Psychology 203 Human Development - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Psychology 203 Human Development PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 47ee4c-NDU3O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Psychology 203 Human Development

Description:

Psychology 203 Human Development Psychosocial Development In Young Adulthood Chapter 14 Young Adulthood Personality Development Four Views Normative-stage models ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:37
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 35
Provided by: JackieK3
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Psychology 203 Human Development


1
Psychology 203 Human Development
  • Psychosocial Development
  • In
  • Young Adulthood
  • Chapter 14

2
Young Adulthood Personality Development
  • Four Views
  • Normative-stage models
  • Typical sequence of age-related development that
    continues throughout adult life span
  • Timing-of-events models
  • Expected or unexpected occurrence and timing of
    important life events (not age)
  • Trait models
  • Mental, emotional, temperamental, and behavioral
    traits (cheerfulness, irritability)
  • Typological models
  • Identify broader personality types, or styles
    that represent how traits are organized within
    individuals

3
Young Adulthood Personality Development
  • Normative-stage models
  • Erikson
  • Personality changes throughout life
  • Intimacy versus Isolation
  • Vaillant (1977)
  • Adaptive mechanisms
  • Mature (using humor or helping others)
  • Immature (developing aches and pains with no
    physical basis)
  • Psychotic (distorting reality)
  • Neurotic (repressing anxiety or developing
    irrational fears)
  • Levinson (1986)
  • Evolving life structure People shape their life
    structures during overlapping eras of about 20 to
    25 years each.
  • Validity of studies is questionable
  • Based on research using mostly men
  • Based on small groups of all white middle-class
    to upper-middle-class men
  • Most important message is adults continue to
    change, develop and grow

4
Young Adulthood Personality Development
  • Timing-of-Events
  • Course of development depends on when certain
    events occur in peoples lives.
  • Normative Life Events are commonly expected life
    experiences that occur at customary times
  • Marriage
  • Parenthood
  • Grandparenthood
  • Retirement
  • Events are normative when they are on time
  • People are aware of their won social clock
  • Crises may result, not from reaching a certain
    age but from the unexpected occurrence and timing
    of life events.
  • Model is limited because model only fits when
    cultures and historical periods in which norms of
    behavior are stable and widespread

5
Young Adulthood Trait Models (Costa and McCraes
five Factors)
Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Co
nscientiousness
6
Young Adulthood Costa and McCraes
  • Continuity of personality
  • Analysis is cross-sectional, longitudinal, and
    sequential from large sample sizes
  • Critics of model
  • Statistical and methodological problems
  • Based largely on subjective ratings
  • Model looks at only individual differences in
    trait groupings
  • No theoretical framework for understanding how
    personality works within the person

7
Young Adulthood Typological Models
  • Typological Models
  • Personality as functioning whole that affects and
    reflects attitudes, values, behavior, and social
    interactions
  • Ego-resilient
  • Adaptability under stress
  • Well adjusted self-confident, independent,
    articulate, attentive, helpful, cooperative, and
    task-focused
  • Overcontrolled
  • Shy, quiet, anxious, dependable, withdraw from
    conflict
  • Undercontrolled
  • Active, energetic, impulsive, stubborn, and
    easily distracted
  • Traits established in childhood may predict
    trajectories (long term patterns)

8
Young Adulthood Integrating Approaches
9
Young Adulthood Foundations of Intimate
Relationships
  • Resolve conflicts with parents in wholesome way
    or may reenact similar conflicts in new
    relationships with friends, colleagues, and
    partners
  • Seek emotional and physical intimacy in
    relationship with peers and romantic partners
  • Gain skills in
  • Self-awareness
  • Empathy
  • Communicate emotions
  • Sexual decision making
  • Conflict resolution
  • Sustain commitments

10
Young Adulthood Foundations of Intimate
Relationships
  • Intimate relationships are crucial task of young
    adulthood (Erikson)
  • Shared disclosures (self-disclosure)
  • Responsiveness to one anothers needs
  • Mutual acceptance
  • Respect
  • Intimacy includes a sense of belonging
  • Form strong, stable, close, caring relationships
    is powerful motivator of human behavior

11
Young Adulthood Friendship
  • Friendships center on
  • Work
  • Parenting activities
  • Sharing of confidences and advice
  • Young singles rely on friendships to fulfill
    social needs
  • Women have more intimate friendships then men
  • Women find friendships with other women more
    satisfying than those with men
  • Men share information and activities, not
    confidences

12
Young Adulthood Love
  • Sternberg and Barnes elements
  • Intimacy
  • Self-disclosure leads to connection, warmth, and
    trust
  • Passion
  • Inner drives that translate physiological arousal
    into sexual desire
  • Commitment
  • Cognitive decision to love and to stay with the
    beloved

13
Young Adulthood Nonmarital and Marital lifestyles
  • Rules of acceptable behavior are more elastic
    then during the first half 20th century
  • Norms no longer dictate
  • People must get married
  • Stay married
  • Have children
  • At what age

14
Young Adulthood Nonmarital and Marital lifestyles
  • Single Life
  • 45 of 25-29 year olds had never married
  • Black, White, and Latina single women in LA have
    difficulty finding eligible men with similar
    educational and social backgrounds

15
Young Adulthood Gay and Lesbian Relationships
  • 3 of US men and 1½ women call themselves
    homesual or bisexual
  • Ingredients of long-term satisfaction are very
    similar in homosexual and heterosexual
    relationships

