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Chapter Six: Quality Culture: Changing Hearts, Minds and Attitudes

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Title: Chapter Six: Quality Culture: Changing Hearts, Minds and Attitudes


1
Chapter SixQuality CultureChanging Hearts,
Minds and Attitudes
2
  • Text Quality Management 5th edition
  • Authors David Goetsch Stanley Davis

3
Culture
4
Quality Culture Changing Hearts, Minds and
Attitudes
  • A quality culture is an organizational value
    system that results in an environment that is
    conducive to the establishment and continual
    improvement of quality. It consists of values,
    traditions, procedures, and expectations that
    promote quality.
  • Implementing total quality necessitates cultural
    change in an organization, for the following
    reasons
  • Change cannot occur in a hostile environment.
  • Moving to total quality takes time.
  • It can be difficult to overcome the past.

5
Change cannot occur in a hostile environment
  • The total quality approach to doing business may
    be radically different than what management and
    employees are used to.
  • Managers who are used to sitting in their lonely
    towers at the top of the pecking order and
    issuing edicts from on high are likely to reject
    the concept of employee involvement and
    empowerment.
  • Employees who are used to competing against their
    own fellow workers for promotion and wage
    increases may not be open to mutually supportive
    internal partnerships and teamwork.
  • Situations such as this can create an environment
    that is hostile toward change, no matter how
    desirable that change is.
  • Change can be difficult, even when people want to
    change. It can be impossible in a hostile
    environment.

6
Moving to total quality takes time.
  • The nature of total quality is such that the
    organization may have to go down somewhat before
    it can turn things around and start to come up.
  • In a conversion to total quality, positive
    results are rarely achieved in the short run.
  • This characteristic gives non-believers and
    people who just don't want to change (and such
    people are often the majority at first) the
    opportunity to promote the "I told you it
    wouldn't work" syndrome.

7
It can be difficult to overcome the past.
  • Employees who have worked in an organization for
    any period of time have probably seen a variety
    of management fads come and go.
  • Promoting the latest management gimmick and then
    letting it die for lack of interest may be part
    of the existing organizational culture. If this
    is the case, it will be difficult to overcome the
    past.
  • The past is not just an important part of an
    organization's culture it can be the most
    difficult part to overcome

8
Organizational Change
  • The laws of organizational change are as follows
  • Understand the history behind the current
    culture.
  • Dont tamper with systemsimprove them.
  • Be prepared to listen and observe.
  • Involve everyone affected by change in making it.

9
Understand the history behind the current culture.
  • Organizational cultures don't just happen.
    Somebody wrote the policy that now inhibits
    competitiveness.
  • Somebody started the tradition that is now such a
    barrier. Times and circumstances change.
  • Don't be too quick to criticize. Policies,
    traditions, and other aspects of the existing
    culture that now seem questionable may have been
    put in place for good reason in another time and
    under different circumstances.
  • Learn the history behind the existing culture
    before trying to change it.

10
Be prepared to listen and observe.
  • People are the primary inhibitors of change in
    any organization. Consequently, it is easy to
    become frustrated and adopt an attitude of "we
    could get a lot done if it weren't for the people
    in this organization."
  • It is important to pay attention to both people
    and systems. Try to hear what is being said and
    observe what is not being said.
  • Employees who are listened to are more likely to
    participate in changes than those who are not.

11
Involve everyone affected by change in making it.
  • The most effective way to ensure that employees
    will go along with changes is to involve them in
    planning and implementing the changes.
  • Give them opportunities to express their concerns
    and rears.
  • Getting problems into the open from the outset
    will allow them to be dealt with forthrightly and
    overcome. Showing them aside or ignoring them
    will guarantee that even little problems become
    big ones.

12
Dont tamper with systemsimprove them.
  • Tampering with existing systems is not the same
    as improving them.
  • Tampering occurs when changes are made without
    understanding why a given system works the way it
    does and without fully understanding why a given
    system works the way it does and without fully
    understanding what needs to be changed and why.
  • In order to improve something, you must first
    understand what is wrong with it, why, and how to
    go about changing it for the better.

