Blood - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Blood PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 47bea5-NDE3Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Blood

Description:

Blood Immediate allergic response Occurs within seconds of contact with the thing causing the allergy. This is the case with anaphylactic allergies, where someone who ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:99
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 135
Provided by: LJPo
Learn more at: http://drmagrann.com
Category:
Tags: blood | poison

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Blood


1
Blood
2
Blood
  • Blood is not an epithelial tissue, and its not
    loose or dense connective tissue its classified
    as a special connective tissue.
  • You have about 5 liters of blood, but that is
    only half of the body fluid.
  • The other half includes fluid around each cell,
    and joint fluids, etc.

3
Blood
PLASMA ? EXTRACELLULAR FLUID ? ?
SYNOVIAL FLUIDS, ETC
4
Blood consists of the following
  • Plasma
  • Red blood cells
  • White blood cells
  • Platelets

5
FUN FACTS
  • In one day, your blood travels nearly 12,000
    miles.
  • Your heart beats around 35 million times per
    year. Your heart pumps a million barrels of blood
    during the average lifetime -- enough to fill
    three supertankers. If an artery is cut, blood
    will shoot out 30 feet.

6
Plasma
  • Plasma is what the blood cells float around in.
    If you spin a blood sample in a test tube, the
    red blood cells sink to the bottom, and youll
    see the yellow plasma on top.
  • Some people who need blood just need the packed
    RBCs, some need the platelets, others need the
    plasma, and some need whole blood, which is both
    plasma and RBCs.
  • The plasma also carries around the platelets and
    some white blood cells.

7
Overview Composition of Blood
Figure 17.1
8
(No Transcript)
9
PLASMA CONTENTS
  • Water (90)
  • Dissolved substances (10)
  • Proteins
  • Albumin (egg white). Most common protein in
    blood (homeostasis)
  • Antibodies
  • Clotting factors called fibrinogen and fibrin.
  • Lipoproteins (move fats through blood HDL, LDL)
  • Nutrients
  • Glucose (main energy source)
  • Amino Acids (builds proteins)
  • Wastes (urea)
  • Gases (O2, CO2, Nitrogen)
  • Electrolytes ions (Na, K, Cl-, Ca)

10
(No Transcript)
11
Blood Cells
12
ERYTHROCYTES (Red blood cells)
  • 5 million
  • Like a doughnut with the hole not fully cut out.
  • These are among the smallest cells in the body
  • They have no nucleus
  • Biconcave to increase surface area
  • Filled with hemoglobin (Hgb), which carries O2
    throughout the body. Oxygenated Hgb is bright
    red, deoxy Hgb is deeper red, almost a
    bluish-purple.

13
Erythrocytes
14
Hemoglobin Molecule
15
Hemoglobin Molecule
16
ERYTHROCYTES
  • Average life span is 120 days. Old ones are
    destroyed in the spleen and liver, and Hgb is
    recycled.
  • In one day, 100 billion of these cells are
    destroyed, and 100 billion are made where?
  • Red marrow.

17
(No Transcript)
18
Microbiology
  • To understand the function of white blood cells,
    you will need to learn some general concepts and
    terminology from Microbiology
  • Pathogen
  • General size of bacteria and viruses
  • Antigen

19
PathogenPath disease ogen generating
  • A pathogen is something that causes disease.
  • A biological pathogen is a bacterium, virus,
    fungi, yeast, protozoa, worms, etc.
  • A non-biological pathogen can be a toxic
    chemical, asbestos, etc.
  • Usually, the term pathogen refers to a
    biological pathogen.

20
Sizes of Pathogens
  • Bacteria are so small that hundreds of them can
    fit inside one white blood cell.
  • However, bacteria usually do not invade body
    cells. They live between the cells of the body,
    using up nutrients in the area, and they cause
    harm by secreting toxins.
  • Viruses are so small that thousands of them can
    fit inside the NUCLEUS of one white blood cell.
  • They always try to invade body cells because they
    need a piece of our DNA or RNA in order to
    replicate.
  • When a body cell has been invaded by a virus, the
    entire cell must be killed by a white blood cell.

