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Chapter 10 Beliefs

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Chapter 10 Beliefs Why to have religion? Religions Offer a way to rejoice, to give thanks Provide comfort, a community, a moral code, traditions Give to the needy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10 Beliefs


1
Chapter 10 Beliefs
2
Why to have religion?
3
Religions
  • Offer a way to rejoice, to give thanks
  • Provide comfort, a community, a moral code,
    traditions
  • Give to the needy

4
Religions
  • The Golden Rule to treat the others the way you
    want to be treated
  • Believe in a supreme power monotheism,
    polytheism, spirits, ghosts, goddesses, nature

5
Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We
Going? Paul Gauguin, 18971898
6
The UK population by religion, April 2001
7
Religious composition of ethnic groups, April
2001, England Wales
8
The Knowledge Contest!
9
The Catholic Faith in Jesus
  • Half of the worlds Christians
  • Infants are baptised shortly after birth
  • Coming-of-age ceremony at ages 13-15
  • Priests and bishop officiate
  • Christs teachings in the Bibles New Testament

10
The Catholic Faith in Jesus
  • Sign of the Crossthe Holy Trinity
  • FatherGod, SonJesus, Holy Spiritpresence of
    God
  • Eucharistsacred ritual of Holy Communication
    Lords Supper
  • Visual churches

11
The Catholic Faith in Jesus
  • To worship Jesus with all 5 of their senses
  • Music for the ears,
  • Incense for the nose,
  • Statues and art for the eyes,
  • Little old ladies reach out and touch something
    the beads
  • To worship Jesus through the taste in communion

12
Protestant
  • Each denomination (church group) worships
    differently
  • Someconfirmations at ages 13-15
  • Some baptise infants to wash away old sin
  • Roger WilliamsBaptist Church, 1638

13
The Protestant Reformation
  • Nearly 16 centuries of unbroken Catholic
    domination of Christianity, the then wealthiest
    and most powerful institution on earth
  • 1302, a formal decreeno salvation outside the
    Roman Catholic Church
  • The Popeultimate truth and power, religious or
    political

14
Background Serious problems
  • Turmoil within the Church
  • Moving from Rome to Avignon, France
  • New papal tower constructedsymbol of the
    enormous power of papacy
  • Fondness of richness and treasurecorruption of
    the papal core

15
Background Serious problems
  • People being disturbed
  • Violent war between France England (over a
    century)
  • 1347, a massive outbreak of the black plague25
    million Europeans, 4 years

16
Background Serious problems
  • In Rome, a second Pope elected
  • 31 years of battle for control of the church
  • A third Pope1409-1415
  • The situation eventually resolved

17
Background Damage
  • Who to believe?
  • Arrogance corruption instead of truth
    goodness
  • Need of reform
  • Risks of heresy being put on trial or burned
    at a stake, eg. Johaness Hus Czechoslovakia

18
The Reformer
  • Martin Luther Germany
  • Strong religious and political belief
  • The discovery of Christopher Columbus
  • The mass production of books

19
The Reformer
  • October 31st, 1517, to post a list of 95
    criticisms, protesting the sale of indulgences
  • An indulgence a spiritual favor granted by the
    church to sinners
  • By making difficult spiritual sacrifices
  • Important source of income for the church

20
The Reformer
  • Faith in Bible alone
  • Refusal to yield to the Pope
  • 3 revolutionary books sold in Germany
  • January 3rd, 1521, banished from Church
  • Translation of the Bible into German

21
The Reformer
  • John Calvin predestination (Switzerland)
  • A terrible example of the majesty of God
  • To work hard and be thrifty
  • Capitalism flourished
  • A special police force to maintain public
    morality
  • Burning heretics

22
The Reformer
  • Henry VIII divorce (England)
  • The Popes refusal to grant him annulment
  • The enraged kingAct of Supremacy, supreme head
    of the Church of England
  • Six wives
  • The Roman Churchs control of land and demand of
    more money from Henry VIII
  • Dissolution of monasteries

