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General Psychology


General Psychology Zhejiang University School of Medicine Ai-Min Bao M.D. Ph. D. Psychology the analytic and scientific study of mental processes and behavior ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Psychology

General Psychology
  • Zhejiang University School of Medicine
  • Ai-Min Bao M.D. Ph. D.

  • the analytic and scientific study of mental
    processes and behavior
  • perception, cognition, emotion, personality,
    behavior, and interpersonal relationships
  • application of such knowledge to various spheres
    of human activity and the treatment of mental
    health problems
  • incorporating the underlying physiological and
    neurological processes into its conceptions of
    mental functioning

History of Psychology
  • Philosophical and scientific roots
  • ancient civilizations
  • medieval Muslim psychologists and physicians
  • 1879 (birthdate of psychology an independent
    experimental study field), the first lab in
    Leipzig University, Germany. Wilhelm Wundt,
    father of psychology
  • American philosopher William James (Principles of
    Psychology, 1890) Hermann Ebbinghaus, a pioneer
    in the experimental study of memory
  • Ivan Pavlov, the learning
    process---classical conditioning
  • Psychoanalysis
  • 1890s, Austrian physician Sigmund Freud,
  • interpretive methods, introspection and clinical
    observations, focused in particular on resolving
    unconscious conflict, mental distress and
  • Philosopher Karl Popper argued that Freud's
    psychoanalytic theories were presented in
    untestable form. Freud's theories with subjective
    nature, are often of limited interest to many
    scientifically-oriented psychology departments.
  • neo-Freudians

History of Psychology
  • Behaviorism
  • Early decades of the 20th century a guiding
    psychological theory
  • Founded by John B. Watson
  • Animal experimentation in the laboratory.
  • The subject matter of psychology should be
    operationalized with standardized procedures
    which led psychology to focus on behavior, not
    the mind or consciousness.
  • Watson Psychology is a purely objective
    experimental branch of natural science,,
    introspection forms no essential part of its
    methods, and the behaviorist recognizes no
    dividing line between man and brute.
  • Skinner rejected hypothesis testing too
    conducive to speculate theories.
  • Linguist Noam Chomsky the contribution of the
    child in the acquisition of language, humans are
    born with a natural ability to acquire language.
  • Albert Bandura (social learning theory) children
    could learn aggression from a role model through
    observational learning, without any change in
    overt behavior, and so must be accounted for by
    internal processes.

History of Psychology
  • Existentialism and humanism
  • Humanistic psychology developed in the 1950s,
    arising largely from the existential philosophy
    of writers such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Søren
  • By using phenomenology, intersubjectivity and
    first-person categories, the humanistic approach
    seeks to glimpse the whole person, not just the
    fragmented parts of the personality or cognitive
  • Humanism focuses on uniquely human issues and
    fundamental issues of life, such as
    self-identity, death, aloneness, freedom, and
  • Some of the founding theorists Abraham Maslow
    who formulated a hierarchy of human needs, Carl
    Rogers who created and developed Client-centered
    therapy, and Fritz Perls who helped create and
    develop Gestalt therapy.
  • called the "third force" within psychology (along
    with behaviorism and psychoanalysis).

History of Psychology
  • Cognitivism
  • As computer technology proliferated, so emerged
    the metaphor of mental function as information
  • combined with a scientific approach to studying
    the mind, as well as a belief in internal mental
  • two key ways different from other psychological
    perspectives First, it accepts the use of the
    scientific method, and generally rejects
    introspection as a method of investigation.
    Second, it explicitly acknowledges the existence
    of internal mental states (such as belief, desire
    and motivation), whereas behaviorism does not
  • Links between brain and nervous system function
    also became understood
  • With the development of technologies for
    measuring brain function, neuropsychology and
    cognitive neuroscience have become increasingly
    active areas of contemporary psychology.

The goals of psychology study
  • Describe to observe behavior and describe what
    was observed as objectively as possible
  • Explain to go beyond what is obvious and
    explain the observations, i.e. why did the
    subject do what he or she did?
  • Predict Once we know what happens, and why it
    happens, we can begin to speculate what will
    happen in the future. The best predictor of
    future behavior is past behavior.
  • Control Once we know what happens, why it
    happens and what is likely to happen in the
    future, we can excerpt control over it.
  • Improve Not only do psychologists attempt to
    control behavior, they want to do so in a
    positive manner, they want to improve a persons

Research on Psychology
  • Psychology is not an absolute science and is
    often referred to as a 'Social Science' or a
    'Soft Science.' 
  • It deals with human thoughts, feelings, and
    behavior while humans are not always predictable
    and reliable. 
  • We interact with our environment in ways that
    alter how we behave, think, and feel change one
    thing and the domino effect can change everything
  • Nevertheless, research plays an extremely
    important role in psychology helps to understand
    what makes people think, feel, and act in certain
    ways to categorize psychological disorders in
    order to understand the symptoms and impact on
    the individual and society to understand how
    intimate relationships, development, schools,
    family, peers, and religion affect us as
    individuals and as a society and to develop
    effective treatments to improve the quality of
    life of individuals and groups.