21
Antigen
  • An antigen is anything that causes an immune
    response, which isn't necessarily a biological
    pathogen (disease-causing organism).
  • A non-biological antigen can be pollen, dust,
    grass, or anything that a person is allergic to.
  • Pollen can be an antigen to a person with
    allergies, but it is not an antigen to a person
    without allergies, because no immune response was
    launched.

22
LEUKOCYTES (White blood cells)all fight infection
  • BASOPHILS
  • MAST CELL
  • EOSINOPHILS
  • NEUTROPHILS
  • MONOCYTES
  • MACROPHAGES
  • LYMPHOCYTES
  • B CELLS
  • T CELLS

23
BASOPHILS
  • Basophils only about 0.5 of all leukocytes
  • Granules secrete histamines (vasodilation more
    WBCs can get to the infection site)
  • Antihistamines interfere with the function of
    basophils.
  • Mast Cell a basophil that leaves the blood
    vessel and enters the tissues.

24
Eosinophils
  • Eosinophils compose 1-4 of all WBCs
  • Play roles in
  • Ending allergic reactions, parasitic infections
  • During these conditions they increase in numbers

25
(No Transcript)
26
(No Transcript)
27
Neutrophils
  • Neutrophils most numerous WBC
  • First to respond to infection
  • Phagocytize and destroy bacteria
  • Also destroy bacterial toxins in body fluids
  • Nucleus has two to six lobes

28
Neutrophils
  • Neutrophils are the white blood cells that
    contribute to immunity mainly by engulfing
    BACTERIA and foreign bodies (thorns, dirt, etc)
    in a process called phagocytosis.
  • They release the contents of their lysosomes onto
    the invader, dissolving it.
  • When a bacterium has a capsule, it makes it hard
    to phagocytize, so the neutrophil requires
    opsonization by antibodies.

29
Opsonization
  • Some bacteria have evolved a slippery capsule
    around them as a defense against phagocytosis.
    The neutrophil cannot engulf this type of
    bacteria. Neither can a macrophage.
  • When an antibody attaches to this type of
    bacteria, the neutrophil can now grab onto the
    antibody like a handle, enabling it to
    phagocytize the bacteria.
  • This process of facilitation of phagocytosis is
    called opsonization.

30
  • When an invading bacteria has the antibody
    attached to its cell membrane, the entire
    structure is now called an antigen-antibody
    complex.
  • If a bacterium does not have a capsule, the
    neutrophil can destroy it without opsonization.
    The antibody can also destroy the bacterium by
    itself by popping the cell membrane.
  • But when a capsule is present, the neutrophil and
    antibody work best together.
  • Neutrophils are also the ones that primarily
    destroy the dissolved toxins that bacteria
    secrete into body fluids.

31
Monocytes
  • Comprise about 5 of all WBCs.
  • Like neutrophils, they phagocytize (eat)
    bacteria, old cells, and foreign bodies. They
    have more types of lysosome enzymes than
    neutrophils so they are better at killing
    difficult pathogens.
  • They also use antibodies for opsonization.
  • When they leave the bloodstream and enter the
    tissues, they are called MACROPHAGES.

32
WBCs leave the blood vessel to enter the tissues
33
Whats the Difference between Neutrophils and
Monocytes/Macrophages?
  • There are 10x more neutrophils in the bloodstream
    than monocytes/Macrophages. Consider neutrophils
    to be the most numerous white blood cell.
  • However, there are more macrophages in the
    tissues of the body. They are everywhere!
  • Neutrophils live only a few days.
    Monocytes/Macrophages live a few months.
    Lymphocytes live for years.
  • Monocytes/Macrophages are larger and slower than
    neutrophils, but they can phagocytize larger
    organisms and more of them.
  • Neutrophils usually just phagocytize bacteria
    until they die. Macrophages phagocytize and then
    take pieces of the dead bacteria and present them
    to lymphocytes so a larger immune response can
    occur.

