GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact Management of Biotechnology Modified Plants ?????????? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact Management of Biotechnology Modified Plants ?????????? PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 481e8f-ZWVlY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact Management of Biotechnology Modified Plants ??????????

Description:

GMO and Bioethics, ... Kuei-Tien( ), A prliminary Research of Public Trust - Risk Perception, Assessment, Communication and Participation of GMO in 2003/2004. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:311
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 101
Provided by: WenYe6
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact Management of Biotechnology Modified Plants ??????????


1
GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact
Management of Biotechnology Modified
Plants??????????
  • ?????
  • ????????????
  • ???????
  • 95.05.22

2
GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact
Management of Biotechnology Modified
Plants??????????
  • GMO?????
  • ???????????

2
3
?????????
  • ??????
  • (Flavr Savr? )
  • 1994?????
  • ?? ?? ??
  • ?????
  • Calgene???Monsanto??
  • Photo by Jack Dykinga.
  • Sources ARS Photo Unit, 2001, USDA.

FlavrSavr? Tomato, Calgene
3
4
Global increase of GM Crops
Million Ha
4
5
India has avoided famine. But hunger continues
even today
Prof. Amartya Sen, Nobel Prize Laureate for
Economics , 1998
5
6
6
7
Actors and their roles
Scientists
Public int groups
Industry gov
General Public
Media
7
8
?????????
  • Framework for Analysing Welfrare Effects of
    AgBiotech Innovations

Source Demont, M., and E.Tollens. "Economic
Impact of GM Sugar Beets in the EU The
EUWAB-project." IIRB Info 8(July 2001) 19-23.
8
9
GM?? ????
I. ???? Food Safety II. ???? Environmental
Safety III. ???? ELSI(ethical, legal, social
issues) IV. ???? Trade
9
10
??ELSI??
?? http//elsi.issp.sinica.edu.tw/main.php
10
11
??ELSI??
???? ???? ??? ???? ????
91 ?????????????????-???????(2/3) ??? ??? ?????????
92 ?????????????????-???????(2/3) ??? ??? ?????????
92 ??????????????? ??? ??? ????????
94 ???????????????????? - ????????????(?) ??? ??? ???????????
94 ????????????(?) ??? ??? ????????
11
12
GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact
Management of Biotechnology Modified
Plants??????????
  • ???? ???? ???

12
13
???/???? (???)
Bt????????
13
14
?????? (???)
??????????A?????????
14
15
????????
????!
???! ??????? ???? ?? 2001
15
16
????
Source www.somerset.gov.uk/somerset/
features/globalwarming/
16
17
??????
????????????????????????,???????????????????????
????????????????????? (?????????91.8.8)
17
18
GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact
Management of Biotechnology Modified
Plants??????????
  • ????
  • The Framework

18
19
??????????
??????
????
????
????
????
????
????
????????
19
20
Principles for the Risk Analysis
Codex ???????? -- ?????? (2003)
  • Risk Assessment (????)
  • Risk Management (????)
  • Risk Communication (????)
  • Consistency (?????)
  • Capacity Building and Information Exchange
  • (?????????)
  • Review Processes (????????)

20
21
GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact
Management of Biotechnology Modified
Plants??????????
  • ???????

21
22
??GMO?????
??????????? 1.??? (???)???????? 2.???
(???)????????????? 3.??? (??)???????
  • ?????????????
  • ?????????????
  • ?????????(??)

92? ??
22
23
?????
  • ?????????????
  • ? ?????????????????????????
  • (??????????????)
  • ? ???????????????????
  • ????????
  • (?????????????????)

23
24
??????
  • ?????????(??)
  • 2001.6.10 ??? ?(???????)
  • ???????????(??)
  • 2002.6.18 ?? ?(???)
  • ??????????????(90.2.22?????????)
  • ????????
  • 2004.4.21??????(???)
  • ?????????????
  • ???????????????????
  • ????????????????
  • ?????????(??)?

24
25
GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact
Management of Biotechnology Modified
Plants??????????
  • ????