Research on Psychology
  • typically used for the following
  • Study development and external factors and the
    role they play on individuals' mental health
  • Study people with specific psychological
    disorders, symptoms, or characteristics
  • Develop tests to measure specific psychological
  • Develop treatment approaches to improve
    individuals' mental health

Experimental Methods
  • Theory (in psychology) a general principle
    proposed to explain how a number of separate
    facts are related.
  • --- In order to test whether a theory is correct
    or not, we need to do research.
  • Theories are stated in general terms, so we need
    to define more accurately what we will be doing
    in our experiment---we need to define the
    variables (Any factor which has the potential to
    influence another factor in a research study) in
    our theory so that they are testable.
  • Every experiment has two types of variables
    Independent Variable (IV) the variable that is
    manipulated by the experimenter (input variable)
    and Dependent Variable (DV) the outcome
    variable (results of the experiment)

Experimental Methods
  • By defining the variables that are used to test
    the theory, it derives a Hypothesis, which is a
    testable form of a theory.
  • For example we have a theory that people who
    drive sports cars are more aggressive in
    interactions with others. Our independent
    variable would be the type of car he drives
    (sports, sedan, SUV, etc.). Our dependent
    variables, the outcome of our research, would be
    aggression. We would need to further define
    aggression so that it is something we can test
    such as speeding or cutting other people off in
    traffic. We now have the basics of our very
    simple experiment and can write our Hypothesis
    People who drive sports cars drive over the speed
    limit more frequently than people who drive other
    types of cars.

Research Biases
  • Some aspects of research can contaminate our
    results, called research biases
  • three main biases
  • Selection Bias Errors in the selection and
    placement of subjects into groups that results in
    differences between groups which could effect the
    results of an experiment. occurs when
    differences between groups are present at the
    beginning of the experiment.
  • Placebo Effect The phenomenon in research where
    the subjects beliefs about the outcome can
    significantly effect the outcome without any
    other intervention. E.g. if one believes the new
    medication will help him feel better, he may feel
    better even if the new medication is only a sugar
    pill. This demonstrates the power of the mind to
    change a persons perceptions of reality.
  • ?Experimenter Bias Errors in a research study
    due to the predisposed notions or beliefs of the
    experimenter. If Im doing an experiment, and
    really believe my treatment works, or I really
    want the treatment to work because it will mean
    big bucks for me, I might behave in a manner that
    will influence the subject.

Controlling for Biases
  • To control for selection bias, most experiments
    use whats called Random Assignment, which means
    assigning the subjects to each group based on
    chance rather than human decision.
  • To control for the placebo effect, subjects are
    often not informed of the purpose of the
    experiment, which is called a Blind study (the
    type of study is designed without the subject's
    knowledge of the anticipated results and
    sometimes even the nature of the study.  The
    subjects are said to be 'blind' to the expected
  • To control for experimenter biases, we can
    utilize a Double-Blind study (in which both the
    subjects and the experimenter are unaware or
    'blind' to the purpose and the anticipated

  • With hypothesis, and knowing what the subject
    pool is, the next step is to standardize
    (Standardization The process of making a test or
    procedure the same for everyone so that results
    can be compared to each other) the experiment.
    Standardization refers to a specific set of
  • Two reasons for standardization First, to make
    sure all subjects are given the same
    instructions, presented with the experiment in
    the same manner, and that all of the data is
    collected exactly the same or all subjects.
    Second, experiments need to be replicated by
    other experimenters with different subjects. To
    do this, the experimenters need to know exactly
    what was done so they can replicate it.

  • Methods of quantification on psychological
  • Description, Sequential numbering, Indirect and
    Direct quantification
  • Methods of research
  • Observation, investigation, psychological test,
    experiment, case study, sampling, longitudinal
    and cross-sectional study

Types of Research
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • the simplest form, the subject (s) is (are)
    observed without interruption under normal or
    natural circumstances.
  • Often involves counting behaviors number of
    aggressive acts, number of smiles, etc.
  • Advantages Behavior is naturally occurring, and
    it provide more qualitative data as opposed to
    merely quantitative information.
  • Limitations the presence of someone observing
    researchers beliefs, difficult to coordinate
    multiple observers---observed behaviors must be
    operationally defined (e.g. what constitutes an
    aggressive act)
  • Case Study
  • Following a single case, typically over an
    extended period of time
  • Can involve naturalistic observations, and
    include psychological testing, interviews,
    interviews with others, and the application of a
    treatment or observation
  • Advantages extensive information, both
    qualitative and quantitative be helpful in
    better understanding rare cases or very specific
  • Limitations limited generalization to the rest
    of the population time consuming involve other
    problems specific to the techniques used,
    including researcher bias.

Types of Research
  • Survey (in which subjects respond to a series of
  • Advantages large amounts of information in a
    relatively short time.
  • Limitations based solely upon subjects
    responses which can be inaccurate due to outright
    lying, misunderstanding of the question, placebo
    effect, and even the manner in which the question
    is asked.
  • Correlational Studies (The degree to which two or
    more variables a related to each other, and how
    strong it is. A correlation refers to the
    direction that the variables move and does not
    necessarily represent cause and effect)
  • Advantages assess the strength of a
    relationship popular with lay population because
    relatively easy to explain and understand.
  • Limitations Can not make any assumptions of
    cause and effect (explain how third a variable
    can be involved, or how the variables can
    influence each other).
  • Psychological Testing Utilizing testing to
    gather information about a group or an individual
  • Advantages Most tests are normed and
    standardized, which means they have very reliable
    and valid results.
  • Limitations Tests which are not rigorously
    normed and standardized can easily result in
    inaccurate results.

