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Chapter 6 The Proteins and Amino Acids

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Chapter 6 The Proteins and Amino Acids Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney The Structure of Proteins Difference from carbohydrates and fats Amino ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 6 The Proteins and Amino Acids


1
Chapter 6The Proteins and Amino Acids
  • Nutrition Concepts Controversies, 12e
    Sizer/Whitney

2
The Structure of Proteins
  • Difference from carbohydrates and fats
  • Amino acids
  • Carbon atom with amine group and acid group
  • Side chain
  • Essential amino acids
  • Conditionally essential
  • Recycling
  • Priority system

3
How Do Amino Acids Build Proteins?
  • Peptide bonds
  • Link amino acids
  • Strands of amino acids do not remain straight
  • Coils
  • Folds
  • Side chain electrical charge
  • Activation

4
The Coiling and Folding of a Protein Molecule
5
The Structure of Hemoglobin
6
Normal Red Blood Cells and Sickle Cells
7
Protein Synthesis
8
Denaturation of Proteins
  • Denaturing agents
  • Digestion
  • Stomach acid
  • Dangers of denaturation

9
Protein Digestion
  • Stomach
  • Denatures protein in food
  • Uncoil proteins strands
  • Enzymes attack peptide bonds
  • Small intestine
  • Polypeptides
  • Further break down
  • Common misconceptions

10
A Dipeptide and Tripeptide
11
How Protein in Food Becomes Amino Acids in the
Body
12
Amino Acid Absorption
  • Absorbed by cells of small intestine
  • Larger molecules
  • Hormones or allergens
  • Separate sites for absorption
  • Released into the bloodstream
  • Carried to the liver

13
The Importance of Protein
  • Amino acids must be continually available
  • Building of new proteins
  • Amino acids are needed each day
  • Protein turnover

14
Roles of Body Proteins
  • Regulation of gene expression
  • Providing structure and movement
  • Muscle tissue
  • Other structural proteins
  • Building enzymes, hormones, other compounds
  • Building antibodies

15
Enzyme Action
16
Amino Acid Sequence of Human Insulin
17
Roles of Body Proteins
  • Transporting substances
  • Hemoglobin and lipoproteins
  • Maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance
  • Edema
  • Maintaining acid-base balance
  • Blood clotting
  • Providing energy and glucose

18
Proteins Transport Substances Into and Out of
Cells
19
Amino Acids to Glucose
  • Protein can help maintain blood glucose levels
  • No storage compound for protein
  • Dismantle tissue proteins
  • Oversupply of amino acids
  • Remove amine group
  • Use of residues

20
Three Different Energy Sources
21
Amino Acids to Glucose
  • Fate of an amino acid
  • Cellular use
  • Build protein
  • Make a needed compound
  • Dismantle amino acid for component parts
  • Wasting of amino acids
  • Preventing waste

22
People Most Likely to Be Harmed by Amino Acid
Supplements
23
How Much Protein Do People Really Need?
  • DRI
  • Depends on body size
  • Infants and growing children
  • Recommended intake
  • Vegetarians
  • Minimum amount
  • Upper limit
  • Bodys health
  • Quality

24
Nitrogen Balance
  • Nitrogen excreted as compared to nitrogen eaten
  • Levels in healthy adults
  • Variation in nitrogen balance
  • Positive balance
  • Examples
  • Negative balance
  • Examples

25
Which Foods Provide High Quality Protein?
  • High-quality proteins
  • Enough of all essential amino acids
  • Limiting amino acids
  • Complementary proteins
  • Mutual supplementation
  • Protein digestibility
  • Animal proteins
  • Legumes

26
A Legume
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