatian name was
    mentioned (dux Chroatorum)
  • In a letter from Pope John VIII to Prince
    Branimir, dated June 7th of 879 A.D., Croatia is
    mentioned as an independent, sovereign nation.

Figure of a Croatian Dignitary (11th century)
from Biskupija near Knin
51
KING TOMISLAV
Among all Slavic nations Croatians first had
kingdom (925 AD Duvno) The Emperor of Byzantium,
Constantine Porphyrognet (913-959) recorded
(about 950.) that during King Tomislav's reign
Croatia could raise overnight 100,000 armed
soldiers and 60,000 horsemen
Tomislav - first Croatian King (910 928)
52
10 c. NAVAL POWER
In same document he also recorded the information
about the naval power of Croatians numbering
Sagina 10 11 ct.
80 saginas (oared ships) with 40 fighters in
addition to the crew and 100 konduras (oared
ships smaller than saginas) with 10 to 20
fighters in addition to the crew. This was a
force of about marine 5000 fighters, very
respectable for that period.
53
1000 A.D.
http//www.euratlas.com/big/big1000.htm
54
LANGUAGE AND SCRIPT
  • Two national Scripts
  • Croatian Glagolitic older than a thousand years.
    The Our glagolitic books (written and printed)
    and other glagolitic monuments are scattered in
    many national libraries and museums in the world,
    in as many as 21 countries, in about 50 cities
    outside Croatia
  • and Croatian Cyrilic.
  • The Croats, using the Glagolitic alphabet, were
    the only nation in Europe who was given a special
    permission by Pope (Innocent IV in 1248) to use
    their own language and this script in Liturgy.

55
ANNALS OF CROATIAN LANGUAGE
Around 1100 The Baska Tablet, one of the earliest
monuments written in the Croatian language 1177
Citizens of Zadar greeted the Pope Alexander with
songs in the Croatian language 1248 The Pope
gave consent to the Bishop of Senj to liturgy in
the Croatian language 1288 The Vinodol Codex
written in the Croatian language 1440 The
Poljica Statutes written in the Croatian language
1483 Hrvoje's Missal, the first Croatian printed
book 1501 M. Marulic finished Judita "u versih
harvacki" (in Croatian verse)
56
CROATIAN GLAGOLITIC SCRIPT
Angular and Round font
Missal from Vrbnik (15 st)
57
THE BASKA TABLET
precious stone of Croatian literacy
An inscription written in the Croatian Glagolitic
alphabet is a stone tablet - dating from the end
of 11th century Found near the town of Baska on
the island of Krk. It contains about 400
Glagolitic characters (dimensions of the tablet
2x1 sq.m, 800 kg).
58
KING ZVONIMIR
Of particular interest is the third line of the
Baska tablet, which mentions the Croatian King
Zvonimir.
Z'V'NIM(I)R KRAL HR'VAT'SK'I
59
FIRST BOOKS PRINTED IN CROATIAN
In Glagolitic Script 1483 Missal (440 pp,
19x26 cm) 28 years after Gutenberg's Bible
6 years after the first printed book in Paris and
Venice 1 year before Stockholm, 58 years before
Berlin and 70 years before Moscow.
The
Croatian Glagolitic Script was the fifth to
appear in the history of European printing, very
soon after the Latin, Gothic, Greek and Hebrew
scripts.
In the Latin Script 1495
Lectionary of Bernardin of Split, (published in
Venice).
60
MAIN HISTORICAL PERIODS
  • The arrival of the Croats to the Roman provincies
    Dalmatia and Pannonia the Beginning of the 7th
    century
  • The period of Croatian dukes and kings of native
    birth ( 800 - 1102),
  • Croatia sharing with Hungary a new state under
    common Hungarian and Croatian kings (1102-1526),
  • Croatia ruled by the Habsburgs, as a member of
    the Habsburg crown (1527-1918), parts of Croatia
    under Venice, Turkish ottoman empire and France,
  • Croatia part of kingdom of Yugoslavia and later
    republic within communist Yugoslavia ruled by
    Croatian Josip Broz Tito (1918-1991),
  • Internationally recognized Republic of Croatia
  • (January 1992).

61
OLD STONE AGE
100,000 years ago
Man from Krapina Neanderthal race
62
ART - ANCIENT CULTURES
Remains from locality of Pecani near Sibenik
The Copper Age - Vucedol culture near Vukovar,
Croatia (2500 BC)
63
ANCIENT GREECE HERITAGE
Issa (Vis) Afroditas bronze head with silver
eyes
Tragurion (Trogir) - Cairos
Pottery and floor Issa (Vis)
64
ROMAN HERITAGE ARENA IN PULA
  • built in the 1st century AD during the reign of
    the Emperor Vespasian, at the same time as the
    Colosseum in Rome
  • the Amphitheatre could seat 20.000 spectators.
  • In the Middle Ages it was the site of knight
    tournaments and fairs.

65
ROMAN HERITAGE
DIOCLETIAN PALACE IN SPLIT
Diocletians Aquaduct Still in use after 1700
years
Peristyle main square
66
ROMAN HERITAGE
From Salona
Remainings of Salona capital of province Damatia
67
CROATIAN ART BEGININGS
Represented by a rich ornamentation in interlace
pattern
An important monument with the interlace pattern
which contains the name of Duke Branimir (9th
century)
68
CROATIAN PRE-ROMANESQUE ART
  • baptismal font of Duke Viseslav from Nin (around
    800 AD), with a interlace cross.

