The New Rurality: Globalization, landscapes and the dynamics of forests lost and found Susanna B Hecht Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton School of Public Policy, UCLA - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The New Rurality: Globalization, landscapes and the dynamics of forests lost and found Susanna B Hecht Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton School of Public Policy, UCLA

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Title: The New Rurality: Globalization, landscapes and the dynamics of forests lost and found Susanna B Hecht Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton School of Public Policy, UCLA


1
The New Rurality Globalization, landscapes and
the dynamics of forests lost and found Susanna B
Hecht Institute for Advanced Study,
Princeton School of Public Policy, UCLA
2
  • All tropical landscapes are deeply linked to
    global dynamics in terms of their perceptions,
    ideologies, economies and histories Socially
    constructed as well as biotic entities.
  • Reflect social relations, ideologies and
    political economies, and K flows that are both
    local and increasingly global. Its not just
    demography

3
Landscape Typologies and their Political
Ecologies
  • Primordial landscape of tropical forests ends of
    the earth and beginnings of time
  • Landscapes of modernization (agroindustrialization
    and global commodities soy, maize, cane, tree
    plantations, oil palm, some cattle)
  • Post modern (pre modern?). Critique of both
    Agroindus and primordial but within new
    productionist framework landscapes based on
    claims of history, identity, traditional
    territoriality indigenous knowledge systems
    (native reserves, ejidos, quilombos, traditional
    peoples reserves
  • Peasantries. Historical actors in making modern
    nation state, vilified as forest destroyers lack
    resonance (state historical interlocutor)
  • socially ahistorical landscape biotic entity.
    Set asides, Conservation biology, national and
    international conservation finance, Cap and
    trade, PES
  • Linked in international commodity mkts
    technological trend mills, huge beneficiaries
    from SAPs commodity mkts.(Reg Devt Transfer
    creds, mkts)
  • Campaigns human rights, elaborated niche markets,
    indigenous knowledge,
  • Varying degrees of essentialism about
    relations w/nature.
  • Declining sector deeply undermined by
    commodity sector, losing political ground to
    primordial/premodern
  • Hybrid systems of production increasingly
    emerging as complex factor, (poorly understood)
    in forest resurgence

4
  • Forest Resurgence
  • A rose by any other name? Woodland succession,
    land abandonment, extension of agroforestry
    systems, reforestation, valorization of NTFPs
    many dynamics
  • BUT we do know a few things
  • 1. Really Widespread (Puerto Rico, Mexico,
    Ecuador, Honduras, Amazon basin, Peru, Colombia
    greater Central America33)
  • 2. Complex of factors that engender it
  • (War, remittances, rural labor dynamics,
    mkts, agrarian reform, mkt failures, ecol
    problems)
  • 3. Poorly studied bias against evaluation
    of anthropogenic landscapes but significant
    dynamic ecosystems, landscape diversity,
    livelihoods
  • Theories EKC
  • Forest transition
  • 4. almost a marker of globalized peasant
    economies.

5
Forest cover history in the US
6
3D Image of El Salvador
Landsat TM SRTM DEM
7
Malthus nightmare
  • El Salavdor Where nature is extinguished
  • Mostly deforested by end 1970s
  • Small (2m Ha)
  • Anthropogenic landscapes
  • (Biodiv elements not bad 350 birds but
  • generally poorly collected.

8
Table 1 compares the diversity of El Salvador
with other countries in Central America.
Table 1 Biotic Diversity in Central America
(Number of species per 10,000 km2)
Country Forest Area Mammals Birds Reptiles Amphibian Higher Plants

El Salvador 167,000 106 365 57 18 1,956
Guatemala 4,253,000 114 304 105 45 3,638
Honduras 4,608,000 78 308 68 25 2,252
Nicaragua 6,027,000 86 322 69 25 3,003
Panama 2,123,000 112 477 116 84 4,618
Costa Rica 1,569,000 120 496 125 95 6,421

