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SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES

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SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES Forestry Committee May 2007 The forest manager must analyze each timber stand for the biological & economic factors that bear upon it, & then ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES


1
SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES
Forestry Committee May 2007
2
SILVICULTURE
  • The application of various treatments such as
    tree planting, pruning, intermediate cuttings and
    harvest cuts.

3
  • The forest manager must analyze each timber stand
    for the biological economic factors that bear
    upon it, then devise the silvicultural
    practices which will best meet their management
    objectives.

4
FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED
  • Timber production Practices selected to produce
    the highest value products as well as volume that
    was feasible for the site available markets.

5
  • Timber production wildlife habitat Practices
    aimed at the highest return possible still
    accomplish both goals in a profitable manner.

6
  • Timber production watershed protection
    Practices used to areas adjacent to streams,
    ponds or lakes that require special techniques to
    protect the areas still accomplish the
    management objectives.

7
BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICESBMPS
  • Require avoiding the following practices
  • Using wheeled or tracked vehicles
  • Leaving trees or tops in the water
  • Roads or trails of any kind, unless absolutely
    necessary
  • Fire

8
  • Any type of mechanical site preparation or
    machine planting
  • Portable sawmills and log decks
  • Aerial application of any pesticides or
    herbicides

9
STREAMSIDE MANAGEMENT ZONES (SMZs)
  • Areas near creeks streams that are protected to
    prevent erosion pollution.
  • Distance from the edge of the streambed
  • Region Primary SMZ Secondary SMZ
  • Lower Coastal Plain 20 0
  • Upper Coastal Plain 40 40
  • Piedmont Mountain 80 80

10
  • Timber production recreation areas Practices
    used to keep both timber production and
    recreation activities profitable.

11
  • Always keep in mind that the practice of
    silviculture is tailored to each forest stand

12
CUTTING OPERATIONS
  • The principle most beneficial silvicultural
    treatments used in the southeast.
  • The majority of timber is managed for maximum
    production.
  • Intermediate cuttings cuttings of the timber at
    any time from reproduction stage to timber
    maturity or final harvest.
  • Rotation the time from when the stand is
    established until the final harvest cut.

13
INTERMEDIATE CUTTING OBJECTIVES
  • Improvement of the existing stand
  • Regulation of tree stand growth
  • Early financial returns
  • Reduction of conditions favorable to insects
    disease
  • To create conditions favorable to reproduction

14
THINNING
  • A form of intermediate cutting in young stands to
    improve the yield of the stand at final harvest
    to provide the owner with early financial return.
  • The objective is to leave better trees so future
    growth is concentrated on the higher value trees
    to utilize all merchantable material produced
    by the stand during its rotation.

15
THINNING TECHNIQUES
  • Low thinning taking out overtopped small trees
    in the understory
  • Crown thinning removing trees from the middle
    upper levels, opening the canopy for maximum
    growth of dominant co-dominant trees in the
    stand

16
  • Selection thinning removes the dominant trees to
    concentrate growth on the lower crown classes.
    Not recommended unless immediate income is top
    priority. Considered high-grading.
  • Mechanical thinning based on spacing with little
    or no regard for tree vigor, form or position in
    the canopy.

17
MECHANICAL THINNING
  • Two methods most often used are row thinning
    fixed intervals.
  • Row thinning-taking out rows of trees at a time.
    (example every 3rd or 5th row)
  • Fixed interval-strips cut throughout the stand.

18
CLEANING
  • Treatments in young stands past the sapling stage
    to free the desired species from competition by
    regulating the composition of mixed stands.

19
METHODS OF CLEANING
  • Prescribed burning-using fire under very closely
    controlled conditions the most economical tool
    used in young pine stands
  • Cuttings-removing the undesirable trees by
    cutting
  • Basal spraying-using chemicals sprayed at the
    base of trees to reduce competition reliable but
    expensive
  • Foliage spraying-spraying hardwoods with
    herbicides is effective for broadcast control
    methods widely used

20
LIBERATION CUTTINGS
  • Used to free young stands, up to sapling size
    from competition of older, overtopping,
    individual trees.
  • Accomplished by
  • Girdling-cutting through the bark cambium
    layer to kill the stem leave it standing in
    place.
  • Basal spraying-spraying herbicides around the
    stump or injected into the tree to kill it, used
    for large trees

21
IMPROVEMENT CUTS
  • Intermediate cuts to stands larger than saplings.
    They are done to improve the stand competition,
    quality, condition or form by removing inferior
    trees.

22
TYPES OF IMPROVENENT CUTS
  • Sanitation cut-removing trees infested with
    insects or attacked by disease.
  • Salvage cut-removing trees that are dead, damaged
    by insects, disease, wind, lightning or various
    other factors.
  • Pruning-removal of side branches from standing
    trees to produce knot-free lumber from logs of
    higher quality. No more than 1/3 of the tree
    crown should be removed.

23
  • LIVE CROWN RATIO-generally considered the best
    indicator of condition of the stand in relation
    to the optimum growth financial returns to the
    owner. Calculated by the amount of live crown
    divided by the overall height of the tree.

24
STAND CONDITION INDICATORS
  • Live crown ratio-sapling size to larger trees
    should have a live crown ration of 1/3 of their
    total height for proper growth ratio.
  • Overcrowding-causing the crown to recede to ¼ or
    even less of the total height. Stands should be
    thinned to get optimum growth.

25
STAND CONTITION INDICATORS
  • Increment boring-taking a core sample of the tree
    to determine the trees growth rate. A reduction
    in the width of the annual rings indicates the
    need for thinning.
  • Basal area-an excellent indicator of the degree
    of stocking in the stand the need extent of
    thinning required. Measured in square feet,
    taken with a wedge prism.

26
  • The general tendency for forest managers is to
    thin timber too lightly. This can cause a delay
    in the rotation of the forest resulting in an
    economic loss for the landowner.

27
HARVEST CUTTING OBJECTIVES
  • Removal of the mature timber.
  • Establishment of reproduction.
  • Supplementary treatments of the timber-growing
    site to develop favorable conditions for seedling
    growth.

28
HARVEST METHODS
  • Clear cutting Virtually cutting all of the trees
    in a stand, both large small. When clear
    cutting is used, artificial reforestation is the
    primary method of establishing a new stand.
  • Seed tree cutting a form of clear cutting,
    except 4-10 trees are left dispersed throughout
    the area to provide for reproduction.

29
  • Shelterwood cutting a harvest cutting method
    where 25-40 trees per acre are left to supply
    seed for regeneration. Sometimes as many as 3
    cutting stages are used in a shelterwood cut.
  • Selection cutting a complex method of cutting
    removing individual trees throughout the stand
    based upon maturity, growth rate, diameter
    vigor.
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