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Challenges and the Future Growth of Polymer Products Polymer Engineering Polymer Processing Polymer Science

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Title: Challenges and the Future Growth of Polymer Products Polymer Engineering Polymer Processing Polymer Science


1
Challenges and the Future Growth of Polymer
ProductsPolymer EngineeringPolymer
ProcessingPolymer Science
  • Prof. Gostas G. Gogos
  • New Jersey Institute of Technology and the
    Polymer Processing Institute
  • Chinese Polymer Processing Conference
  • 20 September 2007

2
Thats the Culprit!
Hebea Braziliensis - Latex
  • Used by South American Natives Discovered
    During Globalization 1.0
  • Immense Technological Consequences

3
Globalization 1.0
  • 1492 (Columbus 1st Voyage) 1800 Opening
    trade between the New and Old Worlds
  • World from size Large to size Medium
  • Who? Colonizing European Countries
  • How? Innovative utilization of horse, wind and
    steam (Coal) Power
  • Q Where does my country (and I) fit into Global
    competition and opportunities?

  • T. Friedman, The World is Flat, 2005

4
The Start of Rubber Age
  • In the Beginning a Cottage Industry
  • Growing Applications and Demand Unique
    Properties New Material
  • Establishment Rubber Tree Plantations in
    Portuguese Brazil 25T 1830 6,000T 1860
  • Breakthroughs Hankock (UK) Goodyear (US)
  • Faraday Empirical (C5H8) Priestley coined the
    name Rubber No clue that it was a polymer

5
  • No knowledge that natural rubber is a Polymer
  • Stove-top,
    Edisonian
  • Chemistry
    leads to NR
  • Vulcanization

Masticator Pickle Sulfur Mixer by Thomas
Hancock
Charles Goodyear
6
Globalization 2.0
  • 1800 (J. Watt) 1990s From the Industrial
    Revolution and beyond
  • World from size Medium to size Small
  • Who? White Multi-nationals e.g., Anglo-Dutch
  • How? Hardware falling costs of transportation
    and communication telegraph/phone, the PC,
    fiber-optic and early www
  • Q How does my company fit in global economy?
  • T.Friedman The World
    is Flat, 2005

7
Last Half of 19th CenturyThe Rubber Age
  • Rubber, Gutta-Percha and Cellulosics become
    Essential Materials
  • Rubber- myriads of applications transportation
  • Globalization 2.0 events
  • 1879 70,000 Hebea B. seeds ? UK ? Far East
  • Gutta-Percha for telegraphy, submarine cables
  • 1850 Dover Calais 1860s Transatlantic
    US/UK Under-sea Cable (insulator)

8
CellulosicsFibers, Films, Molded Products
  • Drivers
  • Quest for new, nature-derived materials
  • Abundantly clear success of rubber
  • Entrepreneurial spirit in the wake of rubber
  • Abundant source of raw material Trees
  • Silk supply USA difficulties with Japan

9
The Rubber Age 1850 - 1900
  • Nature-derived Polymers Create First Technology
    Innovation Wave
  • Establishment of lasting effects
  • - Infrastructures
  • - Professionals with High Tolerance for
  • Uncertainty
  • - Practitioners with the sense of being
  • Pioneers and Innovators

10
Processing Equipment
  • 2-roll Mills and Calenders Chaffe 1836
  • Ram Extruders ( UK USA transatlantic submarine
    cable) Bewly 1845
  • Piston-driven IMM Hyatt 1872
  • Single Screw Extruders DeWolfe, Gray, Shaw,
    Royle - 1860-1880
  • CRNITSE - Pfleiderer 1881
  • Gear Pumps Smith 1887

11
US Industrialists
  • John Wesley Hyatt Leo Baekeland

Materials and Processing Equipment New Jersey
the Mecca of Plastics Celluloid, Bakelite
12
Acceptance of Macromolecular Structure and the
Synthetic Polymers Era
  • Hermann Staudinger Wallace Carothers
  • German 1881-1965 American
    1896-1937