Psychological phenomena
  • commonness
  • individuality

Psychological process (focal or global brain
sensation (sensory cortex, sensory system),
perception (visual, auditory, smell), attention
(RAS, noradrenergic, histaminergic system),
thinking (PFC), memory ()
cognition process emotion process
feeling, emotion (limbic structures)
Personality (global brain structures)
motivation (PFC, cingulate cortex that is part of
limbic system), interest
Individual inclination Individual
psychological character
Sensation and Perception
  • Although intimately related, sensation and
    perception play two complimentary but different
    roles in how we interpret our world.
  • Sensation the process of sensing our environment
    through touch, taste, sight, sound, and smell.---
    The information is sent to our brains in raw form
    where perception comes into play.
  • Perception the way we interpret these sensations
    and therefore make sense of everything around

Sensory deprivation the deliberate reduction or
removal of stimuli from one or more of the
senses. Simple devices such as blindfolds or
hoods and earmuffs can cut off sight and hearing
respectively more complex devices can also cut
off the sense of smell, touch, taste,
thermoception (heat-sense), and 'gravity'.
Though short periods of sensory deprivation can
be relaxing, extended deprivation can result in
extreme anxiety, hallucinations, bizarre
thoughts, depression, and antisocial behavior.
(Isolation tank with flip top lid opened
lightless, soundproof tank in which subjects
float in salty water at skin temperature)
  • A large amount of information is being sensed at
    any one time
  • The majority of our world never gets recognized
  • Our thresholds are different from animals and
    from each other
  • Absolute Threshold the point at which a stimuli
    goes from undetectable to detectable to our
  • Difference Threshold the amount of change needed
    for us to recognize that a change has occurred
    (the Just Noticeable Difference)
  • Weber's Law

Weber's Law the size of the just noticeable
difference (delta I) is a constant (k) proportion
of the original stimulus value (I) Delta I/
I k (Delta I the difference threshold I the
initial stimuli intensity)
  • Signal Detection Theory to focus the attention
    on certain things while at the same time
    attempting to ignore the flood of information
    entering the senses, i.e. to make a determination
    as to what is important to sense and what is
    background noise. 
  • Sensory Adaptation The process of becoming less
    sensitive to unchanging stimulus
  • Sensory interaction
  • Sensory Compensation

  • The interpretation of what we take in through our
  • The way we perceive our environment makes us
    different from other animals and from each other.
  • Various theories on how our sensation are
    organized and interpreted, i.e. how we make sense
    of what we see, hear, taste, touch, and smell.
  • Gestalt Principles of Grouping the whole is
    greater than the sum of its parts. We attempt to
    organize the information into certain groups,
    which allows us to interpret the information
    completely without unneeded repetition. 
  • For example, when you see one dot, you perceive
    it as such, but when you see five dots together,
    you group them together by saying a "row of
  • The Gestalt principles of grouping include Four
    types similarity, proximity, continuity, and

  • Similarity our tendency to group things together
    based upon how similar to each other they are. 
    (we tend to see two rows of blue dots and two
    rows of black dots.  The dots are grouped
    according to similar color). 
  • Proximity our tendency to group things together
    based upon of how close they are to each other.
    (we tend to perceive three columns of two lines
    each rather than six different lines.  The lines
    are grouped according to their proximity to one
  • Continuity our tendency to see patterns and
    therefore perceive things as belonging together
    if they form some type of continuous pattern. (it
    begins to look like an "X" as we perceive the
    upper left side as continuing all the way to the
    lower right and the lower left all the way to the
    upper right). 
  • Closure our tendency to complete familiar
    objects that have gaps in them.  (we perceive a
    circle and a square).

  • Perceptual Constancy the perception of an object
    or quality as constant under changing conditions.
    There are typically three constancies discussed,
    including size, shape, brightness, distance,
  • Size constancy our ability to see objects as
    maintaining the same size even when our distance
    from them makes things appear larger or smaller,
    which holds true for all of our senses. 
  • Shape constancy our ability to perceive objects
    as maintaining the same shape even when our angle
    from them makes things appear distorted.
  • Brightness constancy our ability to recognize
    that color remains the same regardless of how it
    looks under different levels of light. 

  • Perceiving Distance (Depth Perception) we only
    have access to two-dimensional images. How do we
    see a 3-D world using only the 2-D retinal
  • Two different cues monocular and binocular. 

