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Psychology 203 Human Development


Psychology 203 Human Development Psychosocial Development In Young Adulthood Chapter 14 Young Adulthood Personality Development Four Views Normative-stage models ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology 203 Human Development

Psychology 203 Human Development
  • Psychosocial Development
  • In
  • Young Adulthood
  • Chapter 14

Young Adulthood Personality Development
  • Four Views
  • Normative-stage models
  • Typical sequence of age-related development that
    continues throughout adult life span
  • Timing-of-events models
  • Expected or unexpected occurrence and timing of
    important life events (not age)
  • Trait models
  • Mental, emotional, temperamental, and behavioral
    traits (cheerfulness, irritability)
  • Typological models
  • Identify broader personality types, or styles
    that represent how traits are organized within

Young Adulthood Personality Development
  • Normative-stage models
  • Erikson
  • Personality changes throughout life
  • Intimacy versus Isolation
  • Vaillant (1977)
  • Adaptive mechanisms
  • Mature (using humor or helping others)
  • Immature (developing aches and pains with no
    physical basis)
  • Psychotic (distorting reality)
  • Neurotic (repressing anxiety or developing
    irrational fears)
  • Levinson (1986)
  • Evolving life structure People shape their life
    structures during overlapping eras of about 20 to
    25 years each.
  • Validity of studies is questionable
  • Based on research using mostly men
  • Based on small groups of all white middle-class
    to upper-middle-class men
  • Most important message is adults continue to
    change, develop and grow

Young Adulthood Personality Development
  • Timing-of-Events
  • Course of development depends on when certain
    events occur in peoples lives.
  • Normative Life Events are commonly expected life
    experiences that occur at customary times
  • Marriage
  • Parenthood
  • Grandparenthood
  • Retirement
  • Events are normative when they are on time
  • People are aware of their won social clock
  • Crises may result, not from reaching a certain
    age but from the unexpected occurrence and timing
    of life events.
  • Model is limited because model only fits when
    cultures and historical periods in which norms of
    behavior are stable and widespread

Young Adulthood Trait Models (Costa and McCraes
five Factors)
Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Co
Young Adulthood Costa and McCraes
  • Continuity of personality
  • Analysis is cross-sectional, longitudinal, and
    sequential from large sample sizes
  • Critics of model
  • Statistical and methodological problems
  • Based largely on subjective ratings
  • Model looks at only individual differences in
    trait groupings
  • No theoretical framework for understanding how
    personality works within the person

Young Adulthood Typological Models
  • Typological Models
  • Personality as functioning whole that affects and
    reflects attitudes, values, behavior, and social
  • Ego-resilient
  • Adaptability under stress
  • Well adjusted self-confident, independent,
    articulate, attentive, helpful, cooperative, and
  • Overcontrolled
  • Shy, quiet, anxious, dependable, withdraw from
  • Undercontrolled
  • Active, energetic, impulsive, stubborn, and
    easily distracted
  • Traits established in childhood may predict
    trajectories (long term patterns)

Young Adulthood Integrating Approaches
Young Adulthood Foundations of Intimate
  • Resolve conflicts with parents in wholesome way
    or may reenact similar conflicts in new
    relationships with friends, colleagues, and
  • Seek emotional and physical intimacy in
    relationship with peers and romantic partners
  • Gain skills in
  • Self-awareness
  • Empathy
  • Communicate emotions
  • Sexual decision making
  • Conflict resolution
  • Sustain commitments

Young Adulthood Foundations of Intimate
  • Intimate relationships are crucial task of young
    adulthood (Erikson)
  • Shared disclosures (self-disclosure)
  • Responsiveness to one anothers needs
  • Mutual acceptance
  • Respect
  • Intimacy includes a sense of belonging
  • Form strong, stable, close, caring relationships
    is powerful motivator of human behavior

Young Adulthood Friendship
  • Friendships center on
  • Work
  • Parenting activities
  • Sharing of confidences and advice
  • Young singles rely on friendships to fulfill
    social needs
  • Women have more intimate friendships then men
  • Women find friendships with other women more
    satisfying than those with men
  • Men share information and activities, not

Young Adulthood Love
  • Sternberg and Barnes elements
  • Intimacy
  • Self-disclosure leads to connection, warmth, and
  • Passion
  • Inner drives that translate physiological arousal
    into sexual desire
  • Commitment
  • Cognitive decision to love and to stay with the

Young Adulthood Nonmarital and Marital lifestyles
  • Rules of acceptable behavior are more elastic
    then during the first half 20th century
  • Norms no longer dictate
  • People must get married
  • Stay married
  • Have children
  • At what age

Young Adulthood Nonmarital and Marital lifestyles
  • Single Life
  • 45 of 25-29 year olds had never married
  • Black, White, and Latina single women in LA have
    difficulty finding eligible men with similar
    educational and social backgrounds

Young Adulthood Gay and Lesbian Relationships
  • 3 of US men and 1½ women call themselves
    homesual or bisexual
  • Ingredients of long-term satisfaction are very
    similar in homosexual and heterosexual