34
Differences in Function
  • There are two types of phagocytes Neutrophils
    and macrophages.
  • Neutrophils and macrophages both mainly function
    by phagocytizing bacteria (not viruses).
  • Lymphocytes are mostly needed to kill off body
    cells infected by viruses.

35
Differences in Function
  • Neutrophils just phagocytize bacteria and secrete
    chemicals to recruit more white blood cells to
    the site.
  • Unlike neutrophils, macrophages have surface
    receptors these "recognize" the surface of the
    pathogens cell membrane.
  • Macrophages phagocytize the bacteria, pop their
    lysosomes onto it, and dissolve it, except for
    some pieces of the bacterias cell membrane.
  • The macrophage places these pieces of bacteria on
    its own cell membrane, and finds a lymphocyte to
    present it to.

36
Differences in Function
  • Macrophages present these pieces to T cell
    lymphocytes and to B cells lymphocytes.
  • The lymphocyte feels the shape of the bacteria
    pieces on top of the macrophage, (this is called
    antigen presentation) and the lymphocyte can
    then launch an attack on the rest of the bacteria
    still alive in the body.
  • In this way, the macrophage recruits even more
    lymphocytes to join the war.
  • So, what is a lymphocyte?

37
Lymphocytes
  • 2045 of WBCs
  • The most important cells of the immune system
  • There are two types of lymphocytes one type is
    effective in fighting infectious organisms like
    body cells infected with viruses
  • Both types of lymphocytes act against a specific
    foreign molecule (antigen)

38
Lymphocytes
  • Two main classes of lymphocyte
  • B cells Originate in the bone marrow, mature
    into plasma cells. A mature plasma cell fights
    infection by producing antibodies
  • T cells Originate in the thymus gland. They
    attack foreign cells directly (including organ
    transplants!). They can also kill viruses.

39
Lymphocytes
  • B cells mature into plasma cells
  • Plasma cells secrete antibodies the plasma
    cells antibodies are what kills the attacking
    cell.
  • Antibodies attack in two ways
  • They attach to bacteria and pop the cell membrane
  • They attach to encapsulated bacteria to help
    neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytize them.

40
Disorder of B-cell Lymphocytes
  • Mononucleosis Epstein Barr virus attacks B
    lymphocytes. It is characterized by inflammation
    of lymph vessels (lymphangitis).
  • Lymphangitis lymph vessel inflammation usually
    from infection.
  • Infected lymphocytes have a
  • characteristic scalloped
  • edge where they touch
  • RBCs

41
Function of a B Lymphocyte
Figure 17.6b
42
T-cell Lymphocytes
  • T cells coordinate the immune response by
    recruiting other white blood cells.
  • They can directly destroy bacteria by popping
    their cell membrane.
  • T cells can also directly destroy foreign cells
    by popping the cell membrane.
  • They do not need to phagocytize the invading
    cell. They do not need the assistance of
    antibodies.
  • T-cells can therefore kill a body cell that has
    become infected with viruses.

43
T-Cell
44
T-cell Lymphocytes
  • T cells are the cells that attack organ
    transplants!
  • Immunosuppression drugs are designed to inhibit
    the action of T cells.
  • T cells are attacked by the HIV (AIDS) virus.
  • The thymus gland secrets certain hormones which
    can cause T cells to become immunocompetent
    (makes the cells mature and start to work)

45
T Cells
  • There are several types of T cells. The main
    types are
  • Cytotoxic (Killer) T cells
  • Go out and directly kill bacteria or infected
    host cells
  • Helper T cells
  • Release chemicals called cytokines to call in
    more white blood cells of all types to join in
    the war. They also present the macrophages
    antigen to a plasma cell, which causes the plasma
    cell to produce antibodies against that
    particular bacteria.
  • Suppressor T cells
  • Stop the immune process when it is over, and also
    "tell" some plasma cells to "remember" how to
    destroy that specific pathogen. Those plasma
    B-cells are then called Memory B-Cells. They can
    react to the same pathogen faster, the next time
    it invades because Memory B-cells already have
    the proper antibodies stored up for that
    pathogen.

