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Bilingual Methods and Strategies

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Bilingual Methods and Strategies Improving ASL/English Literacy Skills in Deaf HH Students Karen Schulz KYEDHH Summer Conference July 15, 2012 Language Separation ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bilingual Methods and Strategies


1
Bilingual Methods and Strategies
Improving ASL/English Literacy Skills in Deaf HH
Students Karen Schulz KYEDHH Summer
Conference July 15, 2012
2
Learning Targets
  • I can explain the CAEBER Project (source for
    bilingual methodology).
  • I can define bilingualism.
  • I can define literacy of Deaf/HH students and how
    it is different from hearing students.
  • I can explain the importance of language planning
    in my classroom and analyze my own practices.
  • I can list and define bilingual
    methods/strategies used with Deaf/HH students.

3
CAEBER Project
  • Formally known as STAR SCHOOLS Project _at_ NMSD
  • Originally funded by the U.S. Department of
    Education under the United Star Distance Learning
    Consortium (USDLC)
  • Professional Development training for DHH
    teachers across the country

4
VISION The Star Schools Project envisions high
academic achievement for deaf and hard-of-hearing
students proficient in American Sign Language and
English through staff development in assessment
and curriculum, parent involvement, and
technology. MISSION The Mission of the Star
Schools Project is to provide a bilingual staff
development model that promotes effective
instruction of language and literacy for deaf and
hard-of-hearing students.
5
Need for ASL/English Bilingual Education Staff
In-service
  • Total communication did not lead to expected
    gains in academic achievement for deaf students
    (Barnum, 1984 Charrow, 1975 Johnson, Liddel,
    Erting, 1989 Stewart, 1992)
  • Lack of clarity in the implementation of total
    communication has led to equally unclear and
    misguided practices in the field (Stewart, 1992)
  • No standards and limited publications of
    curricula or guidelines on bilingual/bicultural
    approaches
  • Little or no training in bilingual approaches.

6
Project Goals
  • To develop and disseminate effective staff
    development in-service curriculum in bilingual
    education, in order to improve practices in dual
    language instruction for deaf learners
  • To increase research-based practice in deaf
    education through research, evaluation, and
    dissemination activities
  • To use blended technologies to deliver and
    support effective staff development for improved
    practices in teaching languages for deaf learners

7
Some of the Participating Schools and
Universities
  • Kentucky School for the Deaf
  • Indiana School for the Deaf
  • Texas School for the Deaf
  • Illinois School for the Deaf
  • Alabama School for the Deaf
  • Wisconsin School for the Deaf
  • California School for the Deaf, Riverside
  • American School for the Deaf
  • South Dakota School for the Deaf
  • Jean Massieu School for the Deaf
  • Minnesota State Academy for the Deaf
  • Metro Deaf School (Minn.)
  • California State University, Northridge
  • Gallaudet University
  • Lamar University
  • McDaniel College
  • Western Oregon University
  • Offerings in teacher preparation classes

8
Question Are you a bilingual?
  • Most people do not consider themselves bilingual
    even though they use both ASL and English in
    daily communication. The common belief was that
    a bilingual person was the one who had grown up
    with two languages and was equally fluent in both.

9
What does bilingual mean?
  • Use of two languages
  • Language ability
  • Language proficiency
  • Language skills
  • Balanced of two languages
  • Different levels of bilingualism

10
Bilingualism How do we learn language?
Vygotskys TheoryLearning is social.
Vygotsky
11
  • Learning is social in nature.
  • Collaborative activities
  • Field trips
  • Group cooperative learning activities
  • Sharing experiences
  • Peer tutoring
  • Cultural events
  • Mix fluent language users with developing users

