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The Big One

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Title: The Big One


1
The Big One
2
Analysing Moving Image Texts 'Film Language'
  • Reniermedia.wordpress.com

3
SIGNS, CODES and CONVENTIONS
  • Denotation, denotes, denoting connotation,
    connotes, connoting iconic, iconicity index,
    indexical, indexicality symbol, symbolic,
    symbolism...

4
MISE-EN-SCÈNE
  • (meez-ahn-sen)

5
What is it? (I)
  • Physical creation and an emotional concept
  • Literally means staging or putting on an action
    or a scene in the theater or cinema
  • Filmmakers control of what the audience sees and
    hears within the frame of the movie image

6
What is it? (II)
  • What is put before the camera and How it is
    photographed
  • Thus, a total arrangement of
  • Settings
  • Costumes
  • Lighting
  • Sound
  • Acting

7
Usage
  • Umbrella term for explaining how all the formal
    elements of cinema contribute to your
    interpretation of a films meaning.

8
Mise-en-Scène
  • French phrase used to describe the staging of a
    play
  • In filmcomposing a shot or a sequence with the
    same attention to detail (set, lighting,
    costumes, makeup, positioning of actors within
    the frame, etc) that a state director lavishes on
    a play
  • A form of framingthe art of composing a shot
  • http//www.mediaed.org.uk/posted_documents/Teachin
    g_mise_en_scene.htm

9
Framing
  • Framestrip of celluloid on which the image is
    captured
  • Shots can be framed
  • In terms of horizontal, vertical and diagonal
    lines
  • Geometrically
  • Iconographically
  • In deep or shallow focus
  • From a high or low angle
  • In a frame that has been masked or doubled

10
Framing
  • Tight framing
  • Subject appears to be confined withing the
    horizontal and vertical borders of the frame
  • Not a hint of offscreen space
  • Gives a feeling of oppression
  • Canted shotframe looks lopsided
  • Geometrical compositions can be symbolic as well
    as visually interesting

11
Iconography
  • Framing a shot to imitate a painting or sculpture

12
Focus
  • Deep Focus
  • foreground, middle ground and background are
    equally visible
  • Conveys a greater sense of depth
  • Minimizes the need to cut from one shot to
    another
  • Brings out meanings that otherwise not be
    apparent
  • Shallow Focus
  • Foreground is more distinct than background

13
Colour Lighting
  • Colour palettes and lighting sets tone and mood
  • Lighting has a direct bearing on the way an image
    is perceived

http//www.fis.ie/
14
Lighting meaning
  • Lighting can create atmosphere and mood as well
    as signify meaning, e.g. in a horror movie, light
    and shade are important codes of meaning.
  • High-key lighting is harsh soft-key lighting
    creates a romantic atmosphere, spotlighting picks
    out a character from a group, etc.

15
EDITING
  • Some important edits are called continuity (or
    'Hollywood') edits MTV ('music television')
    edits cross-cuts follow-cuts match-cuts jump
    cuts eye-line matches dissolves fades
    montages bridging flashbacks...

16
SHOT TYPES
  • Establishing shot / long-shot / mid-shot /
    close-up / point-of view shot / soft-focus...

17
Semiotics
  • Semiotics is the name given to the study of the
    way by which meaning is created in the world,
    especially in the mass media. It is based upon
    the Idea of 'signs' and 'codes', 'denotation' and
    'connotation'. A sign is the basic unit of
    meaning in semiotics. A sign is any individual
    thing that signifies meaning for example, your
  • clothes are a group of 'fashion signs' which
    signify meaning (perhaps you are trying to look
    'cool'?)

18
Denotation/ connotation
  • There are two ways that signs create meaning all
    signs have a literal meaning, which is called
    their denotation but, depending on the context,
    many signs also suggest other 'layers' of
    meaning, which is called their connotation. For
    example, an image of a girl dressed all in white
    denotes just that, I.e. this is what you 'see'
    but it may also connote innocence or purity (and
    all that this means in our society and culture),
    i.e. this is what you 'think'. Connotation,
    therefore, is always more than the denotation.