46
Killer T-Cell
47
Virus-Infected Cell
48
Function of a T- Lymphocyte
Figure 17.6a
49
Summary
  • A pathogen somehow gets past the body's physical
    and chemical barriers and the inflammation
    response.
  • The pathogen is engulfed by a macrophage (or
    neutrophil).
  • The macrophage releases the contents of its
    lysosomes onto the bacterium and dissolves most
    of it. There are still some pieces of the
    bacteriums cell membrane left. The macrophage
    then forces the surface proteins of the bacterium
    (antigens) to it's own cell surface.
  • Helper T-Cells touch these surface antigens, make
    a copy of their shape, and present them to
    B-cells to make antibodies against them.

50
Summary
  • These Helper T-Cells begin to multiply and have
    two main roles.
  • The first is to activate B-Cells and "tell" them
    how to neutralize the pathogen by presenting the
    pieces of the bacterium cell membrane so the
    B-cells can turn into plasma cells which make the
    antibodies.
  • The B-Cells (now called Plasma cells because they
    have been activated) begin to multiply and
    produce the antibodies to neutralize this
    specific pathogen.
  • The second role of Helper T-Cells is to activate
    the Killer T-Cells by secreting cytokines.
  • Killer T-Cells can either destroy the pathogen
    itself (bacteria), or destroy the entire body
    cell which is infected (viruses).
  • When the immune response is over, Suppressor
    T-Cells stop the process and also "tell" some
    B-Cells (plasma cells) to "remember" how to
    destroy that specific pathogen.
  • Those B-cells (plasma cells) now become Memory
    B-Cells.

51
Antibodies
  • Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins,
    abbreviated Ig) are proteins made by plasma
    cells.
  • They are used to identify and neutralize foreign
    objects, such as bacteria and viruses.
  • They are typically made of basic structural
    unitseach with two large heavy chains and two
    small light chainsto form a unit shaped like the
    letter Y

52
A Typical Antibody
The tips of the Y have receptors that are
specific for a particular antigen. The stem of
the Y can be grasped by a phagocyte.
53
Antibodies
  • The small region at the tip of the protein is
    extremely variable, allowing millions of
    antibodies with slightly different tip
    structures, or antigen binding sites, to exist.
  • This region is known as the hypervariable region.
    Each of these variants can bind to a different
    target, known as an antigen.
  • This huge diversity of antibodies allows the
    immune system to recognize an equally wide
    diversity of antigens.

54
Antibodies
  • Some of these Y shaped units exist by
    themselves (monomers)
  • Some are in pairs (dimers)
  • Some are in a cluster of five (pentamers)
  • There are five different antibody types , which
    perform different roles, and help direct the
    appropriate immune response for each different
    type of foreign object they encounter.

55
Types of Antibodies
56
Capsule
Y
Pops the cell
Y
Virus
Opsonization
Y
Bacteria
Bacteria
Antibodies
Y
Y
Plasma Cell
Pops the cell
Cytokines
Phagocytosis
STOP
Presentation
Presentation
Killer T-Cell
Helper T-Cell
Suppressor T-Cell
Neutrophil
Macrophage
B-Cell
(Monocyte in bloodstream)
Lymphocytes
57
IMMUNITY
  • B Cells that have matured into plasma cells which
    have made antibodies are now called Memory
    lymphocytes, after their first war.
  • Most people are sick more often as children than
    as adults in their 20s through 30s because we
    build up many varieties of memory lymphocytes
    during childhood, providing immunity from more
    and more antigens during adulthood.

58
Myasthenia gravis
  • Myasthenia gravis (MG) autoimmune disease where
    antibodies destroy or block receptors for
    acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
  • Causes muscle paralysis.
  • First attacks small muscles especially those that
    keep eyes open will spread to diaphragm ? death.
  • To stave off effects, do thymectomy.

