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Classifying Matter: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

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Title: Classifying Matter: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures


1
Classifying Matter Elements, Compounds, and
Mixtures
2
Bell Work 11-18-11
  • TCAP questions on page 304-305 numbers 1, 2,
    4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12

3
Standards Objectives 11-18-11
  • 0807.9.2 Explain that matter has properties
    that are determined by the structure and
    arrangement of its atoms.
  • 0807.9.3 Classify common substances as
    elements or compounds based on their symbols or
    formulas.
  • 0807.9.4 Distinguish among elements,
    compounds, and mixtures.
  • 0807.9.5 Distinguish between elements and
    compounds by their symbols and formulas.
  • 0807.9.7 Describe how the characteristics of
    a compound are different than the characteristics
    of their component parts.
  • Objectives
  • 1. Classify and identify elements by their
    characteristics and properties.
  • 2. Describe pure substances.

4
Chromatography
  • 1. Predict what you think will happen when the
    water reaches the marker dots.
  • 2. What happened as the paper soaked up the
    water?
  • 3. Which colors make up the markers black ink?
  • 4. Is the process used to make the ink separate a
    physical or a chemical change? Explain.

5
Elements
  • pure substance that cannot be separated into
    simpler substances by physical or chemical means.
  • Elements are the simplest substances.

6
Pure Substances
  • A sample of matter, either a single element or a
    single compound, that has definite chemical and
    physical properties
  • A substance in which there is only one type of
    particle.

7
Properties of Elements
  • Each element has its own unique properties.
  • Compare the properties of Al and Cu..
  • What are some physical properties?
  • Boiling Point, Melting Point, Density, Color,
    Hardness, Texture
  • What are some chemical properties?
  • Reactivity, flammability

8
Identifying Elements by Their Properties
  • What are some properties that you could use to
    identify an element?
  • What properties would you use to identify Mg vs.
    Al vs. Cu?

9
Classifying Elements by their Properties
10
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11
0807.9.2, 0807.9.3, 0807.9.4, 0807.9.5, 0807.9.7
  • Objectives
  • 1. Explain how elements make up compounds.
  • 2. Describe the properties of compounds.

12
Bell Work 11-21-11
  • 1. Page 53 question 2
  • 2. Page 53 question 4
  • 3. Page 59 question 4
  • 4. List 5 physical properties of an element.
  • 5. T/F Elements cannot be broken down into
    simpler substances and are capable of joining
    with other elements during chemical reactions.
  • 6. What are three categories of elements?
  • 7. What is a pure substance?
  • 8. Finish the TCAP questions on page 304-305 from
    last wk.

13
Standards Objectives 11-21-11
  • 0807.9.2 Explain that matter has properties
    that are determined by the structure and
    arrangement of its atoms.
  • 0807.9.3 Classify common substances as
    elements or compounds based on their symbols or
    formulas.
  • 0807.9.4 Distinguish among elements,
    compounds, and mixtures.
  • 0807.9.5 Distinguish between elements and
    compounds by their symbols and formulas.
  • 0807.9.7 Describe how the characteristics of
    a compound are different than the characteristics
    of their component parts.
  • Objectives
  • 1. Explain how elements make up compounds.
  • 2. Describe the properties of compounds.

14
What are 3 Ways to Classify Elements?
  • Metals, Metalloids, Nonmetals
  • Metals shiny, good conductors, malleable,
    ductile
  • Nonmetals dull, brittle (solid), do not conduct
    heat
  • Metalloids Properties of metals nonmetals,
    semiconductors, some are shiny, some are dull

15
Compounds
  • Pure substance made up of atoms of two or more
    different elements joined by chemical bonds.
  • Example Baking Soda (NaHCO3), sugar
    (C12H22O11)
  • Chemical changes must occur for elements to
    combine
  • Example Mg reacts with oxygen when heat is
    added to form the compound magnesium oxide (MgO).

16
Molecules
  • A particle of a compound.
  • Molecules of compounds are formed when atoms of
    two or more elements join together.

17
Identify the Compound Lab
  • You have two unknown substancesUnknown 1 and
    Unknown 2
  • Record physical properties such as color and
    texture of each unknown in your composition book.
  • Add 5 milliliters of vinegar to each unknown.
  • Record what occurs when the vinegar is added.
  • Is this a physical change or chemical change?
  • One unknown is powdered sugar and the other is
    baking soda. Identify which cup is the sugar and
    baking soda in your experiment. Explain your
    answer in your composition book.