Demonstrated Macromolecularity Nobel Chemistry
1953
1926
1931 Polychloroprene (Neoprene) 1934 Nylon
6-6 1932 (ICI) PE High Pressure.
13
The WW II Years
  • Globalization 2.0 put on hold!
  • No NR supplies from SE Asia
  • Vast Classified Synthetic Rubber US National
    RD/Manufacturing Program
  • - Great Incubator for Polymer Science
    Technology (A-Z) - Extensive and Fundamental
    Infrastructure of Experts
  • Products Consumer ? Military (Nylon)

14
The Plastics Era (1945-2000)
  • Global Petrochemical Companies low cost Crude
    Feedstocks (Oil Dependence)
  • A Nation (World) hungry for breakthrough,
    convenience, low-cost plastic products plenty
    military products guns and butter
  • Plenty of WW II-trained scientists, engineers and
    available capital for manufacturing
  • Serious In-house RD. Complete Corporations

15
The Plastics Era Drivers
  • Abundant (Cheap) Petrochemical Feedstocks
  • Constantly Improving New Polymers
  • Z-N Nobel 63
  • Ionic Coordination Polymerization
  • Metallocene 84
  • Polymer Blends
  • Industrial and Academic Research
  • Professional Societies National and Intl

16
Plastics Become Replacement Materialsin the
Plastics Era
  • Low Capital and Processing Costs
  • Very Short Forming Time/unit
  • Very Low Fabrication Energy
  • Controls and Automation
  • Rapid Advances in Processing Equipment High
    Quality!!
  • New Fabrication Methods

17
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18
Polymer Processing Research in the Plastics
Era
  • Elucidate physical transport mechanisms in
    processing machines
  • Formulate mathematical models for machine design
    and improve efficiency of their performance
  • Rudimentary approach to polymer structuring in
    forming and post-forming operations

Touchstones of Modern Polymer Processing NJIT
May 2002
19
Plastics Manufacturing Sector USA - 2002
  • Processing Industry
  • 4th Largest, after cars, electronics
    refining
  • 1.3 of US workers - 400B in domestic
    shipments
  • Mostly medium/small size companies, US
    regional
  • Importing Sector
  • Plastic Materials Producers
  • 16th Largest Industry - 120B in domestic
    shipments
  • Mostly Multinational Petrochemical
    Corporations or
  • Chemical Corporations ALL New
    plants NOT in USA
  • Still an Exporting Sector

20
Globalization 3.0
  • 1990s- ltwwwgt Fall of the Berlin Wall
  • World from size Small to size Tiny w/ Flat
    Playing field!!!
  • Who? Diverse Individuals collaborate/compete
    globally in the web-enabled Tiny world
  • How? Software - all sorts - and Global
    fiber-optic network. www-enabled Plug and Play
  • Where do I fit and how do I collaborate globally?
  • T. Friedman The Word is
    Flat 2005

21
CHALLENGE
  • In-line monitoring and control of the blend
    morphology evolution, thru reactions (microbs?)
    and process variables, in order to obtain the
    desired customized product.

22
China The Last Quarter Century
  • Growth First Policy Globalization 3.0
  • The Speed and Magnitude of Chinas Rise as an
    Economic Power Have no Parallel in History 1990
    2005 Real GDP/capita 270.
  • Heavy Industry Emphasis- In 2005 Produces Steel
    35, 33 Aluminum, 50 Flat Glass and Cement, 2nd
    Largest Producer of Trucks and Cars (after US).
  • Massive Urbanization Almost 1 Billion m²/year
    Additional Residential and Commercial Space.

23
Downside Consequences of Rapid Growth
  • Heavy Industry Growth Demands Massive Energy from
    Coal-fired Plants Additional Power Plants 2005
    - 66GW (UK), 2006 102GW ( as much as France
    consumption)
  • Aluminum Production Energy Demand Same as All
    Energy Needed for Commercial Sector.
  • Rapid Growth Requirements Often Result in
    Sub-optimally Efficient Processes.