59
PLATELETS
  • Very small compared to all other blood cells.
    These are pieces of another cell found in the red
    marrow called a MEGAKARYOCYTE.
  • Pieces break off of a megakaryocte and are known
    as platelets.
  • When a platelet encounters a broken blood vessel
    it releases a substance that clots blood.
  • Platelets are responsible for clot formation.

60
Platelets
  • Platelets need certain proteins in the plasma
    called CLOTTING FACTORS in order for them to
    become activated and form a clot.
  • Two main clotting factors are called FIBRIN and
    FIBRINOGEN.

61
Platelets
  • Cell fragments
  • Break off from megakaryocytes
  • Function in clotting of blood

Platelets
Megakaryocyte
62
Blood Clot
63
Summary of Formed Elements
Table 17.1 (1)
64
Summary of Formed Elements
Table 17.1 (2)
65
Life span, from longest-lived to shortest-lived
  • Lymphocytes
  • Erythrocytes
  • Platelets
  • Neutrophils

66
(No Transcript)
67
STEM CELLS IN THE RED MARROW
  • STEM CELL A cell that has not matured and
    differentiated yet.
  • An embryo has lots of stem cells which have not
    decided to become a nerve cell, muscle cell,
    liver cell, etc. Stem cells become the type of
    cell the body needs. The placenta of a newborn
    infant has many of these stem cells, too, but not
    as many as an embryo. Thats why people want to
    research stem cells on embryos there are more
    stem cells there.

68
Stem Cells
  • The first step for a stem cell is to
    DIFFERENTIATE, which is to decide what system of
    cells it will belong to. A stem cell that matures
    in the bone marrow will become a blood cell.
  • Adults dont have too many stem cells that are so
    immature that they have not yet decided what
    system of cells to belong to.
  • Most of our stem cells have matured to the next
    step, which is that they have decided what system
    to evolve into.
  • An adult has stem cells that will ONLY become
    blood, nerve tissue, organs, etc.

69
Blood Cell Formation
  • Hematopoiesis process by which blood cells are
    formed
  • 100 billion new blood cells formed each day
  • The plasma proteins are made in the liver.
  • The blood cells are made in the red marrow.

70
Bone Marrow as the Site of Hematopoiesis
  • Bone marrow located within all bones
  • Red marrow actively generates new blood cells
  • Contains immature erythrocytes
  • Remains in epiphyses, girdles, and axial skeleton

71
Bone Marrow as the Site of Hematopoiesis
  • Yellow marrow dormant
  • Contains many fat cells
  • Located in the long bones of adults

72
RED BONE MARROW
  • Most blood cells mature in the red bone marrow.
  • When they are almost completely mature, they are
    released into the bloodstream.
  • When they are old, they are destroyed in the
    spleen and liver.

73
(No Transcript)
74
Cell Lines in Blood Cell Formation
  • All blood cells originate in bone marrow
  • All originate from one cell type blood stem
    cell
  • Erythroblasts give rise to red blood cells
  • Lymphoblasts give rise to lymphocytes
  • Myeloblasts give rise to all other white blood
    cells

75
Stages of Differentiation of Red Blood Cells
76
RBC Development
  • ERYTHROBLASTS mature until they are ready to
    enter the circulation. The nucleus gets pinched
    off as it enters the blood vessel. When a RBC
    loses its nucleus, it gains room for more
    hemoglobin. Some bits of its nucleus are still
    there for about 2 days, so during this time, they
    are called RETICULOCYTES.

77
RBC Development
  • A mature RBC is called an ERYTHROCYTE, which
    circulates in the blood.
  • If the body makes too few erythrocytes it can
    lead to one form of ANEMIA.

78
ERYTHROBLASTS
  • These mature into RETICULOCYTES, a RBC with bits
    of nucleus material, which later dissolves to
    make room for more Hgb. It is now called an
    ERYTHROCYTE.