18
Ratio of Elements in Compounds
  • Elements do not form randomly.
  • Always occur in specific ratio according to their
    masses.
  • Example water (H2O) Water is formed with a mass
    ratio of hydrogen to oxygen of 1 to 8 (18).

19
Properties of Compounds
  • Each compound has its own properties.
  • The properties of the compound will be different
    than the properties of the elements that it is
    formed from.

20
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21
Bell Work 11-22-11
  • 1. Page 63 14, 20-23
  • 2. Page 93 17, 19
  • 3. Page 95 8, 9
  • 4. What is a pure substance that is formed when
    two or more elements join together chemically?
  • 5. How do elements join to form compounds?
    Randomly?
  • 6. What kind of property is flammability?
  • 7. T/F The properties of a compound will be
    different than the properties of the elements
    that it formed from.

22
Standards Objectives 11-22-11
  • 0807.9.2 Explain that matter has properties
    that are determined by the structure and
    arrangement of its atoms.
  • 0807.9.3 Classify common substances as
    elements or compounds based on their symbols or
    formulas.
  • 0807.9.4 Distinguish among elements,
    compounds, and mixtures.
  • 0807.9.5 Distinguish between elements and
    compounds by their symbols and formulas.
  • 0807.9.7 Describe how the characteristics of
    a compound are different than the characteristics
    of their component parts.
  • Objectives
  • 1. Explain how elements make up compounds.
  • 2. Describe the properties of compounds.

23
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24
Bell Work 11-28-11
  • Page 205 7-8
  • Page 228-229 2, 3, 8
  • Boiling point, melting point, density are some
    of an elements properties.
  • A. nonreactive B. physical C. chemical D. pure
  • What is a compound?
  • How do elements join to form compounds?
  • A. randomly B. 18 ratio C. specific mass ratio
  • What compounds are found in all living things?
  • What kind of property includes flammability of a
    substance

25
Standards Objectives 11-28-11
  • 0807.9.2 Explain that matter has properties
    that are determined by the structure and
    arrangement of its atoms.
  • 0807.9.3 Classify common substances as
    elements or compounds based on their symbols or
    formulas.
  • 0807.9.4 Distinguish among elements,
    compounds, and mixtures.
  • 0807.9.5 Distinguish between elements and
    compounds by their symbols and formulas.
  • 0807.9.7 Describe how the characteristics of
    a compound are different than the characteristics
    of their component parts.
  • Objectives
  • 1. Describe the properties of mixtures and
    methods of separation.

26
Breaking Down Compounds
  • Compounds can be broken down into simpler
    compounds or back into elements through chemical
    changes.
  • Sometimes energy is required . Apply heat or
    apply electric current

27
Mixtures
  • A combination of two or more substances that are
    not chemically combined.
  • No compound formed b/c no reaction
  • No chemical change takes place
  • Each substance retains its properties/chemical
    makeup/ identity
  • Some particles can be seen others cannot

28
Separating Mixtures
  • Physical methods
  • How would you separate a pizza mixture?
  • How would you separate salt from a mixture of
    salt water?

29
Ratio of Components in a Mixture
  • No exact ratio in mixtures unlike compounds
  • Pizza is still pizza even if you add extra
    pepperonis
  • The chart page 244 shows differences in compounds
    vs. mixtures

30
Heterogeneous vs. Homogenous
31
Lab Messing With Mixtures
  • What do you see in the bag?
  • Is this mixture heterogeneous or homogeneous?
    Explain?
  • Are the substances of this mixture chemically
    combined?
  • Find the total weight of the mixture in the bag.
  • Separate the mixture and find the individual
    weights of each substance present.

32
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33
Bell Work 11-29-11
  • 1. Page 123 8
  • 2. Page 151 5, 8
  • 3. T/F -All the particles in the same element are
    different. -Elements can be broken down into
    simpler substances.
  • -Elements have unique sets of properties.
  • -Elements cannot be joined together in chemical
    reactions.
  • 4. Which can be separated into simpler substances
    by chemical means? A. sodium B. water C. salt
    water D. gold
  • 5. Define mixture.

