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Experimental Psychology

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Title: Experimental Psychology


1
Experimental Psychology
2
Special Areas in Psychology
  • Experimental
  • Clinical
  • Counseling
  • School
  • Emotional
  • Developmental
  • Personality
  • Social
  • Environmental
  • Industrial/ Organizational
  • Health
  • Consumer

3
Experimental Psychology
  • Research on learning, cognition, sensation,
    perception
  • Biological basis of both human and animal behavior

4
Clinical Psychologists
  • They treat people with psychological problems
    like depression and schizophrenia
  • They administer tests, counsel, and conduct
    research
  • Psychiatrists

5
Counseling Psychologists
  • They help people clarify their goals and make
    life decisions
  • The school setting

6
Educational Psychologists
  • They study issues relating to the measurement of
    intelligence and the processes involved in
    educational and academic achievement
  • They usually work in schools and conduct research

7
Developmental Psychologists
  • They focus on processes that influence social,
    cognitive, and physical growth, as well as
    personality development
  • They study both nature and nurture

8
Personality Psychologists
  • They study the psychological characteristics and
    behavior that distinguishes us as individuals
  • They examine personality traits

9
Social Psychologists
  • They study how specific groups or society in
    general can influence individual behavior and
    outlook
  • Research focuses on attitudes, prejudice,
    conformity, obedience

10
Environmental Psychologists
  • They study relationships between psychological
    factors and physical health

11
Industrial/ Organizational Psychologists
  • They study peoples behavior at work or school
  • Conduct research in academic/work settings
  • Human factors research

12
Health Psychologists
  • They focus on the relationship between
    psychological factors and physical health
  • How to quit smoking, avoiding risky sexual
    behavior

13
Consumer Psychologists
  • They study why people purchase particular
    products and brands
  • They examine consumer attitudes

14
Early Researchers
15
Wilhelm Wundt (18321920)
  • He used introspection as a research technique
  • Wundts lab

16
Edward Titchener (18671927)
  • Structuralism (an early school of psychology)
  • The mind is structured by breaking down mental
    experiences into their components
  • G. Stanley Hall, American Psychological
    Association

17
William James and Functionalism
  • The school of psychology that focuses on the
    adaptive functions of behavior
  • The study of why we do what we do
  • The influence of Darwin

18
John Watson
  • Behaviorismthe study of overt behavior
  • He rejected introspection
  • Psychology should become a science of behavior
  • Environment molds the behavior of us all

19
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
  • Behaviorism gets a boost from Skinner
  • Behavior is shaped by rewards and punishment

20
Gestalt Psychology
  • Max Wertheimer
  • Gestalt studies the ways in which the brain
    organizes and structures our perceptions
  • The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

21
Sigmund Freud
  • The unconscious mind
  • We do and say things without understanding our
    motives

22
The Empirical Approach
  • A method of developing knowledge based on
    gathering evidence, performing experiments, or
    careful observation
  • Psychologists need to distinguish between
    inference and observation

23
The Scientific Method
  • A framework for acquiring knowledge through
    observation and experimentation (4 steps)
  • Come up with a question
  • Develop a hypothesis
  • Gather evidence
  • Draw conclusions

24
Research Questions
  • Sources used observation, previous experiences,
    beliefs
  • Questions eventually become hypotheses

25
The Hypothesis
  • A precise prediction about the outcome of an
    experiment
  • Example Is there a relationship between reckless
    driving and gender?
  • Dependent vs. independent variables

26
Gathering Evidence
  • Develop a research design or strategy to provide
    a scientific test of the hypothesis
  • The type of research used depends on what a
    researcher wants to try to measure

27
Drawing Conclusions About The Hypothesis
  • Conclusions about the hypothesis are based on the
    evidence collected
  • Statistics
  • Replication

28
Selecting a Sample
  • Random sampling
  • The sample needs to be representative
  • Generalize or transfer

29
Stratified Samples
  • Selecting individuals from a larger group based
    on age, sex, ethnicity, etc.

30
Research Methods
  • The case study method
  • The survey method
  • The naturalistic observation method
  • The experimental method
  • The longitudinal method
  • The cross sectional method

