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ISE 460/ETM 593 Facilities Planning

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ISE 460/ETM 593 Facilities Planning & Design Dr. Laura Moody Spring 2012 ISE 460/ETM 593 - 1 * Which of these steps present opportunities for sustainable design? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ISE 460/ETM 593 Facilities Planning


1
ISE 460/ETM 593Facilities Planning Design
  • Dr. Laura Moody
  • Spring 2012

2
Chapter 1 Introduction
  • Background
  • Types of layout problems

3
Chronological list of facilities planning
design activities
4
Chronological list of facilities planning and
design activities
5
Chronological list of facilities planning and
design activities
6
Chronological list of sustainable building design
activities
Date Event
?? - 1000 AD Anasazi peoples build whole villages so the houses all received solar heat in the winter to cut down on wood usage
1970s Energy crisis and environmental movement spurs the search for more energy efficient environmentally friendly building practices
1989 - 1992 American Institute of Architects (AIA) forms the Committee on the Environment, releases Environmental Resource Guide in 1992
1992 EPA releases Energy Star guidelines local green housing program in Austin, TX
1993 United States Green Building Council (USGBC) founded
1998 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program launched
Source http//www.thehistorycalendar.com/history-
of-building-green.html
7
Typical design and planning problems
8
Levels of decisions
  • Strategic or Design or Long-term
  • Involves most or all of the process
  • Infrequent
  • Planning or Intermediate
  • A few of the blocks (cell layout, inventory
    systems, etc.)
  • Can happen relatively frequently
    (monthly/quarterly/semi-annually/etc.)
  • Operational or short-term
  • Involves one or two blocks at a time (e.g.,
    scheduling, inventory control)
  • Can happen on a daily or weekly basis

9
Why is facilities layout important?
  • 20-75 of product cost attributed to materials
    handling (Sule, 1991 and Tompkins et al. 2003)
  • Layout of facilities affects materials handling
    costs
  • Facilities includes machines, departments,
    workstations, locker rooms, service areas, etc.

10
Why is facilities layout important?
  • Good layout increases productivity efficiency
  • Reducing congestion permits smooth flow of people
    and material
  • Space utilization is effective and efficient
  • Facilitates communication and supervision
  • Safe and pleasant working environment

11
Constraints in developing facilities layout
  • Some pairs of departments must be adjacent
  • Some pairs of departments must not be adjacent
  • Some departments only in specific locations
  • Existing building constraints
  • OSHA regulations, fire codes, etc.

12
Types of layout problems Some examples
  • JIT manufacturer
  • Relayout of an existing facility
  • Relayout due to increased traffic (resulting from
    a merger)
  • Consolidation of manufacturing operations from
    two or more sites to one
  • Leasing of office space in a multi-story building
  • Find a better layout in existing space
  • Introduction of new product lines

13
Types of layout problems
  • Layout of a service system
  • Layout of a manufacturing facility
  • Warehouse layout
  • Nontraditional layout

14
Applications
  • Manufacturing
  • Healthcare
  • Service
  • Restaurants
  • Banks
  • Airports
  • Entertainment
  • Logistics and Distribution
  • Ports/Terminals
  • Distribution Centers

15
Types of Projects
  • New Facility
  • General Re-layout (retrofit)
  • Expansion due to new product(s)
  • Expansion due to sales growth in existing
    products
  • Re-organization of work areas (evolutionary
    design)
  • Outsourcing of logistics capability
  • Addition of automation technology
  • Problem elimination
  • Cost reduction
  • Product discontinuation

16
Service system layout Dentists office
17
Service system layout Grocery store
18
Operations review for office layouts (Suskind,
1989)
  • Is the company outgrowing its space?
  • Is available space too expensive?
  • Is building in the proper location?
  • How will a new layout affect the organization and
    service?
  • Are office operations too centralized or
    decentralized?
  • Does the office structure support the strategic
    plan?
  • Is the new layout in tune with the companys
    image
  • Does customer physically participate in service
    delivery?