34
Standards Objectives 11-29-11
  • 0807.9.2 Explain that matter has properties
    that are determined by the structure and
    arrangement of its atoms.
  • 0807.9.3 Classify common substances as
    elements or compounds based on their symbols or
    formulas.
  • 0807.9.4 Distinguish among elements,
    compounds, and mixtures.
  • 0807.9.5 Distinguish between elements and
    compounds by their symbols and formulas.
  • 0807.9.7 Describe how the characteristics of
    a compound are different than the characteristics
    of their component parts.
  • Objectives
  • 1. Describe properties of mixtures and methods of
    separation.
  • 2. Analyze and explain a solution in terms of
    solute and solvent and describe how the
    concentration effects a solution.

35
Lab Tasty Mixtures
  1. Step 1 Place 1 piece of candy in your mouth and
    allow it to dissolve without using your tongue or
    teeth to help. Record the time it takes for the
    candy shell to dissolve.
  2. Step 2 Place another piece of candy in your
    mouth and allow it to dissolve using only your
    tongue to move it around. Record the time it
    takes for the candy shell to dissolve.
  3. Step 3 Place another piece of candy in your
    mouth and allow it to dissolve using your tongue
    and teeth. Record the time it takes for the candy
    shell to dissolve.

36
Lab Tasty Mixtures (contd)
  1. Define solute and solvent.
  2. Identify the solute and solvent.
  3. Identify which step the candy shell dissolved the
    quickest?
  4. Why do you think the candy dissolved quicker in
    this step?

37
Solutions
  • A homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances
    uniformly dispersed throughout a single phase.
  • Appears to be a single substance
  • Same appearance properties throughout the
    mixture

38
Solutions
  • Dissolving- process in which particles separate
    spread evenly throughout a mixture.
  • Solute- substance that dissolves in the solvent.
  • Solvent- substance in which the solute dissolves
    (usually appears in greater qty)
  • A solute must be soluble.
  • Insoluble- unable to dissolve (not a solution)

39
Solutions
  • Example salt water
  • Salt is soluble (dissolves) in water
  • Salt --- solute
  • Water --- solvent
  • Page 245 examples of solutions
  • Alloys- solid solution of metals or nonmetals
    dissolved in a metal
  • Particles in solution never settle b/c so small

40
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41
Bell Work 11/30/11
  • Chapter 9 Section 1 Review page 237 1-7

42
Standards Objectives 11-30-11
  • 0807.9.2 Explain that matter has properties
    that are determined by the structure and
    arrangement of its atoms.
  • 0807.9.3 Classify common substances as
    elements or compounds based on their symbols or
    formulas.
  • 0807.9.4 Distinguish among elements,
    compounds, and mixtures.
  • 0807.9.5 Distinguish between elements and
    compounds by their symbols and formulas.
  • 0807.9.7 Describe how the characteristics of
    a compound are different than the characteristics
    of their component parts.
  • Objectives
  • 1. Describe properties of mixtures and methods of
    separation.
  • 2. Analyze and explain a solution in terms of
    solute and solvent and describe how the
    concentration effects a solution.

43
Methods of Separating Mixtures
  • Distillation- process that separates a mixture
    based on the boiling point of the components.
  • Evaporation
  • Decanting- Pouring off
  • Centrifuge- separates mixtures by densities...
    e.g. blood (plasma red blood cells)
  • Page 243

44
Lab 1 Separate Iron, Sand, H2O
  • Analyze and explain how you would separate a
    mixture of these three substances.
  • 1. Mix iron filings, sand, and H2O (water) in the
    smaller beaker.
  • 2. Allow the sand and iron filings to settle at
    the bottom of the beaker.
  • 3. Use the decanting method of separation and
    pour off the water leaving the sand and iron at
    the bottom.
  • 4. Use the magnet to separate the iron from the
    sand.
  • 5. Clean up and place the blue cup on top to show
    me you are finished and ready to start next lab.

45
Lab 2 Separating Coffee and H2O
  • 1. Mix coffee and water in beaker.
  • 2. Make filter from the filter paper to filter
    the coffee.

46
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47
Bell Work 12-1-11
  • 1. Chapter 9 Section 2 Review page 241 1-6
  • 2. Work on your midterm review!!!