19
Signs - codes
  • Signs rarely work alone. They are most often
    combined with other signs to form a code. A code
    is a group of signs that we recognise as going
    'naturally together' to signify meaning (e.g. a
    rose is a sign but
  • being handed to a girl by a boy could create a
    'romance code' and suggest love). Film and TV
    codes are often called technical codes because
    technical equipment is used to create them. There
    are three ways through which codes and signs can
    signify meaning

20
Iconicity
  • Iconicity an iconic sign or code looks just like
    the thing it seems to represent, e.g. an image of
    a cowboy seems to be just that but it is called
    iconic because it suggests far more than it
    should for example, our culture tends to
    associate extra meanings with the idea of
    'cowboy', such as toughness, heroism,
    masculinity, etc. Iconic signs are never reality
    they are a representation of reality.

21
Indexicality
  • Indexicality (an indexical sign or code) in a
    sign directly suggests meaning because what it
    shows seems to be the result of something we
    associate with the thing it represents, e.g.
    smoke suggests fire, sweat suggests exercise,
    appearance can suggest wealth, etc. This can be a
    short-cut way for a film director to create
    meaning.

22
Symbolism
  • Symbolism (a symbolic sign or code) suggests
    meaning because we have learned this meaning in
    our culture a symbol, in itself, has no
    association with what it means, e.g. a red heart
    shape suggests love letters combine to make
    words, etc.

23
Meaning culturally determined
  • The meaning we gain from codes is said to be
    culturally determined which means that our
    culture 'taught' us that particular way to
    interpret the meaning. For example, when we see
    the UK national flag, the Union Jack, we see more
    than what it simply denotes - a piece of coloured
    cloth patriotism and pride, etc.

24
Enigma code
  • An important code is an enigma code. These codes
    put a fascinating question in the mind of the
    audience that only watching the movie will
    answer. They tempt the audience to watch and are
    often used in trailers.

25
Conventions
  • A convention is simply a way of doing something
    that we are so used to we usually fail to notice
    it conventions can seem 'perfectly natural' or
    'realistic' yet are anything but. So women in
    cowboys tend conventionally to be either 'very
    good' or 'very bad' - and this seems 'normal'
    within the genre of cowboy movies the wheels of
    a car always screech guns always kill outright
    a punch always knocks a person out cold. Genre
    and narrative are important media conventions
    that are covered later, as are editing techniques
    and-the use of certain shot types (such as an
    establishing shot sequence or montage - see
    later).

26
Effects, meaning , purpose
  • Cinema and TV codes are created within an area
    bounded by the edges of a screen. By controlling
    what objects and action are in this frame, a film
    director creates what is called a mise-en-scene.
    Asking questions such as 'who, what and where' of
    the characters and objects and their relative
    positions, expressions, appearance, costume,
    make-up, scenery, props, lighting, sounds, etc.
    in a mise-en-scene will help you analyse it. Try
    to consider what effects are created in a
    mise-en-scene', what meaning they have (their
    denotation and, most importantly, connotation),
    how they have been created and why they were
    created (which will be the director's purpose -
    perhaps to develop a character, a mood, the
    storyline or plot and sometimes to explore a
    deeper meaning or idea, i.e. a theme).

27
Editing
  • Editing is the placing of separate shots
    together. This allows a director to manipulate
    space and time hundreds of miles or weeks of
    time can be reduced to a few scenes that appear
    perfectly natural and believable to the audience.
  • A montage is a most important editing technique.
    It is a series of shots that are edited together
    to create a kind of ' individual unit' of meaning.