31
The Case Study Method
  • An in-depth study of one or more individuals
  • Information collected from interviews,
    observation, written records, artwork
  • The work of Jean Piaget

32
The Artwork of Mental Patients
  • Using artwork as a research tool

33
Jose de Goya Self Portrait
34
The Stabbing
35
William Blake Satan Comes To The Gates Of Hell
36
Self-Portraits Joanne
37
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38
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39
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40
Franz Messerschmidt
41
Schizophrenic Boy
42
Lonnie
43
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44
Vincent Van Gogh
45
Review
  • If you were a psychologist, what general
    observations could you make about the artwork of
    mental patients?
  • How are colors important in the psychology of
    art? Remembering the drawings made by Joanne.
    Explain how her progression of self-portraits
    reflects her psychological improvement.

46
The Survey Method
  • Uses structured interviews or questionnaires to
    gather information about groups of people
  • Disadvantages

47
Common Uses of and Concerns about the Survey
Method
  • Anonymity Subjects may open up more than in
    other situations
  • Studies about mental health or consumer
    satisfaction
  • Social desirability bias and volunteer bias

48
Naturalistic Observation Method
  • Based on careful observation of behavior in
    natural settings without interfering
  • What researchers have learned using this
    technique
  • Problems

49
Longitudinal Studies
  • The same person or group of persons are studied
    at regular intervals over a period of time
  • Used to determine whether peoples
    behavior/feelings have changed
  • An example

50
Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Data is collected from groups of participants of
    different ages
  • Data is compared, conclusions are drawn
  • Advantages, disadvantages

51
Correlations and Explanations
  • Correlations the measure of a relationship
    between two variables or sets of data
  • Positive correlations between high IQ and good
    grades

52
Correlations vs. Cause and Effect
  • A correlation describes a relationship between
    two things it does not mean that one causes the
    other
  • There may be a third factor involved with
    positive correlations

53
Correlation Types
  • Correlation coefficient a statistical measure of
    association between variables it can vary
    from-1.00 to 1.00

54
Benefits of a Correlational Method
  • It offers clues to underlying causes of behavior
  • It can identify people at risk for physical or
    behavioral problems
  • It can increase understanding of relationships
    between variables or events

55
The Experimental Method
56
The Experimental Method
  • Independent variables factors manipulated in an
    experiment
  • Dependent variables the effects or outcomes of
    an experiment that are believed to be dependent
    on the values of the independent variables

57
Application
  • Look at the following photographs and decide
    which subjects you consider most attractive

58
Gertrude
59
Kristen
60
Ethel
61
Christine
62
Maude
63
Prudence
64
Matilda
65
Sheri
66
Megan
67
Gladys
68
Evaluation
  • Does the popularity of a womans name affect
    judgment of their physical attractiveness?
  • The independent variable type of name
  • The dependent variable ratings of attractiveness

69
Control Groups
  • Groups of participants in a research experiment
    who do not receive the experimental treatment or
    intervention
  • Placebo effects

70
Single-Blind Experiments
  • Keeping subjects uninformed

71
Double-blind
  • Both the subject and the experimenter are kept
    uninformed

72
Ethics In Research
  • Stanley Schachters 1959 study on anxiety and
    affiliation

73
Ethics in Research (cont.)
  • How would you have felt if you were one of the
    subjects in the high-anxiety group?
  • Should researchers be allowed to misrepresent
    their research?

74
Deception
  • Deception has been fairly common in psychological
    research since the 1960s, especially in the area
    of social psychology
  • Deception is used to reduce problems associated
    with the placebo effect

75
Animal Research
  • Do the laws of behavior apply to both humans and
    animals?
  • Animals are sometimes exposed to treatments that
    would be unthinkable to perform on humans

76
Guidelines for Ethical Research
  • Participation is voluntary
  • No exposure to harmful procedures
  • If deception is used, a full explanation should
    follow the session
  • Privacy should not be violated
  • Harmful procedures imposed on animals must not be
    allowed
  • Approval from host institutions is necessary
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