Young Adulthood Cohabitation
  • Consensual or informal union
  • In US was against the law in 1970
  • Substitute for marriage or trial marriage
  • Relationship tend to be less satisfying than
  • Half US couples who marry have lived together
  • Tend to have unconventional attitudes about
    family life
  • Likely to have divorced parents
  • Stepchildren
  • Liberal attitudes toward divorce

Young Adulthood Marriage
  • Meets fundamental needs
  • Intimacy
  • Commitment
  • Friendship
  • Affection
  • Sexual fulfillment
  • Companionship
  • Emotional growth
  • Identity and self-esteem

Young Adulthood Entering Matrimony
  • Most common way of selecting a mate has been
    through arrangement
  • Free choose of mates norm in western world
  • Transition to married major changes in
  • Sexual functioning
  • Living arrangements
  • Rights and responsibility
  • Attachments
  • Loyalties

Young Adulthood Sexual Activity After Marriage
  • Only one-third have intercourse two or more times
    a week
  • More emotional satisfaction from sex then single
    or cohabiting couples
  • Drops sharply after the early months and then
    declines as time goes on
  • May seek sexual intimacy outside the marriage
    after few years

Young Adulthood Factors in Marital success or
  • One of the most important factors is sense of
  • Success closely associated with
  • Communication
  • Making decisions
  • Dealing with conflict
  • Good marriage
  • Arguing and openly expressing anger
  • Trouble marriage
  • Whining
  • Defensiveness
  • Stubbornness
  • withdrawal

Young Adulthood Factors in Marital success or
  • Major predictors of success
  • Age - 20-30 better then teens
  • Education - College grads better then non grads
  • Cohabitation before marriage and having divorced
    parents are predictive of divorce
  • No children better then pregnant or bearing
    children before marriage

Domestic Violence
  • Physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment
    of a spouse, a former spouse, or an intimate
    partner so as to gain or maintain power or
  • Nine out of ten victims in US are women
  • Men profile
  • Less than a high school education
  • Unemployed or intermittently employed
  • Low incomes
  • Alcohol or drug problems
  • Former or estranged husband or former boyfriends
  • Men seeking control or dominance
  • Boys taught by example to prevail though
    aggression and physical force

Becoming Parents
  • Preindustrial farming societies
  • Large families were a necessity
  • Helped with family work
  • Care for aging parents
  • Death rate in childhood was high
  • Having lots of children many more would reach

Parenthood Developmental Experience
  • First baby marks a major transition in parents
  • Baby changes individuals and changes
  • As baby develop, so must parents
  • Fathers today are more involved in childrens
    lives, and childcare and housework than ever

Parenthood Developmental Experience
  • Men with children living with them
  • Less involved in outside social activities
  • More likely to participate in
  • School-related activities
  • Church Groups
  • Community services

Parenthood Marital Satisfaction
  • Satisfaction declines during the childraising
  • Both husbands and wives report sharp decline
    during the first four years

Dual-Earner Families
  • Two out of three US families with married couple
    and children under 18 years
  • Positive outcomes
  • Raises some families from poverty to
  • Women more independent and share of economic
  • Reduces pressure on men to be providers
  • Equal relationship between husband and wife
  • Better health for both
  • Greater self-esteem for the women
  • Closer relationship between fathers and children

Dual-Earner Families
  • Downside
  • Working couples face extra demands on them and
  • Conflicts between work and family
  • Rivalry between spouses
  • Anxiety and guilt about meeting childrens needs

Division of Domestic Work
  • Almost all known societies women have primary
    responsibility for housework and child raising
  • Psychological effects very based on how
    breadwinning and household work are divided
  • Effects depend on how the husband and wife view
    their roles

Division of Domestic Work
  • Perception of unfairness contributes most to
    marital instability
  • Fairness depend on the size of the wifes
    financial contribution
  • Co-provider
  • Supplementing husbands income
  • Meaning and importance wife or husband place on
    wifes work

When Marriage Ends
  • Average marriage ends in seven to eight years
  • 43 of first marriages end in separation or
    divorce within 15 years
  • 90 of separated couples go on to divorce within
    5 years

When Marriage Ends Why the increase?
  • Possible causes
  • More liberal divorce laws
  • No-fault laws
  • More women financially independent
  • Greater damage to children if they stay together
  • More childless couples
  • Young couples expect too much from marriage
  • Take place of their parents
  • Take place of their friends
  • Both confidantes and lovers
  • Conflicts between what men want and what women

When Marriage Ends Adjusting to Divorce
  • Divorce is a process not a single event.
  • Some people adjust rather quickly but may tend to
    reduce long-term well-being
  • Reasons
  • Disruption of parent-child relationships
  • Discord with a former spouse
  • Economic hardship
  • Loss of emotional support
  • Moving out of family home
  • Feelings of
  • Failure
  • Blame
  • Hostility
  • Self-recrimination
  • Depression
  • Illness
  • Most important factor is emotional detachment
    from the former spouse (average time is three

Remarriage and Stepparenthood
  • Remarriages are more likely than first marriages
    to end in divorce
  • Greatest during the first five years and
  • Stepparent more challenging for women then men
  • The more recent the current marriage and the
    older the stepchildren, the harder stepparenting
  • Less able to separate feelings about the marriage
    from feelings about success as stepparents