23
The Reformer
  • After his death
  • The Common Prayer, Sacraments
  • 42 articles
  • Mary I
  • Elizabeth I

24
Orthodox
  • Orthos "right doxa "belief"
  • Different in the way of life and worship
  • Maintaining the correct form of worshiping God,
    passed on from the very beginnings of
    Christianity
  • Ancient Jewish translation into Greek called the
    Septuagint  

25
Hinduism
  • It does not have
  • a single founder,
  • a specific theological system,
  • a single system of morality,
  • or a central religious organization. 

26
Hinduism
  • It consists of "thousands of different religious
    groups that have evolved in India since 1500
    BCE."
  • Henotheistic a single deity, other Gods and
    Goddesses as manifestations or aspects of that
    supreme God

27
Judaism
  • 4000 years ago, Abraham (Iraq)
  • Abrahams great-grandson Yehuda, or Judah
    (Hebrew priest)
  • Rabbi cantor coming of age ceremony
  • The Torah (the Hebrew scriptures) scrolls
  • The Exodus from Egypt

28
Judaism
  • Holidays
  • Rosh HashanaJewish New Year
  • Yom KippurDay of Atonement
  • HanukkahFestival of Lights

29
Judaism
  • Jewish Golden Rule
  • What is hateful to you, do not do to your
    fellowman.
  • Torah, Shabbat, 3id

30
Islam
  • Prophets
  • Abraham, Moses, Noah, Jesus, Muhammed (the final
    messenger of God)
  • Islam submission to God
  • Muslims, Christians, Jews same God
  • Islam terrorismJihad

31
Islam
  • Salaama Arabic for peace
  • QuranKoran (the exact word of God)
  • Various cultural practices
  • Women and the head scarf
  • Friday the religious day
  • Praying 5 times a day, facing Mecca (Saudi Arabia)

32
Islam
  • Coming of age
  • Boys 15, praying
  • Girls 9, scarf and long sleeves?
  • Allah/God
  • Ramadan (fasting)
  • Imam (supreme leader, prayer leader)

33
The Five Pillars of Islam
  • Shahadah pledge of faith
  • Salah daily prayers
  • Sawm fasting
  • Zakah giving
  • Hajj pilgrimage (millions of Muslims)

34
Muslim Golden Rule
  • Love for others what you love for yourself and
    dislike for others what you dislike for
    yourself.
  • Muhammed (Hadith)
  • Hadith, the report of the sayings, deeds and
    approvals of the Prophet Muhammad

35
Mosque
36
Sikhism
  • An Indian religion combining Islamic and Hindu
    elements
  • Punjab, late 15th century, by Guru Nanak
  • Nanak the first of the Ten Gurus, of whom Sikhs
    consider themselves disciples

37
Harmandir Sahib (The Golden Temple) Gurdwara
(Gateway to the Guru)
38
Sikhism
  • One God for all people of all religions, full
    equality of all people, of men and women
  • Living a virtuous and truthful life
  • Condemnation of blind rituals such as fasting,
    visiting places of pilgrimage, superstitions,
    worship of the dead, idol worship etc.

39
Atheism
  • An atheist believes there is no god or gods.
  • An Agnostic believes it cannot be known if a god
    or gods exist.
  • Moral code of behavior
  • Lifes meaning

40
Taoism
41
Taoism
  • A more relaxed and natural way of finding
    happiness
  • 300BC
  • Tao a silent, pure, all powerful force that
    existed before there is heaven or earth
  • Living in harmony with nature

42
Taoism
  • Secularisation ornate shrines,
    brilliantly-colored statues, offering
  • Chinese folk gods
  • Public rituals
  • Immortality