69
CROATIAN PRE-ROMANESQUE ART
Examples, from the 9th century. found in the
region of town Knin which used to be the
residence of Croatian kings
70
PRE-ROMANESQUE ART 9-11c
Choir screen panel from Split, containing
pentagram and interlace patterns, 11th century.
A ciboria from Biskupija (11th century) in Split
Museum
71
9 ct. CHURCH ARHITECTURE
About 150 Pre-Romanesque Croatian churches (9th
to 11th century), built mostly along the coast.
About 15 of them are still well preserved (some
were completely destroyed during the aggression
on Croatia in 1991-1995).
Chapel of Holy Cross in Nin built around 800 AD
a typical Pre-Romanesque church in Dalmatia
72
9 ct. CHURCH ARHITECTURE
  • Church of St. Donatus (9th century), in Zadar
  • the largest Pre-Romanesque building in Croatia
  • one of the most important monuments of the
    Pre-Romanesque architecture in Europe
  • one of the most impressive churches of the
    Carolingian centralized type in Europe

73
11 ct. CHURCH ARHITECTURE
Church of St. Nicholas near Nin (11th century)
the octagonal tower was added in the 16th century
to protect from the Turks
St. Nicolas (11th century) - Split
74
12-13ct. ROMANESQUE
CHURCH ARHITECTURE
Stomorica remains of church
75
12-13ct. ROMANESQUE
CHURCH ARHITECTURE
St. Anastasia Sveta Stosija Cathedral in Zadar
St. Krsevan in Zadar
76
15-16 ct. RENAISSANCE
CHURCH ARHITECTURE
St. Jakob -Sibenik cathedral 15 c.
Hvar cathedral 15/16 c.
77
15-16 ct RENAISSANCE ART
Succession of Styles Trogir Cathedral
romanesque ground floor, early Gothic on the
first story, late gothic on the second story,
renaissance from there up.
St. John the Evangelist late 15 ct.
St. Paul (1482),
78
SCULPTRY IVAN MESTROVIC
INDIAN WITH BOW 1926GRANT PARK CHICAGO, USA
CROATIAN HISTORY 1932SPLIT, CROATIA
79
CROATIAN NAIVE ART
  • quite widespread and highly esteemed.
  • The first steps were undertaken by the painter
    Krsto Hegedusic (1901-1971) in the Croatian
    village of Hlebine. Hegedusic also founded a
    group of artists called Zemlja'' (Soil) in
    Zagreb in 1929, which has been forbidden by the
    Yugoslav (Serbian) police in 1935. From a large
    number of naive painters, whose creations
    decorate private and state collections from Paris
    to Tokyo, let us mention only a few
  • Ivan Lackovic - Croata (1932).

80
CROATIAN NAIVE ART
  • Today quite widespread and highly esteemed.
  • First introduced by Croatian painter
    Krsto Hegedusic (1901-1971).

Ivan Rabuzin FULLNESS OF THE EARTH
Ivan Lackovic CroataWINTER
81
CROATIAN NAIVE ART
Ivan Rabuzin DAWN
Ivica FisterOUR ETERNAL LIGHT
82
LACE ISLAND PAG
83
LACE - LEPOGLAVA
Another lace, from island Hvar, is unique as made
of threads of Aloe Vera leaf quickly while thread
is still wet and flexible
84
CROATIA IN UN
Vineyards near Primosten an glory to human labor
85
CROATIA IN UN
  • This photo of a victim of the fascist terror is
    exhibited in the building of UN in New York.
  • Shows Stjepan Filipovic (1916 -1942), a Croatian
    antifascist born in Opuzen, in Dalmatian part of
    Croatia, in the moment before he was hanged in
    publicly in the city of Valjevo in Serbia by
    Serbian chetniks and German fascists.

86
SCULPTURY - CROATIA IN UN
The Horsewoman (the Monument of Peace) one of the
symbols of the United Nations
A sculpture was created by Croatian sculptor
Antun Augustincic (1900-1979). It is situated in
front of the UN main building in New York. The
basement of the monument is made of the marble
from the Croatian island of Brac (White house
also built of it).
87
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
DIOCLETIAN PALACE IN SPLIT
Peristyle - the center of the Diocletian's Palace
88
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
DIOCLETIAN PALACE IN SPLIT
GAIUS AURELIUS VALERIUS DIOCLETANIUS (c 243-316)
- born near the Salona, then capital of the Roman
province of Dalmatia. He was pronounced emperor
on November 20, 284 AD.
89
CATHEDRAL IN SPLIT
THE OLDEST IN THE WORLD
90
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
OLD CITY OF DUBROVNIK
Bernard Shaw Those who seek paradise on
Earth should come to Dubrovnik and see Dubrovnik.
91
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
OLD CITY OF DUBROVNIK
City walls 8-16 ct.
92
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
NATIONAL PARK PLITVICE LAKES
The living process of formation and growth of
travertine cascade barriers
93
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
NATIONAL PARK PLITVICE LAKES
The brown bear - the largest mammal in this part
of the world
94
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
ROMANESQUE TOWN TROGIR
95
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
ROMANESQUE TOWN TROGIR
Portal and choral seats of Trogir Cathedral
96
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
BASILICA OF EUPHRASIUS IN POREC
Euphrasius Basilica in Porec, Istria, built in
the 6th century. Very important remain of
Byzantine art in Croatia
97
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
CATHEDRAL IN SIBENIK
Following the design of Juraj Dalmatinac (1441).
East end of Cathedral
98
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
CATHEDRAL IN SIBENIK
Baptistery
99
UN - WORLD HERITAGE
CATHEDRAL IN SIBENIK
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