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Motivating and Scaffolding Middle School English Language Learners: Focus on Content and Collaboration


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Title: Motivating and Scaffolding Middle School English Language Learners: Focus on Content and Collaboration

Motivating and Scaffolding Middle School English
Language Learners Focus on Content and
  • Project ALL (Advancing Literacy for Learning)
  • Donna Ogle Project ALL Team
  • IRA, Toronto, May 14, 2007

Research-based practices
  • The amount of reading students do is critical
  • A positive dimension of our research is that
    all our studies have demonstrated that reading
    yields significant dividends for everyone not
    just for the smart kids or the more able
    readers. Even the child with limited reading and
    comprehension skills will build vocabulary and
    cognitive structures through reading.
  • A. Cunningham K. Stanovich (1998)

Enhancing vocabulary through reading and study of
academic terms
  • According to Anderson, Wilson and Fielding (1986)
    students at the 90th percentile in terms of
    volume of reading encounter 200 times more words
    than students at the 10th percentile.
  • Marzanos review of vocabulary research indicates
    that students comprehension can be improved by
    33 percent when key academic vocabulary is taught

  • Involve students actively and personally
  • Connecting to their lives
  • Connecting with each other
  • Create opportunities for active thinking and
    student input
  • Develop a metacognitive orientation and engage
    students in assessment
  • Embed reading instruction in extended, rich
    instructional contexts more critical thinking

Project ALL
  • Advancing Literacy for Learning by
  • Providing curricular support for teachers with
    struggling readers and English Language Learners
  • Using the Sheltered Immersion Observation
    Protocol (SIOP)
  • Developing as a research and exploratory model
    case studies, classroom pilots of content units
    with informal assessments, differentiated texts
    and Partner Reading, and observations to create a
    collection of effective strategies teachers are
  • Encouraging more academic personal reading
    and integrating strategies into partner and
    personal reading

Content reading in social studies and science
  • Developing lessons using the SIOP framework
    Content and Language Objectives specified
  • Providing a collection of small books on a
    content them at varied reading levels are used
  • Teacher introduces the content of the unit
  • Fluency snapshots help determine partners
  • Students read for 20 minutes with partners
  • Students keep notes on their questions and
    vocabulary they want to learn

Informational text sets
  • Developing Grades 4 - 8
  • Range of reading difficulty
  • Range of conceptual difficulty focus
  • Illustrative sets models for teaching
  • Partner Reading with content materials with an
    emphasis on
  • Questioning and Discussion Vocabulary

Text SetsFor Grades 3, 5, 8
Social Studies
5th Grade Science Texts
Title/Reading Level Author Publisher
Simple Machines(6pk.) (2nd) G. Thompson National Geographic
Machines Make it Move (6pk.) (6th) S. M. Tomecek National Geographic
Useful Machines Wheels (2nd) Chris Oxlade Heinemann
From Axes to Zippers Simple Machines (3rd) K. French Benchmark Education
Teachers Guides
  • Theme ideas
  • Guide to text levels, features and structure
  • Partner reading guide
  • Rich instructional model
  • Before reading (KWL, Text Preview)
  • During reading (Graphic Organizer)
  • After reading (KWL, Extended response)
  • Links to Standards
  • Vocabulary
  • Additional teaching ideas

Anticipate students levels of interest in
informational texts
  • Visual preview of text covers
  • Interest inventories
  • One Minute Fluency

Establishing Partner Reading
Provide an encouraging, positive social context
for students to read together on the carpet,
at tables, etc.
Assess students reading levels with fluency
checks and match partners with appropriate
levels of materials
Guide students use of their active reading
strategies with repeated practice with their
partner apply what is known about comprehension
and vocabulary
Supporting all readerswith PRC2 (Partner Reading
Content Too)
  • Read materials at instructional levels
  • Multiple readings of the same text
  • Rehearsed oral reading
  • Enjoyable social interactions
  • Choice in texts
  • Able to read multiple texts and challenging ones
    after introduction to topic and vocabulary
  • Using the academic vocabulary orally
  • increases familiarity with terms and uses

  • A. What is it about?
  • B. How is it organized?
  • C. Look through the book (chapter-by-chapter
    walk-through) and notice
  • 1. Organization
  • 2. Headings and Sub-headings
  • 3. Pictures and Captions
  • 4. Illustrations
  • 5. Diagrams
  • 6. Boxed Information
  • 7. Highlighted vocabulary
  • Boldface
  • Italics
  • Boxed Definitions
  • 8. Resources in the book glossary, index,
    suggested web- sites and other books
  • D. Partners preview cover of book and Table of
    Contents together