25
26
Codex Alimentarius Commission
?????????? (7/2003)
1. Principles for the Risk Analysis of Foods
Derived from Modern Biotechnology (??????)
2. Guideline for the Conduct of Food Safety
Assessment of Foods Derived from
Recombinant-DNA Plants (?????????????) 3.
Annex on the Assessment of Possible
Allergenicity (?? ??????) 4. Guideline
for the Conduct of Food Safety Assessment of
Foods Produced using Recombinant-DNA
Microorganisms (????? ??????????)
5. Annex on the Assessment of Possible
Allergenicity (Proteins) (?????????????)
???????
??????
26
27
Codex Alimentarius Commission
Fourth joint FAO/WHO consultation on foods
derived from biotechnology - safety assessment of
foods derived from genetically modified animals
including fish. Rome, Italy, 17 - 21 November
2003 ???FAO/WHO?????? ???????????????????????
27
Source http//www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/meet
ings/ec_nov2003/en/
28
WTO
  • ?????? (WTO)
  • GMO ????
  • ????????????????Sanitary and Phytosanitary
    Measures (SPS)
  • ????????? Technical
    Barrier to Trade (TBT)

WTO??Codex??
28
29
???????WTO
??GMOs???? ?? TBT SPS 1995
1 4 1996 2 1 1997 11 0 1998 11
5 1999 20 2 2000 14 20 2001 25 37
2002 43 74 2003(1-6) 19 43 ?? 146
186
  • ????????????
  • ??????
  • ????????
  • ??????

29
30
???????
???????????? (CBD)
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Article 27.
Liability and Redress The Conference of the
Parties shall, at its first meeting, adopt a
process with respect to the appropriate
elaboration of international rules and procedures
in the field of liability and redress for damage
resulting from transboundary movements of living
modified organisms, analysing and taking due
account of the ongoing processes in international
law on these matters, and shall endeavour to
complete this process within four years.
30
31
WTO vs. CBD
????????????
Cartegena Protocol on Biosafety(???????) Article
1. Objective The objective of this Protocol is to
contribute to ensuring an adequate level of
protection in the field of the safe transfer,
handling and use of living modified organisms
(LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that
may have adverse effects on the conservation and
sustainable use of biological diversity, taking
also into account risks to human health, and
specifically focusing on transboundary movements.
World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only
international organization dealing with the
global rules of trade between nations. Its main
function is to ensure that trade flows as
smoothly, predictably and freely as possible.
11 September 2003 enter into force!
31
32
GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact
Management of Biotechnology Modified
Plants??????????
  • ?????????
  • ????

32
33
GM?? ????
I. ???? Food Safety II. ???? Environmental
Safety III. ???? ELSI(ethical, legal, social
issues) IV. ???? Trade
33
34
The L-Tryptophan case
Case Study
(??? )
  • 1989, USA
  • 37 deaths, 1500 disabled, 5000 affected - EMS
    syndrome
  • 60 contaminants, six responsible for EMS
  • GMO????
  • US courts decided that the manufacturing process
    rather than GM was at fault.

????????????
34
www.foodsafetynetwork.ca/gmo/mythbusters.pdf
35
Case Study
?????????
  • - 1998? ??
  • - ???(Arpad Pusztai)
  • - ??????????
  • ???????

35
Ewen SW, Pusztai A. Lancet. 1999 Oct
16354(9187)1353-4
36
Case Study
??(StarLink)????
  • 2000? ?????(??)
  • - ?????
  • - ?Cry9C (Bt???)
  • ?????
  • (CDC??????????)
  • ????
  • FDA????300???

36
37
Case Study ????(StarLink)
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • ??????
  • SGF stability, pH2
  • gt 4hr
  • 2. ?????
  • 90?C gt 19 min

There is no evidence to indicate that Cry9C is
or is not a potential food allergen. - US EPA,
2000.
37
38
???????????(I)
Allergenicity FAO/WHO 2000 Decision Tree
Approach
38
39
???????????(II)
Source of gene allergenic
Allergenicity FAO/WHO 2001 Decision Tree
Approach
Yes
No
Sequence Homology
Sequence Homology
No
No
Yes
Specific Serum Screen
Targeted Serum Screen
No
No
Yes
Pepsin Resistance Animal Models
Likely allergenic
High / /- -/- Low Probability of
Allergenicity
39
40
Weight of Evidence
  • Because no single parameter has been shown to be
    predictive of allergic potential, a weight of
    evidence approach has been proposed to assess
    protein allergenicity (Codex, 2003).