79
LYMPHOBLASTS
  • Give rise to lymphocytes

80
MYELOBLASTS
  • These are the stem cells that mature into the
    other leukocytes
  • Neutrophil, macrophage, eosinophil, basophil,
    platelets.

81
Leukemia
  • Leukemia is cancer of the stem cells.
  • See all these different types of stem cells?
  • Thats about how many types of leukemia there
    are.

82
Stages of Differentiation of White Blood Cells
Figure 17.9
83
Disorders of RBCs
  • Polycythemia
  • Anemia
  • Too few RBCs
  • Iron deficiency
  • Hemorrhagic anemia (person lost blood)
  • Pernicious anemia (lack of vitamin B12 or
    intrinsic factor)
  • Excess RBC destruction (immune disorder or
    infection)
  • Hemoglobin abnormalities
  • Thalassemia
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Megaloblastic anemia (pernicious anemia)

84
PolycythemiaToo many RBCs can cause clots.
Need to donate blood frequently
85
(No Transcript)
86
ANEMIA
  • Any condition of RED BLOOD CELLS in which the
    bloods capacity for carrying oxygen is
    diminished.

87
Anemia
  • Characteristic sign of anemia see reticulocytes
    in the blood (immature red blood cells).
  • Remnants of the nucleus are still in the cell.

88
Reticulocytes
89
Anemia can be caused by many things. One type of
anemia is from too few RBCs.
90
Anemia can also be caused from Iron Deficiency
91
IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA that was treated with
blood transfusion
These are the healthy RBCs from blood transfusion
92
More Causes of Anemia
  • Hemorrhagic anemia loss of blood
  • Pernicious anemia lack of vitamin B12 or
    intrinsic factor, which is needed to make the
    hemoglobin in a RBC
  • Excess RBC destruction (from an autoimmune
    disease, infection, etc)
  • Genetic defect in Hemoglobin (deforms the cell)

93
Thalassemia A form of anemia where the RBCs have
abnormal hemoglobin that deforms the cells
TEAR DROP
TARGET CELLS
SPHEROCYTE
94
Sickle Cell Disease
  • Present in African Americans more than in other
    groups, and is always characterized by sickled
    erythrocytes.

95
Sickle Cell Anemia
SICKLE CELL
96
Megaloblastic Anemia
(Large RBCs Note that the lymphocyte is the same
size as the huge RBCs)
97
(No Transcript)
98
Hematocrit
  • A quick screening test for anemia is the
    hematocrit.
  • A drop of blood is drawn up a small glass
    capillary tube and the tube is centrifuged to
    pack the red blood cells at the bottom with the
    plasma on top.
  • Hematocrit measures the percentage of blood
    volume that consists of erythrocytes.
  • The hematocrit is the ratio of packed red blood
    cells to total blood volume.
  • Normal is about 45 (46 for men and 38 for
    women.)

99
Hematocrit
100
(No Transcript)
101
LEUKEMIA
  • Cancer of the blood is called leukemia. It
    actually only involves the white blood cells.
  • Something goes wrong in one stem cell, and it
    starts making huge amounts of clones of itself
    which dont work right and not enough normal
    white blood cells are made. Therefore, the body
    cannot fight infection. So, the immature white
    cells are sent into the bloodstream. Its better
    to send a young cell with no weapons to the war
    than to send nothing at all!
  • Think of Leukemia as too few mature white blood
    cells.
  • Even though the WBC count is high, they are all
    immature forms.

102
Disorders of WBCs
  • Disorders of leukocytes
  • Leukemia too few mature WBCs (may see increase
    in immature forms) a form of cancer
  • Classified as lymphoblastic (too many immature
    lymphocytes) or myeloblastic (too many immature
    neutrophils)

103
Bone Marrow Transplant
  • People with severe leukemia may need a bone
    marrow transplant.
  • First, all of their WBCs have to be killed off
    with a medicine because they are mostly
    malfunctioning anyway.
  • A donor has a small cylinder of bone removed from
    their hip. This is ground up and given by i.v. to
    the recipient.
  • The new WBCs may kill the patient or it may save
    their life. It is done as a last resort.