PRC2- Partner Reading Routine
  • Partners share one text on independent or
    instructional level take turns reading sections
  • Both partners first read the 2 pages silently, to
    get a sense of the text
  • Partners rereads their page to prepare for their
    performance read and select or write a question
    using the guide or their QAR knowledge
  • Each partner reads a page/section orally and asks
    a question of the listener-partner partners talk
    about text
  • Partners switch roles of reader and listener as
    they read section by section
  • Each partner adds words to personal academic
    vocabulary notebook at end of PRC2

Simple MachinesGare Thompson (2000)
  • Work
  • What does work mean to a scientist? Scientists
    say that work is done when a force is used to
    move an object over a distance. To do work, you
    must move something.
  • Suppose you use force to push on a wall. Are you
    doing work? NO, the wall does not move. What if
    you push a door and it opens. Now, you are doing
    work. The door moved. Your push was the force
    that made the door move.
  • P.1
  • Machines and Work
  • We do work every day. But we can make work
    easier. How? We can use machines. A machine is
    anything that helps us do work. Machines make
    work easier. They help us cut things, mix
    things, and move heavy things. Some machines are
    called simple machines. A simple machine is a
    machine that has few or no moving parts. A
    simple machine does one of the following
  • increases the speed of something
  • Increases the force that you use
  • Changes the direction of the force that you use
  • P.2

Question Guide
What was most important in this section? What was most interesting?
What connections can you make to these ideas? What could the author have done to make this easier to understand?
Learning to discuss text ideasNew scaffolds on
  • Receive your partners ideas
  • Thank you. Those are good ideas
  • That was interesting. You helped me.
  • Elaborate and extend ideas
  • Can you tell me more?
  • Can you think of another example?
  • Clarify
  • Make connections
  • Add a different perspective

Teachers Role in PRC2
  • Collect appropriate materials
  • Introduce unit and help identify purposes
  • Observe and listen to students as they read
    discuss make notes on what you learn
  • Guide vocabulary development
  • Orchestrate group sharing
  • Provide positive feedback to students

Pieces of the Puzzle
  • How to reach and engage all students, especially
    those struggling to meet grade level demands
  • How to use the language strengths of children to
    access English texts
  • How to provide a wider range of reading materials
    for students more literary non-fiction and
    general informational texts
  • How to increase the amount of instruction in
    reading to learn

Developing Formative Assessment
  • Amy Correa
  • Project ALL, Co-director

What is academic literacy?
  • Double the Work defines the term in the following
  • Includes reading, writing, and oral discourse for
  • Varies from subject to subject
  • Requires knowledge of multiple genres of text,
    purposes for text use, and text media
  • Is influenced by students literacy in contexts
    outside of school
  • Is influence by students personal, social, and
    cultural experiences

Assessments reflect content-specific reading
  • ISAT equal fiction and non-fiction passages,
    linked procedural texts
  • NAEP mix of reading materials and tasks to
    reflect reading different genre and reading
    multiple texts
  • International assessments (PIRLS PISA) indicate
    that US students need to become more flexible in
    the kinds of reading they do more informational
    and more critical responses

Developing Formative Assessments
  • Where are the students?
  • How do we assess what they bring with them?
  • How do we look at multiple measures to get a
    complete picture of students language skills and
    content knowledge?
  • How does literacy assessment fit in the content

Project ALL (Advancing Literacy for Learning)
working with content reading Observing and
listening to students interpret text as they
think aloud
Assessments within Project ALL
  • Fluency Snapshots
  • Visual Interest
  • Idea Concept
  • Morphology (5th graders had tremendous
    difficulty so more focus this year)
  • Table of Contents
  • Observational Notes

Fluency Snapshots
  • Where are my students in relationship to the
    classroom materials I have them reading?
  • Quick initial screening
  • Instructional uses
  • Informs oral fluency

Visual Interest
  • What type of genre do my students prefer? Any
    informational texts?
  • Students explain reasoning of choosing one over
    the other
  • Helps teacher assess prior knowledge and interest
    of students on specific topic
  • Helps teacher assess genre in classroom library

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Idea Concept Web
  • What background knowledge are my students coming
  • Students categorize words under specific labels
  • Frontloads vocabulary of content area
  • Helps teacher assess prior knowledge of both
    concepts and words

Sort the following words into the categories you
think they best fit. Since we are just
beginning the unit there should be many words
that are new to you. Note them as you find them
in your reading. Terms asteroid, astronomer,
comet, Crew, Earth, meteor, mission specialist,
Venus, Yuri Gagarin, Saturn, shuttle, Booster
rocket, telescope, Neptune, satellite,
astronaut, helmet, moon
________ ________ ________ ________
Orbiting Objects
The Solar System
________ ________ ________ ________ ________ _____
___ ________ ________
________ _____________________________________
Spacecraft Equipment
  • Do my students have a good idea of word meanings?
    Are they able to expand their knowledge of words
    by understanding unit parts?
  • Students demonstrate their understanding of the
    structure and meanings of words
  • Helps ELLs think about the Latin and Greek roots
    within their own language (relationship to

