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Chapter 3 Matter Properties and Changes

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Chapter 3 Matter Properties and Changes DENSITY Density is a ratio that compares an objects mass to its volume. The unit for density is g/ L or g/ cm3. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3 Matter Properties and Changes


1
Chapter 3 Matter Properties and Changes
2
DENSITY
  • Density is a ratio that compares an objects mass
    to its volume. The unit for density is g/ L or
    g/ cm3.
  • A large piece of Styrofoam has the same mass as a
    quarter, but the quarter has a smaller volume.
    The quarter has a greater density, because there
    is a greater amount of mass contained in a
    smaller space.

3
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4
  1. A 5-mL sample of water has a mass of 5 g. What
    is the density of water?
  2. An object with a mass of 7.5 g raises the level
    of water in a graduated cylinder from 25.1 mL to
    30.1 mL. What is the density of the object?
  3. The density of aluminum is 2.7 g/mL. What is the
    volume of 8.1 g?

5
Section 3.1
  • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up
    space.
  • Matter that has a uniform and unchanging
    composition is called a substance.
  • Common examples of substances include salt and
    water.

6
  • Matter has specific properties. Properties of
    matter can be physical or chemical.
  • Physical properties are properties that can be
    observed or measured without changing the
    composition of the substance.
  • Physical properties include density, color, odor,
    hardness, melting/ freezing/ boiling points.

7
  • Physical properties can be described as extensive
    or intensive.
  • Extensive properties depend on the amount of the
    substance present. Length, for example is an
    observable, extensive physical property.
  • Intensive properties do not depend on the amount
    of substance. Density, for example is an
    intensive physical property, because the density
    of a substance does not change, no matter how
    much of the substance is present.

8
  • Chemical properties of matter allow a substance
    to change composition as a result of contact with
    another substance or because of the application
    of thermal or electrical energy. If a substance
    is not reactive with another substance, HCl and
    Copper, that is a chemical property, also.
  • Examples of chemical properties include the
    ability to rust, burn, release gas, absorb or
    give off energy.

9
  • All matter exists as either a solid, liquid, or a
    gas. Plasma is also a form of matter, but is
    only present on earth in lightning bolts. These
    are called STATES OF MATTER. States of matter
    are physical properties.
  • Vapor is NOT the same as a gas!! A vapor is a
    word used to describe when a substance that is a
    solid or liquid at room temperature is heated
    enough to take a gaseous form.

10
Solid Liquid Gas
Definite shape Definite volume Particles held tightly together Particles expand when heated Takes shape of container, but does not have to fill it Definite volume Particles held close, but not tight Particles expand when heated Takes shape of containers and fills it completely No definite volume Particles are far apart, so it can be compressed
11
Section 3.2
  • Physical changes are changes which alter a
    substance without changing its composition.
  • Examples are breaking glass, tearing paper,
    melting ice.
  • Changes of state are physical changes. When
    energy is added to solid water, it changes to
    liquid water, when more energy is added, it is
    changed to gaseous water. All the time it is
    still water. Only a physical change has taken
    place.

12
  • Melting and boiling points are intensive physical
    properties. They do not change when the amount
    of substance changes. These intensive physical
    properties can be used to identify unknown
    substances.

13
  • Chemical change is defined as one or more
    substances combining to become one or more new
    substances. AKA chemical reaction
  • Examples of common chemical reactions include
    burning wood, rusting iron, fermenting of barley
    and hops to make beer, and explosions.

14
  • Signs that a chemical reaction have taken place
    include
  • Thermal energy is given off or absorbed
  • Light is produced
  • Precipitate is formed
  • Color has changed permanently
  • Gas is formed

15
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16
  • The Law of Conservation of Mass states that mass
    is neither created nor destroyed in any process,
    it is conserved.
  • Mass of reactants Mass of products
  • A student carefully placed 15.6 g of sodium in a
    reactor supplied with an excess quantity of
    chlorine gas. When the reaction was complete,
    the student obtained 39,7 g of sodium chloride.
    How many grams of chlorine gas reacted? How many
    grams of sodium reacted?