Monocular cues seen using only one eye. Size
larger images especially if the two images are of
the same object more detailed Textur(ed) are
closer. Overlap the object covering part of
another closer. Shading or shadows closer
objects cast longer shadows that overlap objects
which are farther away.  Height objects which
are closer to the bottom of our visual field are
seen as closer to us due to our perception of the
horizon. Clarity (similar to texture), objects
tend to get blurry as they get farther away. 
  • Binocular cues those depth cues in which both
    eyes are needed to perceive. 
  • Convergence the fact that the closer an object,
    the more inward our eyes need to turn in order to
    focus.  The farther our eyes converge, the closer
    an object appears to be. 
  • Retinal disparity The slight difference in
    retinal images that arises because of the lateral
    separation of the two eyes that stimulates
    stereoscopic vision.

e.g., Autostereogram formed by superimposing two
repeating patterns
Perception and reality
  • Selective Perception any number of cognitive
    biases in psychology related to the way
    expectations affect perception.
  • Perceptual selection select information with
    priority for further processing, i.e. separate
    the object from the background with priority.
  • ambiguous image also shows wave of attention

an ambiguous image has multiple interpretations
on the perceptual level
Perception and illusion
  • Sensory Comprehension during perception, we
    process the perceived information based upon our
    preconceived idea about it, i.e. our knowledge
    and/or experience. We give summary with language
    and define the meaning of it in order to mark it.
  • The processes of perception routinely alter what
    humans see.
  • Humans are unable to understand new information,
    without the inherent bias of their previous
  • Illusions and Paradoxes our visual perception
    cannot always be trusted. The components of an
    object can distort the perception of the complete
    object. Our mind is the final arbiter of truth.

Perception illusions and paradoxes
Most optical illusions are the result of 1)
incongruent design elements at opposite ends of
parallel lines, 2) influence of background
patterns on the overall design, 3) adjustment of
our perception at the boundaries of areas of high
contrast, 4) afterimages resulting from eye
movements or from kinetic displays, or 5)
inability to interpret the spatial structure of
an object from the context provided by the
  • Attention the cognitive process of selectively
    concentrating on one aspect of the environment
    while ignoring other things.
  • William James, in his monumental Principles of
    Psychology (1890), remarked
  • Everyone knows what attention is. It is the
    taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid
    form, of one out of what seem several
    simultaneously possible objects or trains of
    thought. Focalization, concentration, of
    consciousness are of its essence. It implies
    withdrawal from some things in order to deal
    effectively with others, and is a condition which
    has a real opposite in the confused, dazed,
    scatterbrained state which in French is called
    distraction, and Zerstreutheit in German.
  • Sometimes attention shifts to matters unrelated
    to the external environment, a phenomenon
    referred to as mind-wandering or "spontaneous

  • Two primary themes characterize attention
  • Perceptual gating (selection) Conscious
    perception is always selective, but selection is
    not always conscious
  • Capacity limitation Our limited ability to carry
    out various mental operations at the same time

Competing hypothesis early selection - physical
characteristics of messages are used to select
one message for further processing and all others
are lost (Broadbent, 1958) attenuation -
physical characteristics are used to select one
message for full processing and other messages
are given partial processing (Treisman, 1964)
late selection - all messages get through, but
only one response can be made (Deutsch Deutsch,
Thinking and Problem solving
  • Thinking a higher cognitive function, to model
    the world and to deal with it according to
    certain objectives, plans, desires, etc.
  • Words referring to similar concepts and processes
    include cognition, sentience, consciousness,
    idea, and imagination.
  • Cerebral manipulation of information when we form
    concepts, engage in problem solving, reason and
    make decisions.
  • Basic process of thinking
  • pattern matching or pattern recognition the
    intellect maintains present experience and sorts
    relevant past experience
  • Reasoning The intellect can mix, match, merge,
    sift, and sort concepts, perceptions, and
    experience. Logic is the science of reasoning.
    The awareness of this process of reasoning is
    access consciousness.

Thinking and Problem solving
  • Problem solving forms part of thinking
  • The Yerkes-Dodson Law an empirical relationship
    between arousal and performance, originally
    developed by psychologists, Robert M. Yerkes and
    J. D. Dodson in 1908.
  • The performance increases with physiological or
    mental arousal, but only up to a point. When
    levels of arousal become too high, performance

Different tasks require different levels of
arousal for optimal performance. For example,
difficult or intellectually demanding tasks may
require a lower level of arousal (to facilitate
concentration), whereas tasks demanding stamina
or persistence may be performed better with
higher levels of arousal (to increase
motivation). The Yerkes-Dodson law predicts that
overlearning can improve performance in states of
high arousal
  • Ever wonder why some people seem to be very
    successful, highly motivated individuals?  Where
    does the energy, the drive, or the direction come
  • There are several distinct theories of
    motivation, some include basic biological forces,
    while others seem to transcend concrete
  • Five major theories of motivation 

  • Instinct Theory
  • Derived from our biological make-up All
    creatures are born with specific innate knowledge
    about how to survive. 
  • These innate tendencies are preprogrammed at
    birth, they are in our genes.  
  • Humans babies are born with a unique ability that
    allows them to survive the ability of crying
    and particular reflexes which promote survival
    sucking, swallowing, coughing, blinking. 
  • Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Sigmund Freud and his five part theory of
  • The belief humans have only two basic drives
    Eros and Thanatos, or the Life and Death drives
    everything we do, every thought we have, and
    every emotion we experience has one of two goals
    to help us survive or to prevent our
  • Is it similar to instinct theory? (not really)
    Freud the vast majority of our knowledge about
    these drives is buried in the unconscious part of
    the mind.