28
Continuity edits
  • Continuity edits - especially matched cuts - are
    called 'Hollywood editing'. This creates a
    sequence that seems to flow naturally on from the
    previous one, and in which the edits are
    'invisible'. These have the effect of creating a
    realistic and seamless flow to a story or
    narrative (see below) where one event leads
    naturally onto the next.
  • Jump-cuts are dramatic edits
  • MTV edits are rapid sequences of fast jump cuts
    used to create a conscious effect as used first
    in pop-videos
  • cross-cuts follow different actions such as two
    people talking
  • follow-cuts follow an action to its consequence,
    e.g. a character looking edits to what they look
    at
  • eye-line matches are a kind of follow cut).
  • A sound-bridge is a sound edit that allows sound
    from one shot to cross into the next to create
    continuity.

29
The Shot
  • Types
  • Close-up
  • Extreme Close-up
  • Long Shot
  • Full Shot
  • Extreme Long Shot
  • Medium Shot
  • Establishing Shot
  • Two-shot, Three-Shot
  • Shot/Reverse Shot
  • Over-the-shoulder shot
  • Defined in terms of distance, area or the
    subjects they contain

http//www.fis.ie/
30
Shots
http//www.fis.ie/
31
The Shot
  • High-angle Shot
  • Gods Eye
  • Suggest entrapment or frustration
  • Low-Angle shot
  • Makes subject appear larger
  • Suggests dominance or power
  • Objective-view of camera
  • Point of View Shot

http//www.fis.ie/
32
The Moving Shot
  • Pan shothorizontal
  • Tilt shotvertical
  • Mobile Camera shots
  • Swish panunusually rapid produces momentary
    blur
  • Tracking Shotgreater area and more detail
  • Dolly Shot
  • Crane Shot

33
The Moving Shot
http//www.fis.ie/
34
Shots and meaning
  • An establishing shot is usually the opening shot
    of a sequence it 'sets the scene' and locates
    the action. It is often followed by a
  • mid-shot followed by a
  • close-up shot.
  • A subjective point-of-view shot (POV) is at
    eye-level and appears as if you are viewing the
    scene from the character's perspective (as in
    'Blair Witch').
  • An objective point-of-view shot acts as if you
    are an observer secretly looking into a scene.

35
Camera moves, lighting etc
  • CAMERA ANGLE Eye-line match / high / low
  • CAMERA MOVEMENT Zooming / tracking / panning /
    hand-held / etc
  • LIGHTING
  • High key, neutral, low key

36
More vocabulary
  • 'DIEGESIS' AND SOUND
  • VISUAL EFFECTS / SFX
  • NARRATIVE
  • GENRE
  • ICONOGRAPHY
  • THE 'STAR SYSTEM'

37
REALISM
  • 'Verisimilitude'
  • 'Generic verisimilitude'
  • 'Cultural verisimilitude'

38
Film process
  • The Shot
  • The Scene vs. The Sequence
  • Appear to be virtually synonymous
  • Chief differencethere can be scenes within a
    sequence, but not sequences within scenes

39
Camera angles meaning
  • Camera angles can signify meaning, e.g. a
    subjective POV high angle shot can crate a
    superior feel.

40
Camera Movements
http//www.fis.ie/
41
180 degree rule
  • Shot reverse shot

42
camera movements meaning
  • Different camera movements can create significant
    meaning - a zoom into a close-up of a face can
    create emotion, a pan across a war scene can
    suggest violence POV tracking shots and POV
    hand-held camera shot can create tension and
    involvement by making you feel as if you are a
    part of the action.

43
The Sequence
  • A group of shots forming a self-contained segment
    of the film that is, by and large, intelligible
    in itself
  • Types
  • Linear Sequence
  • Associative Sequence
  • Montage Sequence

44
The Linear Sequence
  • Beginning initiates the action
  • Middle adds to the action
  • End follows and completes the action
  • Elliptical linear sequence
  • Certain details omitted
  • Viewers must make connections

45
The Associative Sequence
  • Scenes linked by an object or a series of objects
  • http//mcel.pacificu.edu/JAHC/JAHCV2/ARTICLES/davi
    d/david.html

46
Montage Sequence
  • A series of shots arranged in a particular order
    for a particular purpose
  • Rapid succession telescoping an event or several
    events
  • American Montage 30s 40s
  • Collapses time as shots blend together, wipe each
    other away or are superimposed
  • Calendar pages, headlines, etc.