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Table of Content
  • What understanding of informational texts are
    students coming with?
  • Students fill in appropriate chapters from two
    different types of genre
  • Helps teacher assess understanding of student
    exposure to non-fiction or expository text
  • Helps teacher determine student understanding of
    main concepts

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Observational Notes
  • How is the teacher systemically providing time to
    collect anecdotal notes on the literacy
    development of all students in the content area
    several times a month?
  • Structured time in which teacher can observe
  • oral reading skills, questions and discussion
    ability, knowledge of vocabulary, social
    behaviors, communication, pacing, motivation,
    level, lack of understanding of content
    (comprehension), instructional needs, follow-up
    plans, etc.

Observational Notes for PRC2 Partner
1_________________ Title of Book Partner
2. Date Number of
sessions with book
Partner 1 Partner 2
Oral reading notes Oral reading notes

Questioning (asking or answering) Questioning (asking or answering)

Attention to knowledge of vocabulary Attention to knowledge of vocabulary

Teacher Reflections (Partners social behaviors, communication, pacing, motivation, level, lack of understanding of content (comprehension), instructional needs, follow-up plans, etc.) Teacher Reflections (Partners social behaviors, communication, pacing, motivation, level, lack of understanding of content (comprehension), instructional needs, follow-up plans, etc.)
(Ogle Correa, 2004)
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Break Out Sessions
Presenters Javier Arriola, , Debra Gurvitz,
Peggy Gyftakos, Jeanette Hamman, Renee Mackin ,
Margaret McGregor Carol Schmitz, Christine Seidman
  • There will be 2 sessions of break-outs
  • choose two you will attend one from each set
    of four

Fluency Snapshot Matching TextsSession 1 - A
  • Content Objective
  • Assessment to identify instructional text level
  • Language Objective
  • Explain the purpose and limitations of the
    fluency snapshot
  • Activities
  • Try a fluency snapshot and graph result
  • Review student data
  • Select text in alignment to student score of
    correct words read

Partner Reading Content Too (PRC2)Session 1 - B
  • Content Objectives
  • Learn the steps in PRC2
  • Use the student guide sheet
  • Use leveled books to match students with partners
    and texts
  • Language Objectives
  • Use academic vocabulary to describe the
    components of the texts (Table of Contents,
    headings, visual displays) and how to engage
    (preview, question, discuss)
  • Activities
  • Preview components
  • Engage in PRC2 reading with partner

Vocabulary Using TechnologySession 1 - C
  • Content Objective
  • Provide electronic/computerized experience to
    assist in the internalization of content and
    related vocabulary
  • Build and connect to students home language
  • Cognates
  • Language Objectives
  • Discuss ways to incorporate more use of new
    vocabulary in the classroom and integrate reading
    and speaking
  • Activities
  • Electronic Jeopardy
  • Cognates
  • Semantic Gradient

Text StructureSession 1 D
  • Content Objective
  • Provide strategies to understand elements of
    informational text
  • Table of contents, index, glossary
  • Text boxes, captions, bold text (fonts),
    headings, sub headings
  • Graphs/charts
  • Illustrations/photographs
  • Language Objectives
  • Examine the importance of teaching text
    structure Practice describing text structure
    features to students as part of introduction of a
  • Activities
  • Preview text
  • Predicting
  • Guess the Heading
  • Think, pair, share
  • Questioning

Organizing and Observing PRC2Session 2 - A
  • Content Objective
  • Provide ways to manage and organize PRC2
  • Language Objectives
  • Learn the vocabulary of PRC2
  • Develop ways to describe analyze student talk
  • Activities
  • Set up management folders
  • Role of the teacher observational notes
  • Audio tapes using observation form

Vocabulary GamesSession 2 - B
  • Content Objective
  • Provide multi-sensory learning experiences to
    enhance content vocabulary
  • Build on word knowledge
  • Roots, base words, affixes
  • Language Objectives
  • Incorporate a variety of vocabulary development
    activities to deepen students retention and
    learning of key vocabulary
  • Activities
  • Pyramid game ( concept sorts)
  • Vocabulary beans (morphology)
  • Jeopardy (roots, base words, affixes)

Questioning and DiscussionSession 2 - C
  • Content Objective
  • Provide opportunities to construct meaning
  • Connections, syntheses, engagement, clarification
  • Language Objectives
  • Learn and use the vocabulary of PRC2
  • Activities
  • Four square questioning probes
  • Conversation starters
  • Responding to the text