12
Pair-Share
  • With a partner, discuss the following question

13
Discussion Question
Traditionally deaf children have had to learn
English in school with a focus on form (ELA
standards, writing portfolios, grammar and
vocabulary). QUESTION How can we increase
deaf childrens opportunities to use English in a
social/interactive setting? How can we increase a
students use of English with each other during
school and after school/unstructured time?
14
What is literacy?
15
Definition of Literacy (French) literacy
involves the interdependent learning of
conversational language, reading and writing, and
related variables, including motivation and
social interactions.
16
Language Abilities for Deaf Bilinguals
  • ASL
  • Attending,
  • watching
  • Signing
  • English
  • Listening
  • Speaking
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Fingerspelling
  • Fingerreading
  • Speechreading
  • Typing
  • Stephen Nover

17
Activity Language Use in Your Classroom
  • Using the form entitled Estimation of Language
    Distribution of ASL and English in the
    Classroom, reflect upon and analyze a typical
    instructional day.
  • Estimate the of time you and your students use
    the languages ASL/English.
  • Think about What language do I or my students
    use most often? Do I balance the use of the two
    languages? How can I improve in my instructional
    planning?
  • Share thoughts, reflections and feelings with the
    group.

18
(No Transcript)
19
Social/Academic Language Use
Virginia Collier, 1995
20
Language Acquisition An Overview of Linguistic
Processes
  • Social Language is an interactive process between
    at least two people. Participants engage in
    communication and make language allowances for
    the purpose of comprehension without concern for
    correct structure. It is also an informal
    register used in daily living activities and
    takes 2-5 years to acquire.
  • Academic Language is more complex at succeeding
    grade levels. It is tied directly to cognitive
    development and is involved with discussion of
    higher order concepts and ideas. It takes 7-10
    years to acquire academic language.

Virginia Collier, 1995
21
Social ASL
  • Interact in discussions on informal topics (e.g.
    weather, news, food)
  • Brainstorm in small or large groups (e.g.
    storytelling, planning activities)
  • Play and participate in interactive games (e.g.
    handshapes, signs, board games)

22
Social ASL
What else???
23
Academic ASL
  • Engage in discussions on content topics, facts,
    predictions, inferential and critical
    information/questions (e.g. literature,
    expository)
  • Translate (ASL to English and English to ASL)
  • Plan and make presentations (e.g.
    role-play, drama, Jr. NAD, Student Council)

24
Academic ASL using Aesops Fables
What else???
25
Academic English
  • Writing language experience stories, learning
    logs, literature journals, presentations,
    reports, business letters, dictated responses on
    charts, etc.
  • Self evaluate writing pieces (e.g. word choice,
    syntax)
  • Fingerspell/finger-read for academic purposes
    (e.g. target vocabulary words)

26
Academic English
What else???
27
Social English
  • Informal contexts (e.g. diary, food orders,
    passes, friendly letters, notes)
  • Fingerspell/finger-read for social purposes (e.g.
    names of people, places, unknown signs)

28
Social English (E-pals, IM, FB)
29
Bilingual Methodologies
30
Bilingual Methodology
  • Preview View Review (PVR)
  • Purposeful Concurrent Usage (PCU)
  • Translanguaging
  • Translating
  • Language Separation

Source CAEBER, 2004 Baker, 2001, pp. 274-282
31
Bilingual Methodology
  • Language Separation
  • Concurrent Use of Languages

32
Language Separation
  • Sets up distinct separation and clear boundaries
    between the two languages.
  • Subject/Topic
  • Person
  • Time
  • Place
  • Medium of Activity
  • Curriculum Material
  • Function
  • Student

33
Language Separation
  • Best model for developing second language
    proficiency
  • Requires thoughtful language planning
  • Requires resources (e.g., time, people, money)

34
Language Separation
35
Concurrent Use of Languages in a Lesson
  • Switching of languages (i.e., codeswitching)
  • Integrated use of both languages in a lesson (or
    conversation, activity, etc.)