  • Drive Reduction Theory
  • According to Clark Hull (1943, 1952) humans have
    internal biological needs which motivate us to
    perform a certain way.  These needs/drives, are
    defined by Hull as internal states of arousal or
    tension which must be reduced. 
  • A prime example the internal feelings
    of hunger or thirst motivates us to eat. 
  • Arousal Theory
  • Similar to Hull's Drive Reduction Theory, it
    states that we are driven to maintain a certain
    level of arousal in order to feel comfortable. 
    Arousal refers to a state of emotional,
    intellectual, and physical activity.  It is
    different from Drive Reduction Theory in that it
    does not rely on only reduction of tension, but a
    balanced amount (why people climb mountains, go
    to school, or watch sad movies). 

  • Humanistic Theory
  • The most well-known theory of motivation. 
  • Humans are driven to achieve their maximum
    potential and will always do so unless obstacles
    are placed in their way. Nobody has ever reached
    their maximum potential
  • The obstacles hunger, thirst, financial
    problems, safety issues, or anything else that
    takes our focus away from maximum psychological
  • The famous pyramid the Hierarchy of Needs.   

Abraham Maslow, American psychologist (1908-1970)
  • The terms of emotion and feeling are difficult
    to define and even more difficult to understand
  • Closely related terms
  • Affect, a synonym for emotion, used when the
    emotional experience has been qualified (e.g.,
    intense, labile, or appropriate affect) or
    quantified (e.g., a high score on a scale that
    measures positive emotion).
  • Affect display, external display of emotion
    (e.g., facial expression, body posture, voice
  • Disposition, a durable differentiating
    characteristic of a person, a tendency to react
    to certain classes of situations with a certain
  • Feeling, the subjective, phenomenological aspect
    of emotion (e.g., the internal experience of
    anxiety, sadness, love, pride, and so forth).
  • Mood, an emotional state of duration intermediate
    between an emotion and a disposition (e.g.,
    depressed, euphoric, neutral, or irritable mood).
  • Motivation, a state which generates actions.
    Similar to desire.

  • Affect display, external display of emotion
    (e.g., facial expression, body posture, voice
  • Facial expression
  • results from one or more motions or positions of
    the muscles of the face. The movements convey the
    emotional state of the individual to observers.
  • a form of nonverbal communication, primary means
    of conveying social information among humans, but
    also occur in most other mammals and some other
    animal species.
  • Humans can adopt a facial expression as a
    voluntary action. However, because expressions
    are closely tied to emotion, they are more often

Example a person who is trying to avoid insult
to an individual he or she finds highly
unattractive might nevertheless show a brief
expression of disgust before being able to
reassume a neutral expression.
  • The close link between emotion and expression can
    also work in the other direction voluntarily
    assuming an expression can actually cause the
    associated emotion.
  • Some expressions can be accurately interpreted
    even between members of different species- anger
    and extreme contentment being the primary
    examples. Others are difficult even in familiar
  • Some faces are often falsely read

Photographs from the 1862 book Mécanisme de la
Physionomie Humaine by Guillaume Duchenne.
Through electric stimulation, Duchenne determined
which muscles were responsible for different
facial expressions.
  • The mainstream definition of emotion refers to a
    feeling state involving thoughts, physiological
    changes, and an outward expression or
    behavior. ---What comes first? 
  • Five theories which attempt to understand why we
    experience emotion

James-Lange Theory  An event causes
physiological arousal first and then we interpret
this arousal.  Only after our interpretation of
the arousal can we experience emotion.  EXAMPLE
You are walking down a dark alley late at night. 
You hear footsteps behind you and you begin to
tremble, your heart beats faster, and your
breathing deepens.  You notice these
physiological changes and interpret them as your
body's preparation for a fearful situation.  You
then experience fear.
  • Cannon-Bard Theory
  • We experience physiological arousal and emotional
    at the same time, but gives no attention to the
    role of thoughts or outward behavior.    
  • EXAMPLE You are walking down a dark alley late
    at night.  You hear and your breathing
    deepens.  At the same time as these physiological
    changes occur you also experience the emotion of

  • Schachter-Singer Theory
  • An event causes physiological arousal first.  You
    must then identify a reason for this arousal and
    then you are able to experience and label the
  • EXAMPLE You are walking down a dark alley late
    at night.  You hear and your breathing
    deepens.  Upon noticing this arousal you realize
    that is comes from the fact that you are walking
    down a dark alley by yourself.  This behavior is
    dangerous and therefore you feel the emotion of
  • Lazarus Theory
  • A thought must come before any emotion or
    physiological arousal.   
  • EXAMPLE You are walking down a dark alley late
    at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and you
    think it may be a mugger so you begin to tremble,
    your heart beats faster, and your breathing
    deepens and at the same time experience fear.