Also see, Ladics GS et al. (2006) Lack of
cross-reactivity between the Bacillus
thuringiensis derived protein Cry1F in maize
grain and dust mite Der p7 protein with human
sera positive for Der p7-IgE. Regulatory
Toxicology and Pharmacology 44, 136-143.
40
41
41
42
Case Study
???DNA??? (August 2001) Molecular
Characterization of the genetic modification
??????????
42
Windels P. et al. (2001)
43
Case Study
????????????
43
44
Case Study
ProdiGene??????
WHO - ProdiGene Inc. (College Station, TX) WHAT
- edible vaccine grown in corn WHEN -
11/13/2002 USDA investigation WHY - Contamination
of 155 Acre soybeans
  • ??
  • 250,000 ?? 3,000,000 USDA??? 1,000,000
    ???
  • ???????? 68 FR 11337

44
45
GM?? ????
I. ???? Food Safety II. ???? Environmental
Safety III. ???? ELSI(ethical, legal, social
issues) IV. ???? Trade
45
46
Case Study
?????
?????????(non- target organisms) ????????? ???????
??? ??????????
46
47
?????
Case Study
??? Monarch Butterfly (?????,????)
  • ???????(1999)
  • ???????Bt???????(???)??
  • ??????

47
48
Case Study
????????- ???
Co-existence???? ????????
48
49
Case Study
????????- ??
GM papaya contamination in Thailand
widespread Thu Sep 16, 445 PM ET Science -
AFP http//story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmplstor
ycid1540ncid1540e1u/afp/20040916/sc_afp/th
ailand_environment_gm_040916204539
49
50
???????????GMO
Case Study
CONSUMERS SAY NO TO GMOs
50
51
Case Study
???????
????????????????????
???(2003-4-27)
??? ???? ???? ????? ? 2003-06-17/???/A15?/???? ?
? ???????????????????
51
52
Economic Risks and Opportunities
  • Critical Factors Determining Economic Outcomes
  • 1. The magnitude of the change in demand for
    New Zealand goods and services
  • 2. The response of foreign consumer demand to
    price changes
  • 3. The access of New Zealand goods to global
    markets
  • 4. The opportunities for productivity
    enhancements

Source Economic Risks and Opportunities from the
Release of Genetically Modified Organisms in New
Zealand (April 2003, Ministry for the
Environment, New Zealand)
52
53
53
54
GM?? ????
I. ???? Food Safety II. ???? Environmental
Safety III. ???? ELSI(ethical, legal, social
issues) IV. ???? Trade
54
55
Case Study
???????????
????????????(?????)
?????????? ????????? ?????? ???????
55
56
Vaticans position
  • There is nothing intrinsic about genetic
    modification that would cause food products to be
    unsafe.
  • Study Document on the Use of Genetically
    Modified Food Plants to Combat Hunger in the
    World. 2001.
  • http//www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_acade
    mies/acdscien/documents/sv 99(5of5).pdf

56
57
PLoS Medicine, May, Volume 3, Issue 5,
e129. http//medicine.ploshournals.org/perlserv/?r
equestget-documentdoi10.1371/journal.pmed.00301
29
57
58
Why Bioethics
  • Why Are Bioscience Companies Addressing
    Bioindustry Ethics
  • Do the right thing
  • Risk mitigation
  • Public reputation
  • Attract and keep the right employees
  • Guidance in uncharted water
  • Promote good science

58
Source Mackie JE et al. (2006) PLoS Medicine 3
(5), e129.
59
Bioindustry Ethics Mechanisms
  • Ethical leadership
  • External expertise
  • Internal ethics mechanisms
  • External ethics engagement
  • Ethics evaluation and reporting mechanisms

59
Source Mackie JE et al. (2006) PLoS Medicine 3
(5), e129.
60
Bioethics Bioindustry
  • Bioethics offers a context for technology
  • Socially, economically and politically
  • Industry offers relevance to bioethics
  • Holding endless discussions over conflicts of
    interest
  • Vigilance to merit the publics trust