Word and Concept Sorts Session 2 - D
  • Content Objective
  • Provide kinesthetic activities for students to
    organize content and related vocabulary words and
  • Language Objectives
  • Develop students ability to describe and
    explain their reasons for grouping words
  • Activities
  • Pre and post assessment sorts
  • Open, closed and layered sorts
  • Student generated sorts

University Collaboration Within and Across Schools
  • Carol Schmitz
  • Debra Gurvitz
  • Javier Arriola

Across Schools
  • Visit to Carson and Bateman Schools
  • Saturday Seminars
  • Articulation across schools in the project
  • Year Two met at Project Schools
  • Friday Seminars at National-Louis University
  • Articulation of the units
  • Data collection to inform instruction

Professional Development Opportunities
  • University Classes
  • Masters in Education, Reading
  • Endorsement in Reading or Type 10 Reading
  • SIOP Training
  • Saturday Seminars
  • Professional Presentations
  • Area 4 Staff Development Spring 2006
  • International Reading Association 2007

Leadership in Schools and Area
  • School Leadership
  • Professional Development Days
  • Grade Level Meetings
  • Data collection to inform instruction
  • Model partner reading
  • Chicago School District Area 4
  • Staff Development for Area 4 Spring 2006

Fluency Snapshot and Matching Text
  • Debra Gurvitz
  • Christine Seidman

Curriculum Based Measurement (CBM) Classroom
Fluency Snapshot
  • Collection of 1 minute reading samples
  • All students read the same grade level passage

Why Use
  • Quick initial screening
  • Hear every student read orally
  • Instructional Uses
  • Instructional Groups for Guided Reading
  • Pairing for Partner Reading
  • Match students to leveled materials
  • Independent Reading 98 accuracy
  • Instructional reading 95 accuracy
  • Informs oral fluency-- RACE
  • Rate
  • Accuracy
  • Comprehension (limited)
  • Expression

  • Copy of text to be read
  • Number on recording sheet
  • Student reads original text
  • Stop watch or clock with second hand
  • One minute
  • Ask question or 2 after (optional)

Administer--Record Errors
  • Anything different from the text that is not
    corrected put line through the word missed
  • Mispronunciation (if accent or dialect not as
  • Substitutions (even if they mean the same)
  • Omission
  • Words you supply after 2/3 seconds
  • Repeated miscuescount each time
  • Incorrect proper names
  • Multiple counted only one time

Not Counted as Errors
  • Dont countbut note
  • self-corrections
  • hesitations
  • repetitions
  • insertions
  • punctuation

ScoringWords Per Minute
  • Count words read per minute
  • Subtract miscues
  • Total amount of correct words read per minute

Look at Rate
  • Best is the Hasbrouck Tindal
  • Best norms for Fall, Winter, Spring
  • National Norms
  • Local Norms
  • Classroom Norms

Grade Level WPM
1.8 30-54
2.8 66-104
3.8 86-124
4.8 95-130
5.8 108-140
6.8 112-145
7.8 122-155
8.8 136-167
Look at Accuracy
  • Key Were they accurate but slow or were they
    fast and not accurate
  • Understand what is happening
  • Very accurate and slow
  • For instructional level reading with support of
    teacher, group or tutor at least 95(as close as
    you can get)

Things to Remember
  • All students read same text
  • Reading is timed ( 1 minute)
  • Accuracy is recorded
  • Correct WCMP ( words per minute) are charted

  • Allington, R. L.(2006). What really matters for
    struggling readers Designing research-based
    programs. (2ND Edition). New York Allyn Bacon.
  • Blachowicz, C., Sullivan, D., Ciepley, C. (2001).
    Fluency Snapshots A quick screening tool for
    your classroom. Reading Psychology, 22, 95-109.
  • Johns, J. L. (2005). Basic reading inventory.
    Dubuque, IA Kendall/Hunt.
  • Moskal, M., Blachowicz, C.(2006). Partnership
    for fluency. NY Guilford
  • Rasinski, T., Blachowicz, C., Lems, K (Eds).
    Fluency instruction Research-based best
    practices. NY Guildford.
  • Rasinski, T. (2004). Creating fluent readers,.
    Educational Leadership, 61, 1-9.
  • Short, D. Fitzsimmons, S. (2007). Double the
    Work Challenges and Solutions to Acquiring
    language and academic literacy for adolescent
    English Language Learners A report to the
    Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC
    Alliance for Excellent Education.

Contact Information
  • Donna Ogle, National-Louis University
  • Amy Correa, NLU/CPS