19
Office structures
  • Closed structure
  • Semiclosed structure
  • Open structure
  • Semiopen structure

20
Closed structure
21
Semiclosed structure
22
Open structure
23
Semiopen structure
24
Manufacturing layout
  • Minimize transportation cost of raw materials,
    sub-assemblies, work-in-process inventory, tools,
    parts, finished products, etc.
  • Facilitate traffic flow
  • Improve employee morale
  • Minimize or eliminate risk of injury and property
    damage
  • Ease of supervision and face-to-face communication

25
Assembly facility layout
26
Driveway layout
27
Warehouse layout
28
Nontraditional layout
  • Keyboard layout
  • IC board layout
  • Computer disk storage layout
  • Airport gate layout

29
Chapter 2 Product and equipment analysis
  • Product analysis
  • Equipment selection
  • Personnel requirement analysis
  • Space requirement availability

30
Data required for developing good layouts
  • Product Analysis
  • Process Analysis

31
Input data and activities
  • What data are critical to the facility plan?
  • Muther categorizes the information as
  • P Product (what?)
  • Q Quantity (how much?)
  • R Routing (where?)
  • S Support (with what?)
  • T Timing (when?)

32
Product analysis
  • Bill of Materials
  • Assembly Charts
  • Engineering Drawing
  • Operation Process Chart
  • Route Sheet

33
Product design
  • Based on
  • Function
  • Aesthetics
  • Costs
  • Materials
  • Manufacturing Methods
  • Key point
  • The product design MUST be finalized before
    designing the facility. Otherwise a flexible
    facility is needed.

Driven by market demand
34
Tools used in product design
  • Product/Part Drawings
  • 2-D, 3-D visualization
  • Exploded Assembly Diagrams

35
Tools used in process design
  • A partial list (dependent on product and
    service)
  • Process Flowcharts and Process Maps
  • Make vs. Buy
  • Parts Lists
  • Bill of Materials
  • Route Sheets
  • Assembly Charts
  • Operations Process Charts
  • Precedence Diagrams

36
Process flowcharts
37
Process maps
Customer Waiter Salad Chef Dinner Chef
N
Place order
Y
Give soup or salad order to chef
Prepare dinner order
Give dinner order to chef
Drink
Get drinks for customer
Eat salad or soup
Deliver salad or soup order to customer
Give order to waiter
Deliver dinner to customer
Eat dinner
Receives check
Deliver check to customer
Gives payment to waiter
Receive payment for meal
Credit
Cash or Credit?
Cash
Collect change, leave tip
Bring change to customer
Run credit card through
Fill in tip amount
Return credit slip to customer
Collect tip
38
Make vs. Buy?
BUY
No
Is it cheaper for us to make?
Yes
Can we make the item?
Yes
Yes
Can item be purchased?
Is the capital available?
No
No
Yes
No
MAKE
BUY
BUY
MAKE
39
Parts list
  • A listing of component parts.

40
Bill of Materials (BOM)
  • Many different types of structured parts lists

41
Route sheet
Company ARC Inc. Produce Air Flow Regulator
Part Plunger Housing Part No. 3254
Prepared by JSU Part No. 6/6/03
Oper. No. Operation Description Machine Type Tooling Setup (hr.) Oper. Time (hr.) Mtls. Parts
0104 Shape, drill, cut off Auto sc. Machine .5 in dia coller, cir. Form tool, .45 diam center drill 5 0.0057 Alum 1x12
0204 Machine Slot and thread Chucker 0.045 slot saw, turret slot 2.25 0.0067
0304 Drill 8 holes Auto dr. unit 0.078 diam twist drill 1.25 0.0038
0404 Debur and Blow out Drill press Deburring tool with pilot 0.5 0.0031
SA 1 Enclose subassembly Dennison hydraulic press None 0.25 0.0100
42
Assembly chart
  • Analog model of the assembly process.
  • Circles denote components
  • Links denote operations/subassemblies
  • Squares represent inspections operation
  • Begin with the original product and to trace the
    product disassembly back to its basic components.

43
Symbols for 5 basic manufacturing activities
  • Operation
  • Transportation
  • Inspection
  • Storage
  • Delay

44
How much is required?
Volume variety charts (aka, Pareto charts)
45
Production requirements yield loss
Pi Production input to operation i si
Fraction of Pi lost (scrap) Oi output of
process i
i
Oi
Pi
Pisi
46
Production requirements series systems
. . .
1
2
n
On
P1
Pnsn
P1s1
P2s2
47
Example
  • 5 processes in series
  • Need 2000 units out

48
Simple equipment selection model
  • P desired production rate
  • t time (in hours)to process one part
  • machine time available (in hours)
  • machine efficiency
  • NM Number of units of the machine required

49
Simple equipment selection model
  • Nol Number of good units at output of stage l
  • Nil Number of units reqd at input of stage l
  • Sl Scrap at stage l