47
Montage Sequence
  • Feature of both linear and associative sequence
  • Can be unified by images
  • http//www.vsmu.sk/rybarova/unit_7.doc

48
Cuts
  • Verbterminate a shot
  • Nouna strip of film
  • Film stages rough cut ? directors cut ? final
    cut

49
Cuts
  • Joining of two separate shots
  • Straight cutone image replaces another
  • Contrast cutimages are dissimilar
  • Crosscut (Parallel)2 actions occurring
    simultaneously
  • Jump cutbreak in continuity
  • Form cuta cut from one object to another of
    similar shape
  • Match cutone shot complements or matches the
    other, following smoothly without any break in
    continuity of time and space

50
TransitionsBridge Scenes
  • The Fade
  • Fade-out Fade-in
  • Denotes demarcationthe end of a narrative
    sequence
  • The Dissolve
  • denotes continuity by the gradual replacement of
    one shot by another
  • No sooner said than done

51
Transitions
  • Synecdoche or metonymy
  • Two images blend in such a way that their union
    constitutes a symbolic equation
  • However, the result is a metaphorical dissolve
  • A sign replaces the signified
  • http//afronord.tripod.com/theory.html

52
Transitions
  • Form Dissolvemerging two images with the same
    shape or contours
  • Easy on the eyes
  • Can relate to plot
  • The WipeLine traveling vertically across the
    scene
  • More fluid than a cut and faster than a dissolve
  • Ideal for presenting a series of events in quick
    succession

53
The Iris
  • Masking Shot or Iris Shoteverything blacked out
    except what is to be seen telescopically
  • Irising In/Irising Out

54
Editing
  • Selecting and arranging the shots based on
  • Their place within the narrative
  • Their contribution to the mood of a particular
    scene or to the film as a whole
  • Their enhancement of the films rhythm
  • their elucidation of the films deeper meaning
  • their fulfillment of the filmmakers purpose

55
Continuity Editing
  • Assembling shots so that they follow each other
    smoothly without interruption
  • Preserves the illusion of an ongoing narrative

56
Eisensteins Theory of Montage
  • Based on contrast and conflict
  • http//www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/directors/0
    4/eisenstein.html
  • http//afronord.tripod.com/afronord/eisen.html

57
Continuity Editing
  • Rhythmvariations in speed, movement, and pace
  • Timeparallel cutting depicts two concurrent
    actions
  • Spaceparallel cutting affects sense of space as
    well
  • Toneprimarily light, shade and color
  • Themejuxtaposing contrasting shots can deepen a
    films theme

58
Role of the Editor
  • Takes what has been shot and improves on it
  • The directors alter ego
  • Controls the rhythm and tone
  • Primary purpose is to bring to completion an
    artistic work already in progress

59
non-linear editing
60
Takes
  • Long take
  • A shot that lasts more than a minute
  • Steadicam

61
Diegesis, sound. esp.
  • Diegesis means the 'world of the film' if
    something seems to be a part of the 'world of the
    film', it is called 'diegetic'. So, sound that is
    a part of the action is diegetic sound, e.g. wind
    noise, screeching cars, etc but sound that is
    added to create, most often, mood or atmosphere
    is called
  • non-diegetic sound. Diegetic sounds may also be
    added in after filming, or may be exaggerated for
    effect (e.g. loud footsteps).

62
Soundbridge/ Overlapping Sound
  • Sound or dialogue that either carries over from
    one scene to the next or anticipates the new
    scene
  • Can build narrative
  • http//imv.au.dk/pba/Homepagematerial/MMproduktio
    nmateriale/Raskin20Sound2020Paper.pdf

63
Example Malcolm X
  • Malcolm walks along a street thronged with
    prostitutes, we hear the words What has happened
    to our women? Is this what Malcolm is thinking?
    The next scene clarifies the situation The
    question is part of a sermon that is about to
    end. The incident in the 1st scene inspired the
    subject matter of the sermon in the 2nd, with the
    question becoming the link between them.