43
Lao Tzu
  • Contrastive unification mutually convertible
  • Good Fotune Lieth Within Bad, Bad Fortune Lurketh
    With Good.
  • A small country with a small population
  • Daodejing/Tao Te ChingClassic of the Way and Its
    Power

44
Chuang Tzu
  • The all-in-one ideaTao as the root and basis for
    all existence and transformation
  • Spiritual freedomId rather be dragging my tail
    in the mud.
  • Zhuang Zi/Chuang Tzu (Nanhuajing)
  • Neipian (Inner Chapters)
  • Waipian (Outer Chapters)
  • Zapian (Miscellaneous Chapters )

45
http//www.theodora.com/wfb/china_people.html
  • Fangxian TaoAlchemy and Immortals
  • Huanglao TaoReigns of Wen and Jing (the Western
    Han Dynasty)
  • Huangdi (Yellow Emperor) and Lao Zi
  • Wudoumi Tao (Zhengyi Tao orTianshi Tao) and
    Taiping Tao
  • Five Decaliter of Rice Sect Peace Sect
    immortality, spells

46
http//www.theodora.com/wfb/china_people.html
  • Quanzhen TaoBaiyun Temple
  • ?? ???
  • ?????????????? (The Great Master???
    "???")???????????? (The Taoist Holy Man??)
  • Wang Chongyangthe theory of the three religions
    of the same origin to cultivate oneself

47
Buddhism
48
Buddha
  • SakyamuniSiddhartha Gautama, born on April 8,
    464BC, a Hindu prince in India, in search of
    wisdom through poverty and meditation
  • Buddha (sanscrit the enlightened one)
  • BuddhismA religion, a discipline, a practice

49
Buddhism
  • Suffering
  • Craving
  • Dharma
  • Karma
  • Reincarnation

50
Buddhism
  • Mahayana Buddhism and Hinayana Buddhism (???? )
  • social concern and universal salvation (Japan,
    Korea, Nepal, Tibet, Mongolia, and China) one
    for all heal the world
  • the non-theistic ideal of self-purification to
    nirvana (Sri Lanka, Burma, China, and Cambodia)
    all for one all by myself

51
Buddhism
  • Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism (?????)
  • Exoteric Buddhism educates all beings with simple
    and easily understood doctrine.
  • Esoteric Buddhism expounds Buddhist dharma by
    means of oral transmission.
  • Ppt, Word files, spoken lectures (eg. I Have A
    Dream) exoteric or esoteric?

52
Zen
  • Huineng (638-713), the founder of southern school
    of Zen The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch
  • intuitive insight instead of hard work and the
    acquisition of even more knowledge and
    scriptures, wisdom and understanding beyond mere
    logic and reasoning

53
Zen
  • Holding a flower
  • ???????????,????,??????,???????????????????,???
    ?,????,????,????,????,???????
  • Neither the wind nor the banner is moving.
  • It is like a man drinking water and knowing
    whether it is cold or warm.

54
  • To see a World in a Grain of Sand
  • And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,
  • Hold Infinity in the palm of your hand
  • And Eternity in an hour.
  • Auguries of InnocenceWilliam Blake (1757-1827)
    British poet
  • The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
  • If the doors of perception were cleansed,
    everything would appear to man as it is,
    infinite.
  • ???? ????,????

55
  • The spring flowers, the autumn moon
  • Summer breezes, winter snow.
  • If useless things do not clutter your mind,
  • You have the best days of your life.

56
  • ?????,
  • ?????
  • ?????,
  • ??????
  • (???)???

57
Reference
  • http//www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID108
    6Pos2ColRank1Rank326
  • http//www.statistics.gov.uk/CCI/nugget.asp?ID293
    Pos7ColRank1Rank176
  • http//www.bbc.co.uk/religion/tools/quizzes/ (BBC
    quizzes)
  • http//www.bgfl.org/bgfl/custom/resources_ftp/clie
    nt_ftp/ks1/re/teddys_day_out/index.htm (Teddy
    bear game)
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