24
Historical Examples of Coal Fossil Fuel
Massive Use
  • Has this Happened Before?? Yes, Always!!
  • During Globalization 2.0 Since the Beginning of
    the Industrial Revolution, First in England, then
    Germany, then USA, then Japan and Russia, Korea,
    and China. First Coal, later Coal and Petroleum.
  • Results Environmental Degradation, Because
    of
  • Sub-optimally Efficient
    Plants/Processes.
  • Counter-actions Government Policies, Laws and

  • Incentives for Greener Plants.
  • Global
    Policies Kyoto Agreement.

25
Going Green
  • Inevitable, thus, an imperative !
  • If you have no choice, you have no problem.
  • Most, if not all, technological avenues to
    Greener will be life-process imitating, since
    such processes are green/greener.
  • Polymers are in the eye of the storm in all
    this, as we will see.
  • Fuel Cells Plenty of Oxygen from Air, but What
    is Best/economical route to get Hydrogen?

26
Plastics Are the Green Replacement
MaterialsNow and in the Future
  • Low Capital and Processing Costs
  • Very Short Forming Time/unit
  • Very Low Fabrication Energy
  • Biodegradable
  • Bioderivable

27
Where is the Field Going?Confluent Developments
in the Sciences
  • Rheology
  • Polymer Chemistry
  • Polymer Physics
  • C F M Molecular Dynamics Computing,
  • Laboratory Techniques - Intrumentation
  • Nobels Flory 74, Lehn 87,
  • de Gennes 91, MacDiarmid 00

28
Dream of new Polymer Processing
  • To bridge the gap between science and technology
    in polymer processing using modeling and
    computation of the full thermo-chemical history
    during formation to quantitatively predict
    (product) properties
  • Prof. Han Meijer Dutch Polymer Institute

29
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30
Prof. H. G. Fritz - IKT
31
A Structural Breakdown of Polymer
CompoundingMulti-component, Multi-phase,
Reactive Processing
Raw Material
Finished Product
In-line compounding ??
Handling of Particulate Solids
Melting
Pressurization and Pumping
Shaped and Structured Product
Elementary Steps
Shaping (Forming) and Structuring Step(s)
Mixing
Reactions Involving Melts
Devolatilization and Stripping
Micro-structuring during Melting Mixing
Reactions
What will the Elementary Steps of Polymer
Processing be if the filler can attain a nano
size?.. see ANTEC 2007
32
Huge Challenge
  • Predict the Evolving and Final blend morphologies
    in fully or partially filled 3-D, transient,
    reacting, non-isothermal flows and structuring
    during forming.
  • Rheology, Polymer Physics, Multi-component CFM,
    Massive Computing

33
The Essential Nature of Polymers
The Potential of Infinities of Structures
Structuring
Truly Customized Product Properties
Mass Customization by Processors
CHALLENGE!
34
The Knowledge Bank
Massive Modeling Computation
Massive
Computation
35
The Potential for Mass Customization the Key
to Dramatic Future Growth
Make it technologically and commercially possible
for individual processors to make the custom-made
products with specific long and short term
properties
36
Waves of Technological Innovation in the Business
of Chemistry
  • First Wave Second Wave Third Wave
  • 1850-1910 1930-1965 1990-2020
  • Electrolysis Ziegler Catalyst
    Biotechnology
  • Synthesis etc. High Pressure Reactions
    Membrane Separation
  • Inorganic Fert Dies
    Petrochemicals Spec. Life Sciences
    Special
  • Coal Minerals Hydrocarbons Microbes?
  • Soda Ash, Sulfuric Acid Thermoplastics
    New Functional Materials
  • Ammonium Nitrate, PE,PVC, PP, Nylon,
    Biopharmaceuticals
  • Rayon, Celluloid Polyester, SBR, Penicillin
    Nutritional supliments
  • Aspirin, Dies etc. Pesticides
    etc. Crop protection
  • Biocatalysts.
  • T.K. Swift ,Where is the Business in Chemistry
    Going? A Techno economic Viewpoint
  • ACS Division of Business Development
    Management Symposium