104
Disorders of Platelets
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • Abnormally low concentration of platelets
  • Blood does not clot properly

105
HEMOPHILIA
  • A hereditary disease of males, where they are
    unable to clot properly because they are missing
    some clotting factors.
  • When they get even a slight bump or bruise they
    have to have an intravenous infusion of clotting
    factors or they will bleed to death.
  • This is probably the disease that was in the
    genes of Henry VIII, which caused all of his male
    children to become weak and die in infancy.

106
Blood Clots
  • Thrombus
  • A clot in a vessel
  • Embolism
  • a thrombus that broke away and travels in the
    blood stream.
  • It usually lodges in a smaller blood vessel and
    blocks circulation distal to that point.

107
Blood Clots
  • Thrombus
  • Embolism

108
Thrombus
109
Thrombus
110
BLOOD TYPING The ABO SYSTEM
  • Blood typing is the technique for determining
    which specific protein type is present on RBCs.
  • Only certain types of blood transfusions are safe
    because the outer membranes of the red blood
    cells carry certain types of proteins that
    another persons body will think is a foreign
    body and reject it.

111
BLOOD TYPING
  • These proteins are called antigens (something
    that causes an allergic reaction). There are two
    types of blood antigens Type A and Type B.
  • A person with Type A antigens on their blood
    cells have Type A blood.
  • A person with Type B antigens have Type B blood.
  • A person with both types has type AB blood.
  • A person with neither antigen has type O blood.

112

113
BLOOD TYPING
  • If a person with type A blood gets a transfusion
    of type B antigens (from Type B or Type AB, the
    donated blood will clump in masses (coagulation),
    and the person will die.
  • The same is true for a type B person getting type
    A or AB blood.
  • Type O- blood is called the universal donor,
    because there are no antigens, so that blood can
    be donated to anyone.
  • Type AB blood is considered the universal
    acceptor, because they can use any other type of
    blood. This blood type is fairly rare.
  • The rarest blood type is AB negative.

114
RH FACTOR
  • There is another term that follows the blood
    type. The term is positive or negative. This
    refers to the presence of another type of
    protein, called the Rh factor. A person with
    type B blood and has the Rh factor is called B
    positive.
  • A person with type B blood and no Rh factor is
    called B negative.

115
RH FACTOR
  • The reason this is so important is that if an Rh-
    mother has an Rh fetus in her womb (from an Rh
    father), her antibodies will attack the red blood
    cells of the fetus because her body detects the
    Rh protein on the babys red blood cells and
    thinks they are foreign objects. This is called
    Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN).

116
(No Transcript)
117
HDN
  • This can be prevented if the doctor knows the
    mother is Rh- and the father is Rh, because that
    means the baby has a 50 chance of being Rh like
    the father.
  • Therefore, anytime a mother is Rh-, even if the
    mother says the father is Rh-, you cant be sure
    who the father is, so they will proceed as though
    the baby may be Rh .
  • They will give her an injection of a medicine
    (Rhogam) that will prevent her immune system from
    attacking the baby.

118
Rhogam
  • Rhogam is given at 18 weeks into the pregnancy
    and again within 72 hours after giving birth.
  • It is usually given within 2 hours after giving
    birth since you cant trust the patient to return
    after they leave the hospital.
  • The first baby is not at risk during the first
    birth (or miscarriage), the placenta tears away
    and thats when the babys blood cells get into
    the mothers bloodstream.
  • She then forms antibodies against the Rh factor,
    which are ready to attack the second fetus.
  • The baby does not make the Rh factor until about
    18 weeks into the pregnancy.