64
Sound Overview
  • http//imv.au.dk/pba/Homepagematerial/MMproduktio
    nmateriale/Raskin20Sound2020Paper.pdf

65
Musical Associations
  • Music has 2 main functions
  • Advances narrative
  • plot device
  • not subtextual
  • Enhances narrative
  • functions as subtext
  • Deepens the narrative by bringing it to another
    level of interpretation

66
Music
  • Capable of forging ethnic and national
    connections
  • Has the power to reinforce stereotypes
  • Can evoke certain associations
  • Classical music can constitute the entire subtext

67
Foley Process
68
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69
  • The Foley artist on a film crew is the person who
    creates and records many of the natural, everyday
    sound effects in a film, in contrast to the
    production of special (audio) effects, which is
    generally left to the sound designer.

70
Foley Tricks of the Trade
  • Galloping horses
  • (Banging empty coconut shells together)

71
  • Footsteps in snow
  • (Squeezing a box of corn starch)

72
  • Kissing
  • (Kissing back of hand)

73
  • Punching someone
  • (Thumping watermelons)

74
  • High heels
  • (Artist walks in high heels on wooden platform)

75
  • Bone-breaking blow
  • (Breaking celery or bamboo or twisting a head of
    lettuce)

76
  • Bird flapping its wings
  • (Flapping a pair of gloves)

77
  • Grass or leaves crunching
  • (Balling up audio tape)

78
Ben BurttSound Designer
  • In 1977, Star Wars, revolutionized film sound
    with Ben Burtt's award winning sound effects.

79
Ben Burtt
  • The basic thing in all films is to create
    something that sounds believable to everyone,
    because it's composed of familiar things that you
    can not quite recognize immediately"

80
  • Imperial Walkers
  • The sound of the Imperial Walkers were created by
    modifying the sound of a machinist's punch press.
    Added to this for complexity, were the sounds of
    bicycle chains being dropped on concrete.

81
  • TIE fighter
  • The screech of a TIE Fighter is a drastically
    altered elephant bellow.

82
  • Star Trek sliding doors
  • (Pulling a piece of paper from envelope)

83
  • Star Wars sliding doors
  • (Flare gun plus sneakers squeak)

84
  • Lightsaber
  • Burtt blended the sounds of his TV set and an old
    35 mm projector to create the hum of a light
    saber.

85
Editing Cubase VST
The Transport Bar
86
Editing II
Arrangement Window
87
Editing III
The Parts Display
88
Editing IV
The Audio Mixer Window
89
EQ and Effect Windows
90
Audio editor
Wave editor
91
Visual SFX
  • SFX (Special effects') often use
    computer-generated graphics to create compelling
    realism and meaning.

92
Latent Image Matte Painting
  • A photographic technique of combining two scenes
  • Runs film through twice, once with a portion
    blacked out and unexposed
  • Used now with stills and paintings

Notice the use of bridal veil material on the
right to create diffusion and a sense of
atmosphere in this filming for An Ewok Adventure
93
Latent Image, cont.
  • Pros
  • Original stock quality (highest)
  • Matching of hues easy
  • Cons
  • Hard to estimate need footage with live action
  • Mistakes are expensive

Latent image projection used with Matte Painting
in Return of the Jedi
94
Rear Projection
  • Movie projector placed behind glass with painting
  • Window covered with frosted plastic
  • Camera films from front

95
Rear Projection, cont.
  • Pros
  • Easiest
  • Cons
  • Loss of image quality
  • Least sharp image of all techniques

Composite of Completed Rear Projection from
Return of the Jedi
96
Front Projection
  • Both camera and projector on same side of glass
    panel.
  • Scene projected through glass backed with
    Scotchlite (highly reflective)
  • A partially reflecting mirror is placed between
    camera and projector at 45 degree angle (to put
    both in exact same perspective)

97
Front Projection (cont)
  • Pros
  • Sharper image than rear (with highly reflective
    screen)
  • Well regulated perspective from exact same point
  • Cons
  • complicated