Source Dhanda, RK (2003) Time for bioethics and
business to start talking. Nature 421,
573. Source MacDonald, C (2003) Vigilance is
vital to avoid conflicts of interest. Nature 422,
469.
60
61
Case Study
??????? ???
  • The complexity of transgenic plants Golden Rice
  • ISAAA IP Audit The Intellectual and Technical
    Property Components of pro-vitamin A Rice
    (GoldenRice) A Preliminary Freedom-to-Operate
    Review
  • Identifies 70 patents (IP) and 16 tangible
    property (TP) constraints.
  • Sources of 16 TPs IRRI (Taipei 309), Promega
    Stratagene, Novartis (2), Monsanto (2),
    Washington State Univ. (2), Kirin (3), Rutgers
    Univ., Clontech, Bio-Rad Corp (2). (most are
    confidential)

61
62
Case Study
??????? ???
The complexity of transgenic plants Golden
Rice Product Clearance (PC) ?
Freedom to Operate (FTO) Please
Read Transgenic crops, biotechnology and
ownership rights what scientists need to
know Stanley P. Kowalski, Reynaldo V. Ebroa, R.
David Kryder and Robert H. Potter. Plant Journal
(2002) 31(4), 407-421.
62
63
Case Study
??????
Monsanto vs. Percy Schmeiser
Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT)?
- 2001.4.2. - ????????? (GM Canola) ????? ????
????????? ???????!
(?? ??????)
63
http//www.fct-cf.gc.ca http//www.percyschme
iser.com
64
Liability and Redress
  • Tort Liability
  • Damage to Person
  • Damage to Property
  • Damage to Economic Interests (Markets)
  • Patent Infringement

Kershen, DL (2004) Legal liability issues in
agricultural biotechnology. Crop Sci. 44 456-463
64
65
65
66
GM?? ????
I. ???? Food Safety II. ???? Environmental
Safety III. ???? ELSI(ethical, legal, social
issues) IV. ???? Trade
66
67
Case Study
???????WTO???
Tuesday, 13 May,
2003 US launches GM trade war The United States -
and twelve other agricultural exporting nations -
want the EU to repeal its five-year moratorium on
GM foods, or face trade sanctions under World
Trade Organisation (WTO) rules.
67
68
Case Study
WTO?GMO???????
  • DS293? ?? ??? 5/21/2003
  • ???????????????
  • DS292? ?? ??? 5/20/2003
  • ???????????????
  • DS291? ?? ??5/20/2003
  • ???????????????
  • ? DS205? ?? ?? 9/27/2000
  • ??????????(?????????)??

68
69
????????
  • Is the system prepared? And prepared to do what?
  • APHIIS lacks a regulatory handle to detect
    unforeseen plant pest or environmental problems.
  • EPA has no program to provide direct oversight
    and enforcement of environmentally important PIP
    use restrictions.
  • FDA has no affirmative compliance and
    enforcement program for biotech crops and foods
    and, as lacks some of the basic tools to
    determine whether the biotech products already on
    the market comply with applicable regulatory
    requirements.

69
70
Case Study
????????????
  • ???????????? 
  • ????????????
  • ????????8?6???????????????,???????????????PCR???
    ????,?8?13?????,?????????????????
  • ????????????????????????????PCR??????,2003?12?1
    7??????????????????????
  • ????????????,???????????????????????,?????????
    ?????????,??????????

???????(??????)http//www.people.com.cn/GB/hua
nbao/1072/2457963.html
70
71
Case Study
??????1507?????
71
FAO/WHO 2001 Decision Tree ???????
72
??????????
Taiwan-U.S.Bilateral Biotechnology
Discussions Taipei, Taiwan. March 30-31, 2004. .
Evaluation of stacked varieties and data needs
for regulatory decisions Allergenicity
Toxicity Evaluation of metabolites
Effects of food processing Nutritional
modification Determining substantial
equivalence Role of international
organizations (WHO, CODEX) in regulation.

72
73
73
74
74
75
GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact
Management of Biotechnology Modified
Plants??????????
  • ????

75
76
????????????
??????
????
????
????
????
????
????
????????
76
77
What is risk communication?
  • Risk communication is the way in which
    information, within a socio-political
    environment, about possible risk or crisis
    situations are presented to the public.
  • It is intended to supply people and institutions
    with the information they need to make informed,
    independent judgements about risks to health,
    safety and the environment.

