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Rice Plant- and Leaf Hoppers

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Title: Rice Plant- and Leaf Hoppers


1
Identification, symptoms and nature of damage of
Stem Borer and Gall Midge
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Introduction
Rice is the staple food crop of humid and
sub-humid Asia, cultivated in 112 countries
covering every continent and is consumed by 2500
million people in the developing countries. In
India, rice is grown on about an area of 44.3
million hectares with a production of 89.09
million tonnes. However, rice productivity in
India is inferior to neighbouring countries.
Healthy crop of rice
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  • The introduction of fertilizer responsive high
    yielding varieties of rice following green
    revolution, has increased the problems of pests
    and diseases manifold and the continuous use of
    pesticides led to the outbreak of secondary pests.
  • Yield loss due to insect pests in rice has been
    estimated to be around 25.
  • Crop productivity can be enhanced by effective
    management of insect pests.

Stem borer damaged crop
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1. Yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas)
Identification
  • The stem borers are regular pests of rice causing
    damage during both vegetative and reproductive
    crop stages. Among five stem borer species
    distributed in India, yellow stem borer,
    Scirpophaga incertulas is the dominant and widely
    distributed.

Courtesy www. knowledgebank.irri.org
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5
  • Female moth has yellowish forewings with a single
    dark spot at their centre while the male has
    numerous small brown spots.
  • A female lays eggs in batches of 50-80 at leaf
    tips and eggs are covered with yellow brown hair
    of female tuft. Therefore, removal of seedling
    tips before transplanting helps in reducing stem
    borer incidence in field.

Yellow stem borer female
Courtesy www. knowledgebank.irri.org
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  • The fully grown larva is pale yellow in colour
    with orange yellow head. It passes winter in rice
    stubbles and destruction of rice stubbles also
    thus helps in reducing incidence of this pest.
  • Stem borer completes its life cycle in 40-45
    days.

Stem borer larva
Stem borer pupa
Courtesy www. knowledgebank.irri.org
Life cycle of yellow stem borer
Courtesy www. knowledgebank.irri.org
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Nature of Damage
  • Only larva causes damage to the crop. After
    hatching, larva bores in to stem and damages it
  • Damage during vegetative stage results in drying
    of central shoot, damage symptom called dead
    heart.
  • Damage after flowering results in white empty
    straight panicles known as white-ears.

Stem borer damage (white-ears)
  • As dead-hearts and white-ears harbor larvae,
    their collection and disposal helps in reducing
    incidence of this pest.

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8
Economic threshold level (ETL) 5 dead hearts,
2 white ears or 1 egg mass/m2 or 1
moth/m2 Female sex pheromone (Scirpolure) traps
are used for monitoring and mass trapping of this
pest. Likewise light traps can also be utilized
for monitoring purpose.
Pheromone traps
Light trap
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Gall Midge, Orseolia oryzae Identification
The adult fly is a small mosquito like insect
with long legs. The female has bright yellow
abdomen whereas the male is dark in colour. The
female lays reddish elongated eggs on leaf blade
or sheath.
Life cycle of rice gall midge
Courtesy www. knowledgebank.irri.org
Gall midge adult
Courtesy www.cbit.uq.edu.au
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Damage This insect infests the crop from seedling
stage in nursery to maximum tillering stage. It
does not occur in north India but causes serious
damage in eastern, southern and central India.
Maggots (larvae) after hatching enter the leaf
sheath and convert it in to galls (tubular
structures) resembling shining onion leaf. These
symptoms are thus called silver shoot. Early
incidence of this pest results in to profuse
tillering and stunting. Removal of silver shoots
helps in reducing damage of this pest. Economic
threshold level (ETL) 1 gall/m2 or 5 infested
tillers
Rice gall midge damage (silver shoot)
www.africarice.org
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Let us sum up
  • Stem borer is regular pest of rice causing damage
    during both vegetative and reproductive crop
    stages.
  • Only larva of stem borer causes damage to the
    crop. Damage during vegetative stage results in
    drying of central shoot called dead heart.
    Damage after flowering results in white empty
    straight panicles known as white-ears.
  • Female sex pheromone (Scirpolure) traps are used
    for monitoring and mass trapping of this pest.
  • Gall midge adult is small mosquito like insect
    with long legs. This pest does not occur in north
    India.
  • Gall midge infests the crop from seedling stage
    in nursery to maximum tillering stage.
  • Maggots (larvae) after hatching enter the leaf
    sheath and convert it in to galls (tubular
    structures) resembling shining onion leaf. These
    symptoms are thus called silver shoot.

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