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Curriculum refers to the subjects taught at an educational institution, or the elements taught in a particular subject. A comprehensive (complete, includes everything ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Curriculum refers to the subjects taught at an
educational institution, or the elements taught
in a particular subject. A comprehensive
(complete, includes everything) curriculum will
address physical, social, emotional, and
intellectual development.
Curriculum types include fine and performing arts
(music and art), vocational or career and
technical (business, industrial technology,
Family Consumer Science) core academics
(English, math, social studies, science), and
physical education.
An integrated or interdisciplinary curriculum is
education that is organized in such a way that it
cuts across subject-matter lines. Example if
the topic is Nebraska students in social studies
learn the geography of the state, students in
foods class learn what food products are
manufactured in this state, math students
calculate how many hours and minutes it takes to
drive the length of the state at 65 MPH, music
students play or sing the state song, art
students paint a picture of the state flower,
English students read a story written by a
Nebraska author, etc.
To write an individual lesson plan, you start
with an objective. An objective is the goal
you wish to accomplish within a specific
curriculum area.
The objective must be child-directed. You may
start each objective with the child will or
the student will or the learner will. (If
an objective was teacher-directed, it might read
the teacher will present a lesson on
multiplying single digits.)
The objective must be measurable. As you write
the objective, think of a method you could use to
observe or measure whether or not the student
actually accomplished the objective. The student
will add, draw, list, explain, write,
demonstrate the ability to, differentiate
between, recite, Those sound like words in a
test question. You cannot see or measure the
student will know, understand, visualize,.
Later on in the lesson, during assessment, you
will refer back to the language of the objective
to evaluate whether or not the child has met the
Sequence refers to the order in which knowledge
is learned. Learning how to add and subtract is
a necessary prerequisite (required first in
order for something else to happen) to learning
how to multiply. The sequence then, must be to
teach adding and subtracting first and
multiplying after.
When developing objectives for a lesson, you must
consider scope. Scope simply means the range
of information covered in an activity, or on a
subject or topic. Example if the topic is
vegetables, will the scope of the lesson include
how to plant vegetables, how to cook vegetables,
daily nutritional requirements of vegetables,
differentiating between vegetables and other
foods, common vegetable colors, how to spell
names of vegetables or will the scope be limited
to one or more areas.
Suppose the teacher said it was time for a new
lesson, and then started by putting on a hat and
trenchcoat, pulling out a magnifying glass, and
looking around the room through the magnifying
lens. How would the children react?
Of course they would get excited, and
anticipate what the lesson was going to be
about. They would look forward to what they
were going to learn next. They might guess are
we going to investigate something?... solve a
mystery?... hunt for clues?... The way the
teacher introduces the new lesson should create
this anticipatory set.
Now that youve got their attention, theyre
ready to learn.
Input is the information that is imparted to the
student in a lesson, and the method a teacher
chooses in order to provide the information.
The younger the child, the more active or
interactive the presentation needs to be.
The teacher must look at the type of information
to be presented and their own abilities in
deciding how to present the lesson. Lab?
Lecture? Reading assignment? Video? Game?
The way any human being learns anything is
through practice. The only variable is how much
practice does any one person need?
There are two different types of practice. Both
help reinforce the teaching of the input. Guided
or monitored practice is done in the presence of
the teacher. After the lesson input, the teacher
allows students to practice and get help as
needed. Independent practice is that which is
done away from the classroom. Homework is the
most common form of independent practice, where
students are expected to practice a skill or
review information without assistance of the
While one child may learn a particular concept
with just one practice, another child may need to
practice over and over and over again.
An assessment is a form of evaluation. How well
does the child meet the objective? Look back at
the objective. Did it say the child will be
able to match states and capitals? If so, your
test question should be matching.
Sometimes criteria becomes a part of assessment.
Criteria is an acceptable standard used in
judging how well the child met the objective.
Perhaps the criteria added to the objective is
the child will match states and capitals with
70 accuracy. That means the child achieves or
passes the objective with an allowable
percentage or number of errors.
If the child is tested on adding single digit
numbers such as 22, and if the criteria is 70
accuracy Then what happens if the child scores
Ideally, if the child does not pass the
objective, then the teacher should go back and
re-teach the information again. Re-teach, and
then re-assess until the child is successful.