36
Concurrent Use of Language
  • Randomly Switching Languages
  • Purposeful Codeswitching
  • Translanguaging
  • Translating
  • Preview, View and Review
  • Purposeful Concurrent Usage (or New Concurrent
    Approach)
  • Sandwiching and Chaining (Padden and Ramsey, 1998)

Baker, 2001
37
Randomly Switching Languages
  • Random
  • Not rule-governed
  • Doesnt have clear purpose
  • Not recommended in classroom

38
Translanguaging
  • Students input in one language and output in the
    other language. (e.g. reading in English and
    discussing in ASL)

39
Translating
  • The repetition in one language of what was
    conveyed in the other language.
  • Literal Translation
  • Translation from English (text) to signing in
    ASL, but closely following the original text.
  • Free Translation
  • Translation from English (text) to ASL with
    artistic interpretation.

40
Preview, View and Review
  • Preview in L1
  • Introduction
  • Background knowledge
  • View in L2
  • Content
  • Review in L1
  • Comprehension check

41
ORPreview, View and Review
  • Preview in L2
  • Introduction
  • Background knowledge
  • View in L1
  • Content
  • Review in L2
  • Comprehension check

42
Purposeful Concurrent Usage(New Concurrent
Approach)
  • Balanced amount of time is allocated to two
    languages.
  • Teacher decides what language to use and expects
    the student to use the same language.

43
Bilingual Approach PCU
44
Bilingual Approach PCU
45
Bilingual Approach Presentation of English
print to ASL
46
Activity Identify the bilingual methodology
used in each lesson
  • For each lesson, hold up the card you think
    matches the described lesson.
  • Students review facts from a science handout
    about electricity using ASL.
  • Students play a review game where questions
    answers occur only in English.
  • Teacher shares details of Mark Twains life in
    ASL. Students write in a Response Log their
    reflections on MTs life.

47
More bilingual methods..
  • In ASL, teacher briefly discusses some details of
    history of integration at KSD. In English,
    students read the paragraph. In ASL, the group
    discusses history of integration at KSD.
  • Teacher reads a story about Ruby Bridges by
    pointing/underlining words, phrases or sentences
    signs following English order closely and using
    ASL signs and facial expressions.

48
More bilingual methods..
  • The teacher signs text about the Civil Rights
    Movement and follows ASL structure expansion
    disconnects from English print
  • Students read the (English) text about the Greek
    Civilization. Students summarize the information
    in ASL.

49
Teaching Strategies
  • Possible Bridges Between ASL English
  • Fingerspelling
  • Codeswitching
  • Sandwiching
  • Chaining

50
  • Sandwiching and Chaining

51
Sandwiching
  • A technique where a sign sandwiches
    (surrounds) the same word fingerspelled

52
Sandwiching (cont.)
  • or fingerspelling sandwiches a sign,
  • or a sign (or fingerspelling) sandwiches a
    pointing gesture

53
Examples of Sandwiching
  • A teacher signs COMPUTER, immediately
    fingerspells it, and repeats the sign COMPUTER.
  • A deaf parent fingerspells P-U-P-P-Y,
    immediately points to the puppy, and fingerspells
    P-U-P-P-Y again.

54
Chaining
  • A technique used to form a relationship between
    a sign, a printed word, a fingerspelled word, and
    its concept

55
Chaining Examples
  • Produced in order (like a chain)
  • Fingerspelling a word, pointing to the same
    word printed, signing the word, and then
    explaining its meaning
  • Producing a sign, fingerspelling its English
    translation, and then pointing to the same word
    printed

56
Practice time(small groups)
  • Sandwiching
  • Hotdog
  • Basketball
  • Table
  • Electricity
  • Government
  • Triangle
  • Giraffe
  • Chaining
  • Hotdog
  • Basketball
  • Table
  • Electricity
  • Government
  • Triangle
  • giraffe

57
Why the emphasis on Technology..
  • Making that ASL to English connection and
    providing full access to the English language

58
Technology Infrastructure
Year 2 (1998-1999)
Year 3 (1999-2000)
Year 4 (2000-2001)
Year 5 (2001-2002)
Year 1 (1997-1998)
59
Questions?
Concerns?
Comments?
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