48
Standards Objectives 12-1-11
  • 0807.9.2 Explain that matter has properties
    that are determined by the structure and
    arrangement of its atoms.
  • 0807.9.3 Classify common substances as
    elements or compounds based on their symbols or
    formulas.
  • 0807.9.4 Distinguish among elements,
    compounds, and mixtures.
  • 0807.9.5 Distinguish between elements and
    compounds by their symbols and formulas.
  • 0807.9.7 Describe how the characteristics of
    a compound are different than the characteristics
    of their component parts.
  • Objectives
  • 1. Analyze and explain a solution in terms of
    solute and solvent and describe how the
    concentration effects a solution.

49
Concentration of Solutions
  • Concentration- amount of solute dissolved in a
    given qty of solvent
  • Solubility- ability of the solute to dissolve in
    a solvent at a certain temperature.
  • Page 247 Fig. 6

50
Dissolving Liquids in Gases
  • Solids are MORE soluble in liquids at HIGHER temp
  • Gases are LESS soluble in liquids at higher temp
  • Example coke goes flat quicker in warmer
    conditions...as the temp increases the gas
    escapes and does not stay dissolved flat coke

51
Dissolving Solids Faster in Liquids
  • Stir
  • Heat
  • Crushing

52
Lab 1 Separating Salt and Water
  • 1. Mix the salt with water in the beaker and
    allow the salt to dissolve. Mix with the stirring
    rod.
  • 2. Pipette 15 drops of water into the test tube.
  • 3. Raise your hand for Mrs. Borella to light your
    burner.
  • 4. Observe while the water is heated and
    evaporated leaving the salt in the test tube.
  • 5. Do not touch the hot test tube.
  • 6. Clean up your lab area and place the blue cup
    at the end of your table so I know you are ready
    for the next lab.

53
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54
Bell Work 12-2-11
  • Chapter 9 Section 3 Review Page 249 1-9
  • Work on your midterm review

55
Standards Objectives 12-2-11
  • 0807.9.2 Explain that matter has properties
    that are determined by the structure and
    arrangement of its atoms.
  • 0807.9.3 Classify common substances as
    elements or compounds based on their symbols or
    formulas.
  • 0807.9.4 Distinguish among elements,
    compounds, and mixtures.
  • 0807.9.5 Distinguish between elements and
    compounds by their symbols and formulas.
  • 0807.9.7 Describe how the characteristics of
    a compound are different than the characteristics
    of their component parts.
  • Objectives
  • 1. Describe the particles in a suspension.
  • 2. Explain the difference in a colloid,
    solution, and suspension.

56
Suspensions
  • Mixture in which particles of a material are
    dispersed throughout a liquid or gas but are
    large enough to settle.
  • Will not stay mixed unless stirred/shaken
  • Example snow globe
  • Separate by filter

57
Colloids
  • Mixture in which particles are dispersed
    throughout
  • but are not heavy enough to settle
  • Properties between those of a solution
    suspension
  • Particles relatively small fairly well
    mixed...smaller than suspension
  • Can not be separated by filtration... particles
    will pass through filter
  • Example- milk, mayonnaise, stick deodorant,
    gelatin, whipped cream

58
Lab Concentrated vs. Dilute Solutions
  • The terms concentrated and dilute do not tell you
    the amount solute dissolved.
  • 1. Fill both clear cups halfway with water.
  • 2. In cup 1 place 1 drop of food coloring in the
    water. In cup 2 place 6-7 drops of food coloring
    in the water.
  • 3. Compare the solutions and identify the
    concentrated solution and the dilute solution
  • 4. Clean up your lab area and return to your
    seat.

59
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60
Can you identify the following?
  • You will be shown a series of photos. Tell if
    each photo represents an item composed of an
    element, compound, or mixture.
  • Review
  • An element contains just one type of atom.
  • A compound contains two or more different atoms
    joined together.
  • A mixture contains two or more different
    substances that are only physically joined
    together, not chemically.
  • A mixture can contain both elements and
    compounds.

61
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Rocks
62
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Copper
63
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Jelly Beans
64
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Table Sugar
65
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Diamond
66
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Tea
67
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Salt
68
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Neon Gas
69
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Salad
70
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Pure Water
71
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Aluminum
72
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Lemonade
73
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Silver
74
Element, Compound, or Mixture?
Sand
75
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