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States of Matter

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States of Matter Chemistry The Four States of Matter Chumbler - Properties of Matter * * The most basic classification scheme of matter is based on the states of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: States of Matter


1
States of Matter
  • Chemistry
  • The Four States of Matter

2
What is matter?
  • Any substance that has mass and takes up space.
  • Brian Pop Video
  • http//glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/00786
    00472/164155/00044682.html

3
States of Matter
  • The Four States of Matter
  • Four States
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma

4
States of Matter
  • The Four States of Matter
  • Basis of Classification of the Four Types
  • particle arrangement
  • energy of particles
  • distance between particles

5
States of Matter
  • Solids
  • Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating
    about a fixed position.
  • Solids have a definite shape and a definite
    volume.
  • Particles move slowly.

6
States of Matter
  • Solids
  • Particle Movement Examples

7
States of Matter
  • Liquids
  • Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are
    far enough apart to slide over one another.
  • Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite
    volume. Take shape of container. Ex. Juice in
    glass
  • Particles move more quickly.

8
States of Matter
  • Liquids
  • Particle Movement Examples

9
States of Matter
  • Gases
  • Particles of gases are very far apart and move
    freely.
  • Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite
    volume.
  • Particles move very fast.

10
States of Matter
  • Gases
  • Particle Movement Examples

11
States of Matter
  • Plasma
  • A plasma is an ionized gas.
  • A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity
    and is affected by magnetic fields.
  • Plasma, like gases have an indefinite shape and
    an indefinite volume.
  • Give off energy.

12
States of Matter
  • Plasma
  • Particles
  • The negatively charged electrons (yellow) are
    freely streaming through the positively charged
    ions (blue).

13
States of Matter
  • Plasma
  • Examples

14
States of Matter
  • Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Solids
  • Solids have a definite shape and a definite
    volume because the particles are locked into
    place
  • Solids are not easily compressible because there
    is little free space between particles
  • Solids do not flow easily because the particles
    cannot move/slide past one another

15
States of Matter
  • Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Liquids
  • Liquids have an indefinite shape because the
    particles can slide past one another.
  • Liquids are not easily compressible and have a
    definite volume because there is little free
    space between particles.
  • Liquids flow easily because the particles can
    move/slide past one another.

16
States of Matter
  • Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Gases
  • Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite
    volume because the particles can move past one
    another.
  • Gases are easily compressible because there is a
    great deal of free space between particles.
  • Gases flow very easily because the particles
    randomly move past one another.

17
States of Matter
  • Microscopic Explanation for Properties of Plasmas
  • Plasmas have an indefinite shape and an
    indefinite volume because the particles can move
    past one another.
  • Plasmas are easily compressible because there is
    a great deal of free space between particles.
  • Plasmas are good conductors of electricity and
    are affected by magnetic fields because they are
    composed of ions (negatively charged electrons
    and positively charged nuclei).

18
States of Matter
  • The Four States of Matter
  • The Classification and Properties of Matter
    Depend Upon Microscopic Structure
  • Particle arrangement
  • Particle energy
  • Particle to particle distance

19
  • States of Matter Video
  • http//youtu.be/tEY0V8BD8K4

20
Phase Changes
  • When one phase changes to another.
  • Particles must change their kinetic energy, how
    fast they are moving.
  • You can do this by adding or taking away heat.

21
Phase Changes
  • solid liquid melting
  • liquid solid freezing
  • liquid gas evaporation
  • gas liquid condensation
  • solid gas sublimation

22
Kinetic Theory of Matter
  • The atoms and molecules that make up matter are
    in constant motion, and that motion changes as
    the temperature changes.

23
Temperature
  • During a phase change the temperature of a
    substance stays the same.

24
Physical Properties of Matter
  • Any characteristic of a material that can be
    observed or measured without changing the
    composition of the substance.

25
Examples of Physical Properties
  • Viscosity-resistance to flow
  • Conductivity-ability to allow heat to flow
  • Malleability-ability of solid to be hammared
    without shattering
  • Hardness-scratch test
  • Melting and boiling points-temp. from solid to
    liquid
  • Density-ratio of mass to volume

26
  • Video showing difference between physical and
    chemical properties.
  • http//youtu.be/6WjBM-ZgysQ

27
Separate Mixtures
  • Filtration-process that separates materials based
    on the size of particles
  • Distillation-process that separates the
    substances in a solution based on boiling points.

28
Chemical Changes
  • When substances react with each other and form
    one or more new substances.
  • Tree leaves change color
  • Wood burning
  • Baking a cake

29
Chemical Properties
  • Flammability-ability to burn in presence of
    oxygen
  • Reactivity-how readily a substance combines with
    other substances.

30
Evidence of Chemical Change
  • Change in color
  • Production of gas
  • Formation of a precipitate-any solid that forms
    and separates from a liquid mixture.
  • Cottage cheese
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