50
Simple example
  • 1. Consider a simple jobshop manufacturing system
    that makes three major Class A products
    requiring five types of machines. The three
    products include seven parts shown in Table 2.1.
    Table 2.1 also shows the time standards in units
    per hour.
  • 2. Assume we an hour has only 55 minutes of
    productive time and that 5 minutes are lost due
    to operator or machine unavailability and machine
    downtime.
  • 3. Dividing the value 55 by the values in Table
    2.1, we get the as well as time per unit.
  • 4. Determine the quantities of machines of each
    type required to make the standard time per unit.
  • 5. Assuming 12000 representative parts are to
    be made and that only 440 minutes of productive
    time is available per shift, we can find that we
    need 4.9 units of machine A, 5.85 units of
    machine B, and 4.3 units of machine C.
  • 6. Rounding up these numbers gives us 5, 6, and 5
    units of machine types A, B, and C, respectively.

51
Table 2.1
Table 2.2
52
Parameters for an LP equipment selection model
  • Oi Operation type i, i1,2,...,o
  • Mi Production equipment type i, i1,2,...,m
  • Pi Part type i, i1,2,...,p
  • MHi Material handling system type i, i1,2,...,n
  • cij cost of performing operation Oi on production
    equipment type Mj
  • hij cost of handling part type Pi using material
    handling system type MHj
  • tij time required to perform operation Oi on
    production equipment type Mj
  • sij time required to transport part type Pi using
    material handling carrier type MHj
  • tj time available on production equipment type Mj
  • sj time available on material handling carrier
    type MHj
  • NOi number of operations Oi to be performed
  • NPi number of units of part type Pi to be
    manufactured
  • Cj cost of production equipment type Mj
  • Hj cost of material handling system MHj
  • B total budget available

53
Decision Variables for LP equipment selection
model
  • xij number of operations Oi to be performed on
    production equipment type Mj
  • yij number of units of part type Pi to be
    transported on material handling system type MHj
  • NMj number of units of production equipment type
    Mj selected
  • NMHj number of units of material handling system
    type MHj selected

54
LP equipment selection model
  • Min
  • Subject to

55
LP equipment selection model (cont)
56
Queuing model
  • Manufacturing engineers at the Widget
    Manufacturing Company recently convinced their
    manger to purchase a more expensive, but flexible
    machine that can do multiple operations
    simultaneously.
  • The rate at which parts arrived at the machine
    that was replaced by the flexible machines
    follows a Poisson process with a mean of 10 parts
    per hour.
  • The service rate of the flexible machine is 15
    units parts per hour compared with the 11 units
    per hour service rate of the machine it replaced.
    (All service times follow an exponential
    distribution.)

57
Queuing model
  • The engineers and manager were convinced that
    the company would have sufficient capacity to
    meet higher levels of demand, but just after a
    two months of purchasing the machines it turned
    out that the input queue to the flexible machine
    was excessively long and part flow times at this
    station were so long, that the flexible machine
    became a severe bottleneck.
  • The engineers noticed that more parts were
    routed through this machine, and that the parts
    arrival rate to the flexible machines had
    increased from 10 per hour to about 20 per hour,
    but were puzzled why the part flow time at this
    station doubled from 30 minutes to one hour and
    the work-n-process (WIP) inventory increased
    nearly threefold from 5 o 14 when the arrival rte
    only increased 40.
  • Use a queuing model to justify the results
    observed at Widget Manufacturing Company.

58
M/M/1 model solution
59
Personnel requirements analysis
  • n number of types of operations
  • Oi aggregate number of operation type i required
    on all the pseudo (or real) products
    manufactured per day
  • Ti standard time required for an average
    operation Oi
  • H total production time available per day
  • ? assumed production efficiency of the plant

60
Queuing model
  • The American Automobile Drivers Association
    (AADA) is the only office serving customers in
    New Yorks greater capital district area. Ahead
    of the busy summer season, the office manager
    wants to hire additional staff members to help
    provide these services to members effectively -
    summer travel planning, membership renewal,
    disbursing travelers checks, airline, hotel, and
    cruise booking, and other travel related
    services.
  • It is anticipated that each customer typically
    requires 10 minutes of service time and customers
    arrive at the rate of one customer every three
    minutes.
  • The arrival process is Poisson and the service
    times are exponentially distributed.
  • Determine how many staff members are required if
    the average wages and benefits per staff member
    are 20 per hour and the cost to AADA for every
    hour that a customer waits to be served is 40.

61
M/M/m model solution
62
Production space requirement sheet
63
HOMEWORK Due at the beginning of lesson 2
  • Chapter 1
  • 1
  • 5
  • Chapter 2
  • 2
  • 6
  • 7
  • 10
  • 11
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