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New Imperialism

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Chapter 25 New Imperialism New Imperialism In 1880 s Europe began an unprecedented expansion into Africa and Asia. New Imperialism Built on a foundation of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Imperialism


1
Chapter 25
  • New Imperialism

2
New Imperialism
  • In 1880s Europe began an unprecedented expansion
    into Africa and Asia.

3
New Imperialism
  • Built on a foundation of technological advances
  • 1. Fire Arms
  • Breech loading Rifles
  • rapid fire weapons (Gatling Gun)
  • 2. Transportation
  • Steamships, Suez Canal
  • 3. Communication
  • Telegraph
  • 4. Medicine
  • Quinine, an effective treatment for Malaria

4
New Imperialism
  • Motivating Factors
  • 1. Capitalism
  • Markets for industrial goods
  • Source of raw materials

5
New Imperialism
  • Motivating Factors
  • 2. Social Imperialist
  • Viewed imperialism as a means of solving domestic
    issues
  • Example Overpopulation

6
New Imperialism
  • Motivating Factors
  • 3. Exploration
  • European Scientist (geologist, botanist,
    cartographers) scrambled all over the word
  • Published descriptions and statistics on native
    peoples, lists of flora and fauna, maps.

7
New Imperialism
  • Motivating Factors
  • 4. Nationalism
  • Colonies seen as a way of showing the power and
    importance of the nation on a global scale

8
New Imperialism
  • Motivating Factors
  • 5. Religion
  • Missionaries wanted to convert non-Christians
  • Christian missionaries first Europeans to
    penetrate central Africa

9
New Imperialism
  • Motivating Factors
  • 6. Social Darwinism
  • Belief that white races should be sovereign over
    people of Africa and Asia.
  • Goal to improve the moral and material well being
    of non-whites
  • bind your sons to exile, to serve your captives
    needs

10
New Imperialism
  • Motivating Factors
  • 7. Balance of Power
  • Nations wanted colonies so that other nations
    would not get them

11
India
  • British dominance of India began after withdrawal
    of French after Seven Years War (1756-1763)
  • During 19th century independent Indian
    territories fell under British Control
  • Sepoy Rebellion 1857
  • - British East India Company replaced by a
    centralized colonial structure
  • 1877 Queen Victoria declared Empress of India
  • India was the jewel in the crown of the British
    Empire

12
China
  • Informal Empire
  • Spheres of Influence
  • - European states controlled economy of China
  • treaty ports European nation gained direct
    control over a series of ports along coast
  • Boxer Rebellion- armed uprising, 200 westerners
    killed
  • - Europe responded with direct military
    intervention, received increased concessions,
    China forced to pay indemnity

13
Imperialism in Asia
  • Russians controlled Manchuria
  • French controlled Indo -China (Vietnam)
  • Dutch controlled Indonesia
  • U.S.A. controlled Philippines, Hawaii

14
Africa
  • Prior to 1875, Europeans had only limited
    territorial claims in Africa

15
Egypt
  • Suez Canal completed in 1869
    (Britain and France)
  • 1882 nationalist revolt in Egypt threaten
    European control of Canal
  • Britain responded with show of strength
  • Chaos resulted, British restored order
  • British occupied Egypt
  • Joint British and Egyptian forces occupied Sudan

16
Tunisia
  • French heavily invested in Tunisia
  • Financial crisis in Tunisia led to French
    occupation in 1881

17
Sub-Saharan Africa
  • King Leopold II of Belgium establishes
  • International Association for the Exploration and
    Civilization of Central Africa in 1876
  • Headquarters in Brussels
  • Focused not on science or ending slavery, instead
    on making territorial claims
  • In response, European powers began push inwards
    from Coastal outposts

18
Berlin Conference 1885
  • Europeans feared mad scramble for Africa would
    lead to conflict in Europe.
  • Berlin Conference established rules for
    settlement of Africa
  • Coastal Settlement would give nation claim to
    adjacent inland territory
  • Allowed Germany and Italy to occupy unclaimed
    pieces of Africa

19
Berlin Conference 1885
  • Territorial lines paid no attention to ethnic,
    tribal and linguistic characteristics of
    indigenous population.
  • No native Africans participated in Berlin
    Conference

20
Fashoda Crisis (1898)
  • As French troops pushed East from West Africa.
  • - Wanted empire stretching west to east across
    North Africa
  • British troops pushed South from Sudan.
  • - Wanted empire from north from Egypt to Cape
    Town
  • Brink of war over obscure outpost
  • French chose to give way rather than fight

21
Boer War 1899-1902
  • Conflict between Dutch speaking farmers, the
    Boers, and British government.
  • Britain had acquired Cape Colony during wars of
    French Revolution
  • The Boers resented British rule
  • The Great Trek 1835-1837- Boers literally leave
    Cape Colony and establish two (racists) republics
    across Orange River

22
Boer War 1899-1902
  • Diamonds were discovered in the Boer Republics in
    1870s-1880s.
  • Prospectors, many British poured in
  • Cecil Rhodes gained monopoly on diamond
    production (founder of De Beers, Rhodes
    Scholarship)
  • Became Prime Minister of Cape Colony
  • 1899 Boers declared war on British
  • British occupied Boer Republics after 2 years of
    guerilla resistance

23
Cecil Rhodes
  • "I contend that we are the first race in the
    world, and that the more of the world we inhabit
    the better it is for the human race...If there be
    a God, I think that what he would like me to do
    is paint as much of the map of Africa British Red
    as possible...
  • Remember that you are an Englishman, and have
    consequently won first prize in the lottery of
    life.
  • "In order to save the forty million inhabitants
    of the United Kingdom from a bloody civil war,
    our colonial statesmen must acquire new lands for
    settling the surplus population of this country,
    to provide new markets... The Empire, as I have
    always said, is a bread and butter question"

24
British Rule in Africa
25
Scramble for Africa
  • Almost all of Africa divided among Europeans
  • Exceptions Ethiopia and Liberia

26
Africa 1914
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