  • Facial Feedback Theory
  • Emotion is the experience of changes in our
    facial muscles --- when we smile, we then
    experience pleasure, or happiness when we frown,
    we then experience sadness. 
  • The changes in our facial muscles cue our brains
    and provide the basis of our emotions.
  • unlimited number of muscle configurations
    unlimited emotions
  • EXAMPLE You are walking down a dark alley late
    at night.  You hear footsteps behind you and your
    eyes widen, your teeth clench and your brain
    interprets these facial changes as the expression
    of fear.  Therefore you experience the emotion of

Personality Development
  • Most theorist break the development down into
    specific stages. 
  • These stages are typically progressive, i.e. you
    must pass through one stage before you can get to
    the next.
  • EXAMPLE You learned to run first
    crawl, then walk, and finally develop the skills
    needed to run.  Without the first two stages,
    running would be an impossibility.
  • Most of the stage theories are progressive,
    although in some, such as Erikson's psychosocial
    and Freud's psychosexual, a person can fail to
    complete the stage while still continuing. This
    failure, however, will result in difficulties
    later in life according to the theories. 

Motor Development in Infancy and Childhood
  • Most in the same order and at approximately the
    same age
  • The environment does play a role---an enriched
    one often reducing the learning time while an
    impoverished one doing the opposite
  • The following chart delineates the development of
    infants in sequential order (ages shown are
    averages, normal for these to vary by a month or
    two in either direction)
  • 2 months able to lift head up on his own
  • 3 months can roll over
  • 4 months can sit propped up without falling
  • 6 months is able to sit up without support
  • 7 months begins to stand while holding on to
    things for support
  • 9 months can begin to walk, still using support
  • 10 months is able to momentarily stand on her
    own without support
  • 11 months can stand alone with more confidence
  • 12 months begin walking alone without support
  • 14 months can walk backward without support
  • 17 months can walk up steps with little or no
  • 18 months able to manipulate objects with feet
    while walking, such as kicking a ball

Cognitive Development in Children---Piaget
Jean Piagets Theory of Cognitive
Development Children go through specific stages
as their intellect and ability to see
relationships matures. These stages are completed
in a fixed order with all children, even those in
other countries. The age range, however can vary
from child to child.
  • Sensorimotor Stage
  • Between the birth and two years
  • begin to understand the information entering
    their sense and their ability to interact with
    the world.
  • learns to manipulate objects although they fail
    to understand the permanency of them if they are
    not within their current sensory perception.
  • The major achievement during this stage is that
    of Object Permanency (The understanding that
    objects exist even when they are not directly
    observed) which occurs during the end of this

Jean Piaget (born in Switzerland ) 1896 - 1980
Cognitive Development in Children---Piaget
  • Preoperational Stage
  • Begins after Object Permanency is achieved and
    occurs between the ages of two to seven years
  • the development of language occurs at a rapid
  • marked by Egocentrism, or the childs belief that
    everyone sees the world the same way that she
  • A second important factor Conservation, the
    ability to understand that quantity does not
    change if the shape changes.
  • Example if a short and wide glass of
    water is poured into a tall and thin glass,
    children in this stage (not the end of the stage)
    will perceive the taller glass as having more
    water due only because to its height.
  • Reason the childrens inability to
    understand reversibility and they focus on only
    one aspect of a stimulus (called Centralization
    A young child's tendency to focus only on his or
    her own perspective of a specific object and a
    failure to understand that others may see things
    differently), such as height, as opposed to
    understanding other aspects, such as glass width.

Cognitive Development in Children---Piaget
  • Concrete Operations Stage
  • Occurring between ages 7 and about 12
  • marked by a gradual decrease in centralistic
    thought and the increased ability to focus on
    more than one aspect of a stimulus.
  • understand the concept of grouping a small dog
    and a large dog are still both dogs pennies,
    quarters, and dollar bills are part of the bigger
    concept of money.
  • only apply this new understanding to concrete
    objects ( those they have actually experienced),
    i.e. imagined objects or those they have not
    seen, heard, or touched, continue to remain
    somewhat mystical to these children, and abstract
    thinking has yet to develop.

Cognitive Development in Children---Piaget
  • Formal Operations Stage
  • the final stage of cognitive development (from
    age 12 and beyond)
  • begin to develop a more abstract view of the
    world, are able to apply reversibility and
    conservation to both real and imagined
  • develop the idea of cause and effect.
  • by the teenage years, be able to develop their
    own theories about the world.
  • achieved by most children, failure is associated
    with lower intelligence.
  • Puberty behavior