A woman paints a matte on glass for Temple of
Doom.
98
Digital Painting
  • Advantages
  • Ability to move camera
  • No more limitations of pan
  • Ex. In Empire Strikes Back
  • Reflections and moving animations can be combined
    easily
  • Digital editing is cost efficient and easier

99
Truman ShowDigital Matte goes 3D
A camerais tracked with the image in the exact
motion and perspective of the actual camera.
100
Titanic Matte and more
  • Digital Matte Clouds
  • Digital Animation Water (with reflections)
  • Model Boat
  • Animated People
  • Digital Animation smoke

101
  • The use of a narrative structure is a major
    convention of cinema and TV. We are all immersed
    in narratives and have been since childhood as we
    tell of or hear about the complex events of the
    world not in the form of long-winded complex
    details or bald information but as absorbing and
    interesting stories. Yet this way of explaining
    real as opposed to fictional events greatly
    oversimplifies reality whilst at the same time
    paradoxically, appearing very realistic and
    believable.

102
  • For instance, real events are rarely clearly
    'connected' by such simple 'cause and effect'
    relationships as in stories (i.e. this leads to
    that because...). Yet in narrative they always
    are. And in the real world people are not either
    good (i.e. 'heroes') or evil (i.e. 'villains')
    but in narrative they always are to some degree
    at least. And so on. For better or worse, we tell
    and hear of world events as narratives and media
    producers know this and use it to create media
    texts that rely on narrative structures and forms
    to be absorbing, compelling and convincingly
    realistic. Because of this, filmed narratives can
    easily trick us into thinking we are viewing a
    real 'window on the world'.

103
  • Genre means the kind of narrative being told,
    e.g. detective, sci-fi, horror, etc. Genre
    defines a text by its similarities to other
    texts. Importantly, when we watch a genre film we
    have many pre-existing expectations of the types
    of characters, setting and events we want to see
    (prediction is a major aspect of our enjoyment of
    a film, and genre helps this). Genre conventions
    are an important way a director can create
    believable 'versions of reality' because we fail
    to see that what is shown is not reality at, all,
    but a media convention that we have become
    accustomed to seeing in that kind of film.

104
  • So... we don't mind the owner of a casino being
    horribly killed because we see him, in the
    gangster genre as naturally a 'villain'. Film
    companies use genre to sell and make films a
    popular genre creates a greater chance of
    commercial success and genre can be cost
    effective, making it cheaper to write new stories
    and reducing the need for entirely new sets.

105
  • Iconography is an important aspect of genre. We
    come to expect to see certain objects within the
    mise-en scene of a particular genre, for
    example, in a Western, we expect to see dusty
    lonely roads, saloon bars, cowboy hats and
    horses, jails, sheriffs badges, etc. in a modern
    horror film, we expect lonely girls, 'normal'
    objects, use of dark and light, etc. These 'genre
    indicators' are called the iconography of the
    genre.

106
  • Celebrities and film stars are an important part
    of the iconography of cinema and TV. Different
    stars can be important signifiers of meaning.
    They can create expectations of character and
    action, help identify genre, and create powerful
    iconic representation of such as masculinity and
    femininity.

107
  • Cinema and TV are able to offer high levels of
    'realism' the bright screen, the clear and
    powerful Dolby sound, darkened room, etc. are
    highly compelling and persuasive. Such
    'appearance of reality' is given the odd name of
    verisimilitude.

108
  • This is yet another convention of course - there
    is nothing 'realistic' about an image on a flat
    screen. There are two kinds of verisimilitude
    generic verisimilitude is the 'realism' that
    convinces us because of the genre we are watching
    (in the horror genres it seems highly realistic
    for a vampire to sink his teeth into a person's
    neck) cultural verisimilitude is the kind of
    reality that convinces us because it looks like
    the way things are or should be within our own
    society.

