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GEOL. 363 : Mineral Deposits 3(3/3-0/0)

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GEOL. 363 : Mineral Deposits 3(3/3-0/0) MWF 0800-0900 GB 200 /110 Formation, characteristics and distribution of metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GEOL. 363 : Mineral Deposits 3(3/3-0/0)


1
GEOL. 363 Mineral Deposits 3(3/3-0/0) MWF
0800-0900 GB 200 /110
Formation, characteristics and distribution of
metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits
Introduction 5
hrs. Genesis of Mineral Deposits 10
,, Geology of Mineral Deposits 30
,, Excursion Sat. 11 Aug. 2001
2
  • Introduction
  • Definition of mineral deposits and related terms
  • Morphology of mineral deposits
  • Modes of mineral deposition.
  • Plate tectonics and mineralization
  • Classifications of mineral deposits

3
What is a mineral deposit ?
A mineral deposit is a place where valuable mass
of economic mineral (or minerals) is formed in
varying size, shape and orientation. The ore
body or valuable mass of economic minerals is
normally outlined by cut-off grade. Morphology
of an ore body can be tabular, cylindrical,
pipe, massive, lenses, nest, massive etc.
4
How is a minerals concentration factor
determined?
Concentration factor, the increase in
concentration of a mineral required to form an
ore.
5
What is the difference between ore and gangue?
  • Ore is rock that contains economic
    concentrations
  • of metallic minerals.
  • Gangue is non-economic minerals associated with
  • ores.

6
Pyrrhotite-rich, magmatic sulfide blebs partly
altered to chalcopyrite. Little Stobie Mine,
Sudbury
7
Massive pyrrhotite (Po tan and yellow) and
pentlandite (Pn white) Sudbury massive ores in
reflected light under crossed polars. Pentlandite
grains are intergrown with pyrrhotite and
constitute the main nickel mineral for which
these ores are mined.
8
Some of the ores from the Sudbury nickel district
contain significant amounts of cubanite
(CuFe2S3). Cubanite forms a complete solid
solution series with chalcopyrite, and the single
solid formed at high temperatures may exsolve
with declining temperatures.
9
What is the difference between a reserve and a
resource?
  • Reserves are resources that can be economically
  • extracted using existing technology
  • The volume of reserves is much less than the
    volume of resources

10
Morphology of Mineral deposits
An orebody is a mixture of valuable minerals and
waste rock. Each orebody, which has a definite
size and shape, is a mass that contains enough
valuable mineral to be mined and processed at a
profit. Shapes of orebodies can be classified
as 1. Dicscordant i.e. vein type deposits 2.
Concordant i.e. stratiform ore deposits
11
A Discordant Orebodies Regularly shaped
bodies Tabular orebodies Tubular
orebodies Irregularly shaped bodies Disseminat
ed deposits Irregular replacement deposits
12
B Concordant Orebodies Sedimentary host
rocks Igneous host rocks Volcanic
hosts Plutonic hosts Metamorphic host
rocks Residual deposits Supergene enrichment
13
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14
Skarn A replacement of limestone (calcium
carbonate) or other carbonate-rich rocks adjacent
to an intrusive contact by calc-silicate minerals
usually through the addition of Si and other
elements.
15
Massive Sulfide Orebody
16
Anticlinal fold in sandstones and shales, United
Kingdom. The white material in the hinge of the
fold at the center of the photograph is quartz,
and fills a void that opened up during folding.
Such filled-in features are called saddle reefs.
17
How can minerals deposits be formed?
Magmatic mineral deposits concentrated in igneous
rocks Residual mineral deposits formed by
weathering reactions at the earths surface.
Placer deposits are sorted and distributed by
flow of transporting media such as water, wind
and ice Sedimentary mineral deposits are
precipitated from a solution, typically sea
water Metamorhogenic mineral deposits form in
association with metamorphism Hydrothermal
mineral deposits form in association with magma
and water
18
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20
Distribution of major tectonic plates
21
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23
Classifications of Mineral Deposits
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