Cognitive Development ---Erikson
Children develop in a predetermined order (like
Piaget) Interested in how children socialize and
how this affects their sense of self Eriksons
Theory of Psychosocial Development (not only for
children) eight distinct stage, each with two
possible outcomes successful completion of each
stage results in a healthy personality and
successful interactions with others failure to
complete a stage can result in a reduced ability
to complete further stages and therefore a more
unhealthy personality and sense of self These
stages, however, can be resolved successfully at
a later time.
Erik Erikson (born in Germany) 1902-1994
Cognitive Development ---Erikson
Trust Versus Mistrust From age of birth to one
year begin to learn the ability to trust others
based upon the consistency of their caregiver(s).
If trust develops successfully, the child gains
confidence and security in the world around him
and is able to feel secure even when threatened.
Unsuccessful completion of this stage can result
in an inability to trust, and therefore a sense
of fear about the inconsistent world, which may
result in anxiety, heightened insecurities, and
an over feeling of mistrust in the world around
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Between the ages
of one and three begin to assert their
independence, by walking away from their mother,
making choices about what they like to eat, etc.
If children are encouraged and supported in their
increased independence, they become more
confident and secure in their own ability to
survive in the world. If children are criticized,
or overly controlled, they begin to feel
inadequate in their ability to survive, and may
then become overly dependent upon others, lack
self-esteem, and feel a sense of shame or doubt
in their own abilities.
Cognitive Development ---Erikson
Initiative vs. Guilt Around age three and
continuing to age six assert themselves more
frequently begin to plan activities, make up
games, and initiate activities with others. If
given this opportunity, children develop a sense
of initiative, and feel secure in their ability
to lead others and make decisions. Conversely, if
this tendency is squelched, either through
criticism or control, children develop a sense of
guilt. They may feel like a nuisance to others
and will therefore remain followers, lacking in
Industry vs. Inferiority From age six years to
puberty begin to develop a sense of pride in
their accomplishments. They initiate projects,
see them through to completion, and feel good
about what they have achieved. Teachers play an
increased role in the childs development. If
children are encouraged and reinforced for their
initiative, they begin to feel industrious and
feel confident in their ability to achieve goals.
If this initiative is not encouraged, if it is
restricted by parents or teacher, the child
begins to feel inferior, doubting his own
abilities and therefore may not reach his
Cognitive Development ---Erikson
Identity vs. Role Confusion During adolescence,
the transition from childhood to adulthood is
most important More independent, and begin to
look at the future in terms of career,
relationships, families, housing, etc. They
explore possibilities and begin to form their own
identity based upon the outcome of their
explorations. This sense of who they are can be
hindered, which results in a sense of confusion
("I dont know what I want to be when I grow up")
about themselves and their role in the world.
Intimacy vs. Isolation Occurring in Young
adulthood begin to share ourselves more
intimately with others. We explore relationships
leading toward longer term commitments with
someone other than a family member. Successful
completion can lead to comfortable relationships
and a sense of commitment, safety, and care
within a relationship. Avoiding intimacy, fearing
commitment and relationships can lead to
isolation, loneliness, and sometimes depression.
Cognitive Development ---Erikson
Generativity vs. Stagnation During middle
adulthood we establish our careers, settle down
within a relationship, begin our own families and
develop a sense of being a part of the bigger
picture. We give back to society through raising
our children, being productive at work, and
becoming involved in community activities and
organizations. By failing to achieve these
objectives, we become stagnant and feel
Ego Integrity vs. Despair As we grow older and
become senior citizens tend to slow down our
productivity, explore life as a retired person.
It is during this time that we contemplate our
accomplishments and are able to develop integrity
if we see ourselves as leading a successful life.
If we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt
about our pasts, or feel that we did not
accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied
with life and develop despair, often leading to
depression and hopelessness .
Freuds Stages of Psychosexual Development
like other stage theories, Stages of Psychosexual
Development completed in a predetermined sequence
and can result in either successful completion or
a healthy personality or can result in failure,
leading to an unhealthy personality Probably
the most well known as well as the most
controversial human develop through stages
based upon a particular erogenous zone During
each stage, an unsuccessful completion means that
a child becomes fixated on that particular
erogenous zone and either over or under-indulges
once he or she becomes an adult.
Sigmund Freud (Austrian) 1902-1994
Stages of Psychosexual Development---Freud
Oral Stage Birth to 18 months The child is
focused on oral pleasures (sucking). Too much or
too little gratification can result in an Oral
Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced
by a preoccupation with oral activities. This
type of personality may have a stronger tendency
to smoke, drink alcohol, etc. Personality wise,
these individuals may become overly dependent
upon others. On the other hand, they may also
fight these urges and develop pessimism and
aggression toward others.
Anal Stage 18 months to three years The
childs focus of pleasure is on eliminating and
retaining feces. Through societys pressure,
mainly via parents, the child has to learn to
control anal stimulation. In terms of
personality, after effects of an anal fixation
during this stage can result in an obsession with
cleanliness, perfection, and control (anal
retentive). On the opposite end of the spectrum,
they may become messy and disorganized (anal
Stages of Psychosexual Development---Freud
Phallic Stage ages three to six The pleasure
zone switches to the genitals, boy develop
unconscious sexual desires for their mother.
becomes a rival with his father, also develops
a fear that the father will punish him, such as
by castrating him---this group of feelings is
known as Oedipus Complex ( after the Greek
Mythology figure who accidentally killed his
father and married his mother). Later it was
added that girls go through a similar
situation Although Freud strongly disagreed with
this, it has been termed the Electra Complex by
more recent psychoanalysts. According to Freud,
out of fear of castration and due to the strong
competition of his father, boys eventually decide
to identify with him rather than fight him. A
fixation at this stage could result in sexual
deviancies (both overindulging and avoidance) and
weak or confused sexual identity according to
Stages of Psychosexual Development---Freud
Latency Stage age six to puberty sexual urges
remain repressed and children interact and play
mostly with same sex peers.
Genital Stage puberty on sexual urges are once
again awakened. Through the lessons learned
during the previous stages, adolescents direct
their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers, with
the primary focus of pleasure being the genitals.
Freuds Structural and Topographical Models of
different driving forces develop during those
stages play an important role in how we interact
with the world.
Structural Model (id, ego, superego)
we are born with our Id (the part of the
personality which contains our primitive impulses
such as sex, anger, and hunger). Id allows us to
get our basic needs met.  It is based on our
pleasure principle.  When the child is
uncomfortable, in pain, too hot, too cold, or
just wants attention, the id speaks up until his
or her needs are met.
Structural Model (id, ego, superego)
Within the next three years, as the child
interacts more with the world, the second part of
the personality, Ego (the part of the personality
which maintains a balance between our impulses
(id) and our conscience (superego)) begins to
develop.  The ego is based on the reality
principle.  The ego understands that other people
have needs and desires. Its the ego's job to meet
the needs of the id, while taking into
consideration the reality of the situation.  
By the age of five, or the end of the phallic
stage of development, the Superego (the part of
the personality that represents the conscience)
develops.  The Superego is the moral part of us
and develops due to the moral and ethical
restraints placed on us by our caregivers.  The
ego is the strongest so that it can satisfy the
needs of the id, not upset the superego, and
still take into consideration the reality of
every situation.  If the id gets too strong,
impulses and self gratification take over the
person's life.  If the superego becomes too
strong, the person would be driven by rigid
morals, would be judgmental and unbending in his
or her interactions with the world. 
Topographical Model
the majority of what we experience in our lives,
the underlying emotions, beliefs, feelings, and
impulses are unavailable to us at a conscious
level.  most of what drives us is buried in our
unconscious (the area of the psyche where unknown
wishes and needs are kept that play a significant
role in our conscious behavior) E.g. the Oedipus
and Electra Complex, both were pushed down into
the unconscious, out of our awareness due to the
extreme anxiety they caused.  While buried there,
however, they continue to impact us dramatically.
Topographical Model
everything we are aware of is stored in our
conscious (the restriction demanded by the
superego), that makes up a very small part of who
we are, i.e. at any given time, we are only aware
of a very small part of what makes up our
personality most of what we are is buried and
The preconscious or subconscious is the part of
us that we can access if prompted, but not in our
active conscious. Its right below the surface,
information such as our telephone number, some
childhood memories, etc. is stored there.  
This theory has been likened to an iceberg,
where the vast majority is buried beneath the
water's surface.  The water would represent
everything that we are not aware of, have not
experienced, and that has not been integrated
into our personalities, referred to as the
  • the innate aspect of an individual's personality,
    such as introversion or extroversion.
  • Historically, e.g. ancient Greek philosophers
    such as Hippocrates 400 BC and Galen, 140/150 AD
    classified 4 types of "humors" in people.  Each
    type was believed to be due to an excess of one
    of four bodily fluids, corresponding to their
    character.  The personalities were termed
    humours, which had corresponding temperaments.