Source Foteini Psarra. Risk Communication A
literature review of the theory and practice.
ATLANTIS Research Organisation. Brussels,
18/10/2004.
77
78
What is risk communication?
  • Phase 1 risk and capacity to manage risks at
    exacting level of detail (70s)
  • Phase 2 persuasion of listeners to the
    correctness of a point of view (mid 80s)
  • Phase 3 transmission of information to all
    interested parties with the intention of inform
    rather than persuasion (90s )

Source Foteini Psarra. Risk Communication A
literature review of the theory and practice.
ATLANTIS Research Organisation. Brussels,
18/10/2004.
78
79
Socio-economic impact- media factor
??? ?? ??
Source Susan Miles and Lynn J Frewer (2002)
Socio-economic impact of GMO regulation and GMO
detection. QPCRGMOFOOD Work Package 6. Final
Report. http//www.ifr.bbsrc.ac.uk
79
80
American attitudes to Biotech
80
81
European attitudes to Biotech
81
(Eurobarometer 58.0, 2nd ed. March 2003.)
82
??????? ????
82
Macer and Ng (2000) Nature Biotech, 945-947.
83
Ordinary tomatoes (soybeans) do not contain
genes. Genetically modified ones do. True or
False?
False Dont Know True
Canada 52 33 15
Netherlands 51 27 22
Sweden 46 24 30
USA 45 45 10
Finland 44 27 29
UK 40 38 22
Chinese Taipei 36 53 11
Germany 36 20 44
Italy 35 44 21
Austria 34 22 44
France 32 39 29
Spain 28 46 26
Ireland 20 51 29
83
84
  • ??????????????????????? ???? (2000)
  • ????????????????????(2002)

Always
Often
Sometimes
Never
Dont Know
84
85
??????
Source Chou, Kuei-Tien(???), A prliminary
Research of Public Trust - Risk Perception,
Assessment, Communication and Participation of
GMO in 2003/2004. Graduate Institute of Naitonal
Development, Taiwan University.
85
86
??????
Source Chou, Kuei-Tien(???), A prliminary
Research of Public Trust - Risk Perception,
Assessment, Communication and Participation of
GMO in 2003/2004. Graduate Institute of Naitonal
Development, Taiwan University.
86
87
?????????????
?????????????? ??????????????
87
88
??????
88
89
???????????
89
90
?????????????
90
91
???????
91
92
AGBIOS http//www.agbios.com
????
92
93
http//www.who.int/foodsafety/biotech/en/ ??????
??????
????
93
94
???????? ???? http//www.oecd.org/
????
94
95
http//www.codexalimentarius.net/ ???????
????
95
96
GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact
Management of Biotechnology Modified
Plants??????????
  • ?? ???? ???

96
97
??
  • Capacity Building
  • Infra-structure for safety assessment
  • New Guidelines for safety management
  • New Issues

Reference McLean, et al. A conceptual framework
for implementing biosafety Linking policy,
capacity regulation. ISNAR Briefing paper
No.47, 2002.
97
98
?? New Issues
Reference CL 2005/2-FBT
  • Foods derived from Animals
  • transgenic animals, including fish
  • cloned animals
  • Foods derived from plants
  • Plants expressing bioactive substances or
    nutritionally-enhanced plants
  • Plants with stacked genes (i.e. several genes
    conferring different traits in the same plant)
  • Biopharming
  • Plants expressing pharmaceutical or other
    non-food substance
  • Low level presence of unauthorized GM foods in
    authorized foods (Adventitious Presence)
  • Comparative food composition analysis

98
99
??
  • ????????-?????????????
  • ?? 95 ? 4 ? 21 ? ? 22 ?
  • ?? ??????????????
  • ??
  • ?????????,??????
  • (?) ???????????
  • 4. ????????????????
  • ??????????,????????
  • (?) ????????
  • 3. ???????????????

99
100

GMO and Bioethics, Economic and Social Impact
Management of Biotechnology Modified
Plants??????????
  • ?????
  • wenyen.kao_at_syngenta.com
  • ????
About PowerShow.com