After all, what will happen if the child doesnt
know simple addition, but the teacher goes on to
subtraction? The child falls further and further
When re-teaching a lesson, the teacher may need
to use a different method of input. To re-teach
using the same methods may cause a greater degree
of frustration for the student.
Consider this problem If only 1 or 2 students
need re-teaching, and the rest of the students
are ready to proceed what should the teacher do?
Within a single classroom, student abilities may
vary widely, from slow to average to high ability
The goal of education is to stimulate and
challenge each child at their own level of
development. Expectations of students that are
too high cause students to become
frustrated. Expectations of students that are too
low damage self-esteem, promote laziness, or
cause boredom.
Objectives are written for the average student
learner. The teacher may take the basic
objective and make changes or modifications in
the input or practice portions in order to
accommodate special needs of students.
Caution bored students create their own
Benjamin S. Bloom developed this taxonomy
(system of classification) of assessments. They
progress from simple to challenging.
In order to challenge all cognitive levels of
students, you should vary types of assessment.
This taxonomy has been revised several times
since its inception in the early 1950s. This
illustration shows the now-widely-accepted
revisions of Anderson Krathwohl, 2001.
(No Transcript)
The purpose of grading and reporting student
progress is to engage teachers, students, and
parents in the process of increasing student
achievement. An effective system allows educators
to clearly communicate student progress
towards curriculum objectives in a form
that is equitable, accurate, and useful.
Grading younger children usually requires the
frequent use of an extrinsic rewards system.
They need to see gold stars, smiley and frowning
faces, scratch-n-sniff stickers, a special prize
such as a pencil, awards certificates, small
trophies, blue ribbons, etc. These rewards
provide recognition, motivation, an encouragement.
The older a child gets, less frequent extrinsic
rewards are necessary, and more frequent
intrinsic rewards are used. How many ways can
you think of to tell a child they did a good job?
An activity that is considered an enrichment or
enhancement to the curriculum is supplemental to
Extracurricular activities or programs are those
happening outside the normal curriculum. These
activities often involve participants from
another school. An example would be an
extracurricular sports team from a school that
competes with team members from another school.
A basketball game might supplement physical
education or encourage a sense of competition.
Actually constructing and trying out this
catapult might supplement a history or physics
Intramural activities or programs are those
occurring within or involving members of a single
school. An example might be an intramural
science fair. Students work with students from
their own school on science projects and compete
against other similar teams from their own
Education costs money. School districts must
budget money for teacher salaries, the electric
bills, transportation, maintenance staff,
textbooks, and consumable supplies. Private
schools solicit donations and may charge students
fees and tuition to cover these costs public
schools must operate within the confines of a
tax-dollar-supported budget.
Resources are limited!
Teachers cannot afford, nor do school districts
expect them to purchase supplies with their own
moneyalthough temptation to do so is great!
The quality of lesson presentation rests with the
3 Qualities of a good teacher clarity - the
ability to convey ideas and concepts to students
includes good background knowledge and careful
planning and organization. ability to actively
interact with students includes getting down on
the childs level of thinking and activity,
questions and answers during lesson
presentation professional attitude includes
ability to command authority and respect, courage
to admit limitations, ability to assess student
strengths and weaknesses, enthusiasm for his/her
field of expertise, caring for children
  1. Read the book and rehearse in front of a

2. Hold the book to the front so the children
can see the pictures (you have to know the story
well in order to do this) point out things in
pictures that go with the story
3. Use props whenever possible.
4. Allow time for questions and comments.
5. Change your voice to fit different characters
in the book.
6. Speak louder or make a funny sound if you see
you are losing childrens interestor stop and
ask a question.
7. Act out, act out, and over act! Ham it up!
8. Over-exaggerate your emotions, your voice,
and your gestures.
  1. I didnt sleep at all well last night because my
    back was hurting. I must have hurt it lifting
    furniture for my grandmother. It hurts to move
    this way and it hurts to move that way. All I do
    is hurt, hurt, hurt.
  2. What has happened here? This place is a mess!
    You need to get this cleaned up immediately!
    Were having company and they will be here any
    minute. Get moving, dont just sit there!

3. The little kitten looked at its mother and
purred, mama, mama, I saw a furry little
creature running across the floor, what was it?
The mother cat replied in a quiet but excited
voice, Where did you see it? Where did it go?
Tell me little one, tell me quickly!
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