Humour Season Element Organ Qualities Ancient name Modern Ancient characteristics
Blood spring air liver warm moist sanguine artisan courageous, hopeful, amorous
Yellow bile summer fire gall bladder warm dry choleric idealist easily angered, bad tempered
Black bile autumn earth spleen cold dry melancholic guardian despondent, sleepless, irritable
Phlegm winter water brain/lungs cold moist phlegmatic rational calm, unemotional
The four humours and their corresponding
elements, seasons, sites of formation, and
resulting temperaments alongside their modern
The choleric type is characterized by a quick,
hot temper, often an aggressive nature. The
melancholy type tend to be sad, even depressed,
and take a pessimistic view of the world. The
sanguine type is cheerful and optimistic,
pleasant to be with, comfortable with his or her
work.  The phlegmatic type is characterized
by their slowness, laziness, and dullness. 
The four temperaments (Clockwise from top right
choleric, melancholic, sanguine, phlegmatic)
Raymond Cattell's 16 Personality Factors (16 PF)
Warmth (A), Reasoning (B), Emotional Stability
(C), Dominance (E), Liveliness (F),
Rule-Consciousness (G), Social Boldness (H),
Sensitivity (I), Vigilance (L), Abstractedness
(M), Privateness (N), Apprehension (O), Openness
to Change (Q1), Self-Reliance (Q2), Perfectionism
(Q3), Tension (Q4). Cattell referred to these 16
factors as primary factors, as opposed to the
so-called "Big Five" factors which he considered
global factors. All of the primary factors
correlate with global factors and could therefore
be considered subfactors within them.
Raymond Cattell (British and American) 1905-1998
Five-Factor Model
Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion,
Agreeableness, and Neuroticism (OCEAN, or CANOE
if rearranged).
The four quadrants of Eysencks Personality
Circle The two dimensions of extraversion and
neuroticism yield a circular display. Eysenck
related each quadrant to one of the four
personality types defined by Galen.
Hans Eysenck (born in Germany)1916-1997
Freud Sofa