16
Young Adulthood Cohabitation
  • Consensual or informal union
  • In US was against the law in 1970
  • Substitute for marriage or trial marriage
  • Relationship tend to be less satisfying than
    marriages
  • Half US couples who marry have lived together
    first
  • Tend to have unconventional attitudes about
    family life
  • Likely to have divorced parents
  • Stepchildren
  • Liberal attitudes toward divorce

17
Young Adulthood Marriage
  • Meets fundamental needs
  • Intimacy
  • Commitment
  • Friendship
  • Affection
  • Sexual fulfillment
  • Companionship
  • Emotional growth
  • Identity and self-esteem

18
Young Adulthood Entering Matrimony
  • Most common way of selecting a mate has been
    through arrangement
  • Free choose of mates norm in western world
  • Transition to married major changes in
  • Sexual functioning
  • Living arrangements
  • Rights and responsibility
  • Attachments
  • Loyalties

19
Young Adulthood Sexual Activity After Marriage
  • Only one-third have intercourse two or more times
    a week
  • More emotional satisfaction from sex then single
    or cohabiting couples
  • Drops sharply after the early months and then
    declines as time goes on
  • May seek sexual intimacy outside the marriage
    after few years

20
Young Adulthood Factors in Marital success or
failure
  • One of the most important factors is sense of
    commitment
  • Success closely associated with
  • Communication
  • Making decisions
  • Dealing with conflict
  • Good marriage
  • Arguing and openly expressing anger
  • Trouble marriage
  • Whining
  • Defensiveness
  • Stubbornness
  • withdrawal

21
Young Adulthood Factors in Marital success or
failure
  • Major predictors of success
  • Age - 20-30 better then teens
  • Education - College grads better then non grads
  • Cohabitation before marriage and having divorced
    parents are predictive of divorce
  • No children better then pregnant or bearing
    children before marriage

22
Domestic Violence
  • Physical, sexual, or psychological maltreatment
    of a spouse, a former spouse, or an intimate
    partner so as to gain or maintain power or
    control
  • Nine out of ten victims in US are women
  • Men profile
  • Less than a high school education
  • Unemployed or intermittently employed
  • Low incomes
  • Alcohol or drug problems
  • Former or estranged husband or former boyfriends
  • Men seeking control or dominance
  • Boys taught by example to prevail though
    aggression and physical force

23
Becoming Parents
  • Preindustrial farming societies
  • Large families were a necessity
  • Helped with family work
  • Care for aging parents
  • Death rate in childhood was high
  • Having lots of children many more would reach
    maturity

24
Parenthood Developmental Experience
  • First baby marks a major transition in parents
    lives
  • Baby changes individuals and changes
    relationships
  • As baby develop, so must parents
  • Fathers today are more involved in childrens
    lives, and childcare and housework than ever
    before.

25
Parenthood Developmental Experience
  • Men with children living with them
  • Less involved in outside social activities
  • More likely to participate in
  • School-related activities
  • Church Groups
  • Community services

26
Parenthood Marital Satisfaction
  • Satisfaction declines during the childraising
    years
  • Both husbands and wives report sharp decline
    during the first four years

27
Dual-Earner Families
  • Two out of three US families with married couple
    and children under 18 years
  • Positive outcomes
  • Raises some families from poverty to
    middle-income
  • Women more independent and share of economic
    power
  • Reduces pressure on men to be providers
  • Equal relationship between husband and wife
  • Better health for both
  • Greater self-esteem for the women
  • Closer relationship between fathers and children

28
Dual-Earner Families
  • Downside
  • Working couples face extra demands on them and
    energy
  • Conflicts between work and family
  • Rivalry between spouses
  • Anxiety and guilt about meeting childrens needs

29
Division of Domestic Work
  • Almost all known societies women have primary
    responsibility for housework and child raising
  • Psychological effects very based on how
    breadwinning and household work are divided
  • Effects depend on how the husband and wife view
    their roles

30
Division of Domestic Work
  • Perception of unfairness contributes most to
    marital instability
  • Fairness depend on the size of the wifes
    financial contribution
  • Co-provider
  • Supplementing husbands income
  • Meaning and importance wife or husband place on
    wifes work

31
When Marriage Ends
  • Average marriage ends in seven to eight years
  • 43 of first marriages end in separation or
    divorce within 15 years
  • 90 of separated couples go on to divorce within
    5 years

32
When Marriage Ends Why the increase?
  • Possible causes
  • More liberal divorce laws
  • No-fault laws
  • More women financially independent
  • Greater damage to children if they stay together
  • More childless couples
  • Young couples expect too much from marriage
  • Take place of their parents
  • Take place of their friends
  • Both confidantes and lovers
  • Conflicts between what men want and what women
    want

33
When Marriage Ends Adjusting to Divorce
  • Divorce is a process not a single event.
  • Some people adjust rather quickly but may tend to
    reduce long-term well-being
  • Reasons
  • Disruption of parent-child relationships
  • Discord with a former spouse
  • Economic hardship
  • Loss of emotional support
  • Moving out of family home
  • Feelings of
  • Failure
  • Blame
  • Hostility
  • Self-recrimination
  • Depression
  • Illness
  • Most important factor is emotional detachment
    from the former spouse (average time is three
    years)

34
Remarriage and Stepparenthood
  • Remarriages are more likely than first marriages
    to end in divorce
  • Greatest during the first five years and
    stepchildren
  • Stepparent more challenging for women then men
  • The more recent the current marriage and the
    older the stepchildren, the harder stepparenting
    seems
  • Less able to separate feelings about the marriage
    from feelings about success as stepparents
About PowerShow.com