13
Change can be difficult
  • Resisting change is natural human behavior.
  • In any organization there will be advocates of
    change and resisters. Sometimes advocates focus
    so intently on the expected benefits of change
    that they fail to realize how the change will be
    perceived by potential resisters.

14
Why is change so difficult for people?
  • Any organization has two separate cultures
    relating to change the advocates and the
    resisters.
  • Advocates focus on the anticipated benefits of
    the change.
  • Resisters, on the other hand, focus on perceived
    threats to their status, beliefs, habits, and
    security.
  • Often, both advocates and resisters are wrong in
    how they initially approach change.
  • Advocates are often guilty of focusing so
    intently on benefits that they fail to take into
    account the perceptions of employees who may feel
    threatened by the change.
  • Resisters are often guilty of focusing so
    intently on threats to the status quo that they
    refuse to acknowledge the benefits.
  • These approaches typically divide an organization
    into warring camps that waste energy and time
    instead of focusing resources on the facilitation
    of change.

15
People resist change for the following reasons
  • Uncertainty
  • More work
  • Fear
  • Loss of Control

16
People resist change for the following reasons
  • Fear
  • Change brings with it the unwanted specter of
    the unknown, and people fear the unknown.
    Worst-case scenarios are assumed and compounded
    by rumors. In this way, fear tends to feed on
    itself, growing with time.
  • Loss of Control
  • People value having a sense of control over
    their lives. There is security in control.
    Change can threaten this sense of security and
    cause people to feel as if they are losing
    control of their lives1 jobs, areas of
    responsibility1 and so on.
  • Uncertainty
  • Uncertainty is difficult to deal with. For
    better or worse, people like to know where they
    stand. Will I be able to handle this? What will
    happen to me if I can't? These are the types of
    questions people have when confronted with
    change.
  • More Work
  • Change sometimes means more work3 at least at
    first. This concern includes work in the form of
    learning. In order to make the change, people
    may have to learn more information or develop new
    skills. For an undefined period, they may have
    to work longer hours.

Change brings with it the unwanted specter of the
unknown, and people fear the unknown. Worst-case
scenarios are assumed and compounded by rumors.
In this way, fear tends to feed on itself,
growing with time.
People value having a sense of control over their
lives. There is security in control. Change can
threaten this sense of security and cause people
to feel as if they are losing control of their
lives1 jobs, areas of responsibility1 and so on.
Uncertainty is difficult to deal with. For
better or worse, people like to know where they
stand. Will I be able to handle this? What will
happen to me if I can't? These are the types of
questions people have when confronted with change.
Change sometimes means more work3 at least at
first. This concern includes work in the form of
learning. In order to make the change, people
may have to learn more information or develop new
skills. For an undefined period, they may have
to work longer hours.
17
Overcome Resistance to Change
  • To overcome resistance to change, advocates can
    apply the following strategies
  • Involve potential resisters.
  • Avoid surprises.
  • Move slowly at first.
  • Start small and be flexible.
  • Create a positive environment.
  • Incorporate the change.
  • Provide a quid pro quo.
  • Respond quickly and positively.
  • Work with established leaders.
  • Treat people with dignity and respect.
  • Be constructive.

18
Strategies
  • Strategies for establishing a quality culture
    include the following
  • Identify the changes needed.
  • Put the planned changes in writing.
  • Develop a plan for making the changes.
  • Understand the emotional transition process.
  • Identify key people and make them advocates.
  • Take a hearts and minds approach.
  • Apply courtship strategies.
  • Support.

19
SUPPORT, SUPPORT, SUPPORT
  • This final strategy is critical.
  • It means that the material, moral, and emotional
    support needed by people undergoing change should
    be provided.
  • Undergoing change is a lot like walking a
    tightrope for the first time. It will work out a
    lot better if you have someone to help you get
    started, someone waiting at the other end to
    encourage progress, and a safety net underneath
    in case you tall.
  • Planning is important. Communication is
    critical, but support is essential.

20
  • At times it might be necessary to change an
    organizations leadership team to ensure needed
    cultural changes. This situation arises when the
    organizations senior executives have a great
    deal invested in the status quo and therefore are
    staunch defenders of orthodoxy.
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