Source World Resources Institute (1996)
9
Percent Tree Cover
0-10
11-25
26-40
41-55
56-70
71-100
AVHRR 92-93
MODIS 00-01
10
TABLE 1 __________________________________________
____________________________________ Table 1
Percent tree cover change 1992(AVHRR) to 2001
(MODIS) __________________________________________
___________________________________ percent woody
cover 1992 2001 0-10percent
6.9 0.9 11-25percent
21.3 5.6 26-40percent
28.9
31.4 41-55percent 19.3
30.8 56-70percent 12.2
13.8 71-100percent 11.2
14.6 ___________________________________________
___________________________________ Source Hecht
Saatchi, 2005.
11
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12
Map 1 El Salvador Population Distribution by
Zones, 1971 -2000 (Millions of inhabitants)

Southwest includes MASS 33 territory 53 pob.
in 71 67 pob. in 00
4.1
Southeast 33 territory 28 pop. in 71 20 pop.
in 00
1.2
1.0
1.9
MASS (3 Territory) 19 pob. in 71 32 pob. in
00
2000
1971
SOURCE PRISMA, based on population census.
1971
2000
13
Socio-Economic Forces Land Use Change
  • The outcomes of regional and international
    economic integration
  • and trade liberalization on grain prices,
    and the volatility of
  • international coffee prices. Shock
    Doctrine
  • The impacts of El Salvadors
    civil conflicts as they reflected
  • hemispheric cold war politics. These
    had effects on the agricultural
  • frontier, migration and
    agrarian reform.
  • The effects of structural adjustment
    policies on rural credit and
  • subsidies, and the implementation of
    decentralization programs.
  • The emergence of Intl and Regional
    environmental politics

14
Decline in relative prices of the agricultural
sector, 1970-2000 (GDP agricultural price index
/ GDP price index, 19901) (National accounts
Base 1990)
Source PRISMA based on data from the Central
Reserve Bank of El Salvador
15
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16
El Salvador Changes in the primary sources of
foreign exchange, 1978 and 2000
Millions of Dollars Millions of Dollars Percent of Traditional Agro Exports Percent of Traditional Agro Exports Structure () Structure ()
1978 2000 1978 2000 1978 2000
Traditional agro-exports 514 292 100 100 81 11
Non-Trad exports outside Central America 54 145 11 50 8 5
Maquila (net income) 21 456 4 156 3 17
Remittances 51 1,750 10 599 8 66
Total 640 2,643 100 100
Total excluding remittances 589 893
Coffee, cotton, sugar, shrimp. Note The table
does not include exports to Central
America. Source PRISMA (2002) based on data from
the Central Reserve Bank of El Salvador
17
El Salvador Percentage of households that
receive remittances by department
18
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19
Table Migration and remittances in Central
America Country Net migration
Remittances Remittances as
Remittances Per 1000
US Millions Direct
Foreign GDP

Investment El
Salvador 3.8
2,206 823.7
15.44 Guatemala 1.7
1,689
370.8
7.26 Honduras 2.0
770 394.0
11.68 Mexico
2.6 10,502
42 .
1.65 Nicaragua 1.3
759
573.7 36.71 ______________
__________________________________________________
________
20
New Rurality Questions of Products Questions of
services
  • Modernization and Marxian devt has peasants
    disappearing which they seem to not have done
    Via campesina forestal?
  • Huge shift of peasant question to ideological
    framework of post modernity (primordial people in
    a way ethnicity inc) and its engagement w/global
    environmentalism, nativism, markets and finance
    systems
  • Peasants are still there and actually occupy
    sites of resurgence
  • Do so in a policy vacuum largely self
    financed (Biased against for many reasons incl
    anthropogenic landscapes). Innovative and not
    traditional sector
  • Policy issues PES (watershed, view sheds,
    habitat corridors, cap and trade, support
    innovation in other forms)

21
Globalization and its malcontents
  • Globalization a major feature constructing modern
    rural and conservation landscapes
  • Conservation strategies still catching up. Often
    enmired in imagined versions of the pristine
    Blinding to many interesting and necessary
    forested systems.
  • Understanding social construction and political
    economies of landscapes helps design better
    options for each of the different systems
    capture dynamisms that are so far fairly
    invisible.
  • Inhabited landscapes (and peasant landscapes
    increasingly have to be understood as sites of
    significant
  • conservation opportunities, livelihoods,
    social justice.
  • Landscapes of forest resurgence as emblematic
    of peasant systems.
  • Forest creators rather than the demonized
    peasant pyrocmaniacs.
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