119
IMMUNE SYSTEM
  • INFLAMMATORY REACTION When you get stuck by a
    thorn or have an infected cut, the body goes
    through a series of events called an inflammatory
    reaction.
  • Four outward signs
  • Redness (erythema or rubor)
  • Heat (calor)
  • Swelling (edema)
  • Pain (dolor)

120
INFLAMMATORY REACTION
  • Redness is caused from the blood vessels dilating
    to allow more blood flow to the area. Within the
    blood are platelets to clot the blood, proteins
    to repair the damage, and macrophages, which are
    white blood cells that eat up the foreign body,
    bacteria, or the dead cells.
  • Heat is caused because of the extra amount of
    warm blood flow to the area.
  • Swelling is caused from the plasma that leaks out
    of the swollen blood vessels.
  • Pain is caused from the pressure of the extra
    fluid pressing on nerves in the area.

121
ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
  • Two types of Adaptive Immunity
  • ACTIVE immunity
  • Naturally Acquired
  • Artificially Acquired
  • PASSIVE immunity
  • Naturally Acquired
  • Artificially Acquired

You can also think of it this way
122
Active Immunity
  • Naturally Acquired
  • The body is naturally exposed to an infectious
    agent and launches an immune reaction
  • Artificially Acquired
  • The person is injected with a weakened
    (attenuated) or killed organism, as found in a
    vaccination

123
Naturally Acquired Active Immunity
  • This is when the body is exposed to an infectious
    agent and the body has to work to produce
    antibodies which specifically attack that
    infectious agent.
  • The white blood cells secrete these antibodies
    which will continue to circulate sometimes for
    years, ready to attack that type of bacteria and
    cause them to pop like a balloon before the body
    can become sick.

124
Naturally AcquiredActive Immunity
  • You catch a cold and eventually get better. You
    can never get the same cold virus twice because
    you will have become immune to it. Your next cold
    is from a different virus. There are hundreds of
    thousands of cold viruses thats why there is no
    cure for the common cold.
  • Another example is when an unvaccinated child is
    exposed to the measles at school and gets the
    disease, but never gets the disease again.

125
  • However, there are some diseases that you dont
    want to get, even once, such as polio,
    diphtheria, tetanus, and influenza, because the
    first exposure could kill or disable you.
  • For these diseases, we have vaccines which are
    made of those organisms which have been altered
    (attenuated) so that the body recognizes them as
    foreign, but they cant cause disease.
  • That way, if the person is exposed to the real
    organism later, the antibodies are already there
    to kill it off without the body getting sick.

126
Artificially Acquired Active Immunity
  • An example is when a child is vaccinated against
    measles as a baby, so when he gets to school and
    is exposed to the disease, he doesnt get sick.

127
Passive Immunity
  • Naturally Acquired
  • Example is the passing of antibodies from mother
    to infant in breast milk
  • Artificially Acquired
  • Example is when a person receives an infusion of
    antibodies from someone else.

128
Active vs. Passive Immunity
  • Active immunity is long-lived, and may last for
    years or even a life time.
  • Passive immunity is short lived, and may last
    only for a few months.

NOTE A vaccination is not the same as receiving
an anti-toxin or anti-venom injection. More on
that in Micro class.
129
ALLERGIES
  • From a hypersensitivity to substances such as
    pollen or animal hair that would not ordinarily
    cause a reaction. There are two types of allergic
    responses
  • Immediate
  • Delayed

130
Immediate allergic response
  • Occurs within seconds of contact with the thing
    causing the allergy.
  • This is the case with anaphylactic allergies,
    where someone who is allergic to seafood or
    peanuts can actually die within minutes because
    the allergic reaction is so severe the throat
    swells shut and they cant breathe.
  • They need an injection immediately of something
    that will stop the reaction.

131
(No Transcript)
132
Delayed allergic response
  • Delayed allergic response is when the bodys
    first exposure to the substance will not cause a
    reaction, but all exposures afterward will
    trigger the response.
  • An example is poison ivy.
  • You wont itch the first time you touch it.

133
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE
  • A hereditary problem where the body thinks its
    own tissues are foreign bodies, and it constantly
    tries to kill off its own tissues.

134
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com