17
  • 24.1 g of chlorine gas is used in the reaction.
    Because the sodium reacts with excess chlorine,
    all of the sodium (15.6 g) is used in the
    reaction.

18
Law of Conservation of Energy
  • In any chemical reaction or physical process,
    energy can be converted from one form to another,
    but it is neither created nor destroyed.

19
Classify each of the following as examples of
physical or chemical changes
  1. Crushing an aluminum can
  2. Recycling used aluminum cans to make new cans
  3. Aluminum combining with oxygen to form aluminum
    oxide

20
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21
Section 3.3
  • A mixture is a combination of two or more pure
    substances in which each pure substance retains
    its individual chemical properties. The
    composition of a mixture is variable. Mixtures
    can be heterogeneous or homogeneous.

22
  • A heterogeneous mixture is one in which the
    substances still remain distinct.
  • Examples include sand/ water, Skittles, fruit
    salad, vegetable soup.
  • The existence of two or more distinct areas
    indicate a heterogeneous mixture.

23
  • A homogeneous mixture has a consistent
    composition throughout. It exists in one phase.
  • Examples include salt and water, Kool-Aid, gold
    jewelry.
  • Homogeneous mixtures are often referred to as
    solutions.

24
System Example
Gas-gas Air is primarily a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon gasses
Gas-liquid Carbonated beverages contain carbon dioxide gas in solution
Liquid-gas Moist air contains water droplets in air
Liquid-liquid Vinegar contains acetic acid in water
Solid-liquid Sweetened powder drink contains sugar and other solid ingredients in water
Solid-solid Steel is an allow of iron containing carbon
25
  • A mixture is a combination of substances
    physically combined. Physical separation methods
    take advantage of known physical properties of
    individual components of a mixture.
  • Filtration uses a solid barrier to separate
    heterogeneous mixtures of a a solid and a liquid
    (sand water).
  • Distillation uses differences in boiling points
    to separate a homogeneous mixture.

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27
  • Crystallization separates a mixture and forms a
    solid that is pure. Like making rock candy.
  • Chromatography separates components of a mixture
    on the basis of the tendency of each to travel or
    be drawn across the surface of another material.

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29
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30
Section 3.4
  • Elements are substances that cannot be broken
    down any further by either chemical or physical
    methods. Elements are pure substances.
  • Elements have a unique name and chemical symbol.
    The symbol consists of one, two or three
    letters. The first letter is always capitalized
    and any following letters are lowercase.

31
  • The elements are grouped by patterns in their
    physical and chemical properties.
  • In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev organized the elements
    in rows and columns based on their masses. That
    was the first version of the periodic table. One
    of the greatest aspects of Mendeleevs table was
    that it left spaces for elements not yet
    discovered.

32
  • The horizontal rows in the periodic table are
    called periods and the vertical columns are
    called groups or families. The table is called a
    periodic table, because the elements have
    patterns of similar properties as you move from
    period to period.

33
  • Compounds are two or more elements chemically
    combined. The names of compounds are written by
    using the elements symbols. Salt is written
    NaCl, water is written H2O, hydrochloric acid is
    written HCl.
  • Compounds can be broken down into simpler
    substances, unlike elements. In order to do
    that, electrical or heat energy must be added.

34
  • Compounds do not resemble the elements from which
    they are made. For example, salt, NaCl, is made
    from sodium (a silvery metal that burns when
    exposed to water), and chlorine (a greenish,
    poisonous gas). However, when these two combine,
    they form simple table salt that flavors food.
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35
Law of Definite Proportions
  • Regardless of the amount, a compound is always
    composed of the same elements in the same
    proportions by mass.
  • The ratio of the mass of each element to the
    total mass of the compound as a percentage is
    called the percent by mass.
  • Percent by mass
  • mass mass of element x 100 mass
    of compound
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