The Chemical Industry in the New Millennium
Mature or Poised for Growth??
37
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38
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39
The Life Sciences Era (1940s 2000s)
  • Biochemistry Chemistry of enzyme-catalyzed
    reactions in living organisms
  • Molecular Biology Biology at molecular and
    meso-scale level to understand interactons
    between the cell systems.
  • Enablers Confluence of Instrumentation
    Computers Molecular Dynamics

40
M. Jaffe 2005
41
Controlled complexity
Next Innovation Wave
biotechnology
biology
nano chemistry
synthetic chemistry
Diversity
J-M. Lehn (Nobel 1987) Supra-molecular
Chemistry Pergamon Press (1995)
42
Biological Scale Hierarchy
AminoAcids DNA
Cellular Nanostructures (Introduce
n-size sensors/cures)
Organisms
43
Synthetic Nanoparticles(1(?) 100 nm)
  • New Materials!
  • Why? As size is reduced to the nano-range, their
    properties change because of size confinement
  • New Opportunities!
  • Why? Again, in the nano-size range, huge (S/V)
    surface dominated effects

44
Nanomaterials and Nanodevices
Atoms/Molecules
Nanotech
Nano Particles, Tubes
Nanomaterials
Nano Assemlies
Nanodevices
Biology DNA Cellular Structures Organisms
Molecular Meso
Micro
45
Micro-molding (1970s - )
  • Micro-molded Parts (100s µ) for Micro-systems
    (mms).
  • Enabler for this key Technology More Functions
    in Less Space.
  • Un-thought off Applications Micro sensors,
    -pumps, -implantable devices, -surgical
    instruments, -motors Mobile Telephony..
  • Technology Volume 2004 11.5bn 20/yr
  • Demand for smaller. Process Limitations
    simulation challenges Nano-molding

46
The Macromolecular Era (Multi-disciplinary)
gt1990
The Fusion of Science and Technology Parallel
and Converging Eras in
  • Polymers
  • Instrumentation
  • Computing Power
  • Now 1 Qn Computations/s
  • Life Sciences
  • Nanomaterials
  • ltwwwgt

47
Acknowledgements
  • The Organizing Committee of Touchstones of
    Modern Polymer Processing, Intl Workshop
    NJIT/PPI, 2002
  • Long Discussions with Prof. Zehev Tadmor
  • Presentations by and discussions with Marino
    Xanthos, Margaret Bauman, Mike Jaffe and Kun Sup
    Hyun and my PPI Colleagues.
  • Harry duBois Plastics History-USA Cahners 1985
  • H. Morawetz Polymers-The Growth of a Science
    Wiley 1984
  • T. Friedman The World in Flat Strauss 2005,

48
Thank you!
  • ??????????
  • ??????
  • Good Luck!!

49
  • Most existing journals are associated with
    traditional disciplines, however, the borders of
    physics, chemistry, and life and materials
    sciences are increasingly fading. Soft Matter
    will provide a multi-disciplinary platform for
    the exchange of information, thereby promoting
    interaction of the different soft matter
    communities.
  • Ullrich Steiner
    (Editorial Board Chair) 2005

50
Where Were Spain and England 1900s? And Where
Are China and the USA Today?
  • Stately Spanish galleon coming from the Isthmus,
  • Dipping through the Tropics by the palm-green
    shores
  • With cargo of diamonds,
  • Emeralds, amethysts,
  • Topazes and cinnamon and gold moidores
  • Dirty British coaster with salt-caked smoke
    stack,
  • Butting through the Channel in the mad March
    days,
  • With cargo of Tyne coal,
  • Road rails, pig-lead,
  • Fire-wood, iron-ware and cheap tin trays
  • From Cargoes, a
    poem by John Mansfield (1900s)
  • In Harry
    Dubois Plastics History USA 1972
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