109
Subtext
  • Infranarrative
  • A complex structure beneath the narrative
    consisting of the various associations the
    narrative evokes in us
  • Films dual nature
  • Level of meanings found in
  • Symbols
  • Image patterns
  • References/allusions
  • Reading critically

110
Mythic Associations
  • Operates on an unconscious level, presenting us
    with
  • Characters
  • questers
  • the enchanted and the enchanter
  • ogres
  • scapegoats
  • monsters
  • talking animals
  • Apparitions
  • Themes
  • The homeward journey
  • The quest
  • Ancestral curses
  • Revenge
  • Patricide
  • Matricide
  • Settings
  • Caves
  • Wastelands
  • Subterranean rivers
  • Enchanted islands
  • Flat-topped mountains
  • Ominous castles
  • Desolate moors
  • Lost worlds

111
Myths
  • Tap into our collective memory
  • Themes of myth are universal
  • Return of the hero
  • The desire for forbidden knowledge
  • The quest for identity
  • Coming of age
  • Rebellion against tyranny
  • Transcends time and place
  • Ultimate truths about life and death, fate and
    nature, gods and humans

112
Film and Myth
  • Speak the same languagepicture language
  • Both are oral and visual
  • Both are intimately associated with dreams
  • Making a mythic association involves remembering
    a pattern of experience that is universal.

113
Mythic Types
  • The quester
  • The convert
  • The foundling
  • The exile
  • The knight-errant
  • The blessed damsel
  • The earth mother
  • The lost child
  • The eternal child
  • The alien
  • The shadow selfdoppelganger
  • The liberator

114
Mythic Themes
  • The descent to the underworld
  • The quest for the grail, sword, ring, or chalice
  • The journey into the unknown
  • The homeward journey
  • The birth of the hero
  • The life force versus the force of reason
  • Wilderness versus civilization
  • The transformation myth
  • The savior myth
  • Good versus evil

115
Visual/Iconic Associations
  • Icons dual nature
  • Depicts not just a person but a person who stands
    out from the ordinary

116
Icons
  • Definition http//www.bartleby.com/65/ic/iconogr
    a.html
  • Greek Icons http//web.uvic.ca/grs/bowman/myth/i
    nfo/attributes.html
  • Australian Icons http//www.jintaart.com.au/icon
    ography/iconhmpg.htm
  • Christian Icons http//www.traditionaliconograph
    y.com/
  • Cemetery Iconography http//freepages.genealogy.
    rootsweb.com/txcemeteries/symbol.htm

117
Intellectual Associations
  • We relate the film as a wholenot just one aspect
    of itto history, to another medium such as
    literature or opera, to another film, or even to
    an earlier version of itself.
  • Intertextuality

118
Literary Techniques
  • Flashback
  • Flash-forward
  • Dramatic foreshadowing
  • Point-of-view
  • Omniscient narrator
  • Implied author
  • Film Adaptation

119
Analyzing Films
  1. What techniques did the filmmaker use to create
    the feeling of a complete film rather than a mere
    collection of scenes?
  2. Could it have been anything other than a filma
    novel, a short story, a play, for exampleand
    still have been as effective or was film the
    medium in which it reached its level of
    excellence?

120
Analyzing Films
  1. How much of the film is told through images or
    camera movement, without recourse to dialogue?
  2. Does the use of film deepen or enhance the story
    being told?

121
Analyzing Film
  • Do the camera and the script work together, each
    doing what it does best, so that word and image
    are allies rather than enemies?
  • What is the subtext, or infranarrative? How does
    it enrich the film?

122
On-line Guides
  • Readfilm.com http//www.readfilm.com/HTRBook/HTR
    3.pdf
  • Yale Film Studies http//classes.yale.edu/film-an
    alysis/
  • http//www.cwrl.utexas.edu/hogan/fall04/FilmAnaly
    sis.doc
  • http//www.filmsite.org/genres.html
  • Film Terms
  • http//homepage.newschool.edu/schlemoj/film_cours
    es/glossary_of_film_terms/glossary.html
  • http//www.psu.edu/dept/inart10_110/inart10/film.h
    tml
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