NUTRITION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 33
About This Presentation
Title:

NUTRITION

Description:

NUTRITION & WELLNESS - GUIDELINES FOR HEALTHY LIVING Dr Asna Urooj DOS in Food Science & Nutrition University of Mysore NUTRITION & WELLNESS - GUIDELINES FOR HEALTHY ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:246
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 34
Provided by: unimysor
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: NUTRITION


1
NUTRITION WELLNESS - GUIDELINES FOR HEALTHY
LIVING
  • Dr Asna Urooj
  • DOS in Food Science Nutrition
  • University of Mysore

2
  • Nutrition science of food, the nutrients
    other subs.. Their action, interaction balance
    in relation to health disease. Process by which
    organisms.. Ingest, digest, absorb, transport,
    utilize excrete.
  • Health - state of complete physical, mental
    social well being . Not merely the absence of
    disease / infirmity.

3
How FOOD Becomes YOU
  • Defn of Nutrition several processes
  • Ingestion digestion
  • Absorption
  • Transportation
  • Utilization
  • Excretion

Nutrition wellness - Nutritional perspective.
Dr. Asna Urooj.
4
  • Nutrients constituents in food.. supplied to
    the body in suitable amounts
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Proteins
  • Minerals
  • Vitamins
  • water

5
NUTRIENTS sources,functions
NUTRIENT BODY FUNCTION FOOD SOURCES
Carbohydrate Energy, protein sparing 4kcal/g Cereals, pulses, veg, fruits
Protein Growth, repair, energy, enzymes, antibodies, hormones Pulses, meat, fish, milk products, egg, cereals
Fat (lipid) Energy, EFA, fat-sol vit, insulation. Fats, oils, meat, fish, nuts dairy products
Minerals Skeletal, growth , blood clotting, immunity Dairy, GLV, fruits, whole grains meat, veg, legumes, organ meat nuts
Vitamins Vision, immunity, bone, teeth, metabolism Dairy, GLV, fruits, whole grains meat, veg, legumes, organ meat nuts
Nutrition wellness - Nutritional perspective.
Dr. Asna Urooj.
6
Nutrients
  • Proteins - growth, repair of muscle body
    tissues
  • Fats - energy source, imp in relation to fat
    soluble vitamins
  • Carbohydrates - our main source of energy
  • Minerals - inorganic elements in the body
    which are critical to its normal functions
  • Vitamins - water and fat soluble vitamins play
    important roles in many chemical processes in the
    body
  • Water - essential to normal body function - as a
    vehicle for carrying other nutrients and 60 of
    the human body is water
  • Roughage - the fibrous indigestible portion of
    our diet essential to health of the digestive
    system

7
NUTRIENT SUPPLY
  • FOOD Amount Energy
    Protein CHO Fat
  • g/ml
    Kcals g g
    g
  • Cereals 100 350
    6-12 60-70 1-2
  • Pulses 100 340
    18-25 60 1-5
  • Milk 100 65
    3-5 8 4-6
  • Vegetables 100 35- 55
    1-2 8-15 -
  • Oils / fats 20 180
    - - 20
  • Fruits 100 30-55
    1-1.5 10-15 -
  • Sugar 20 80
    - 20 -
  • Meat 100 80-140
    12-22 - 3-13

Nutrition wellness - Nutritional perspective.
Dr. Asna Urooj.
8
How to derive nutrients ??
Nutrition wellness - Nutritional perspective.
Dr. Asna Urooj.
9
Food sources of carbohydrates
  • Sugars
  • honey, fruits, berries, cane sugar, jaggery,
    jams, soft drinks, milk, confectionary etc.
  • Starches
  • cereals, pulses, potatoes, vegetables, animal
    food (liver, oysters, crab)
  • Fiber
  • whole grams, Unrefined cereals,
    pulses,vegetables, fruits, nuts

Nutrition wellness - Nutritional perspective.
Dr. Asna Urooj.
10
Carbohydrates more than sugar
  • Starches, sugars and fiber.
  • Simple sugars fructose, glucose,
  • lactose
  • Sweetness varies
  • Complex carbohydrates starch,
  • glycogen, cellulose, pectins.
  • Most carbohydrates in our diet come
  • from Plant foods
  • Starches sugars 4 kcal per gram

11
Proteins facts
  • Protein-rich foods are often high in fat
  • Expensive eg., dairy foods, meat
  • Foods differ in amino acid composition
  • Differ in biological value
  • Protein needs differ in different groups
  • Extra needs growth, pregnancy, lactation,
    surgery, injury, burns, recovery from
    mal-nutrition
  • 1 g 4kcal

Nutrition wellness - Nutritional perspective.
Dr. Asna Urooj.
12
Facts About Proteins
  • Needed for survival, growth, maintenance,
    enzymes, hormones
  • Building blocks amino acids e.a.a n.e.a.a
  • 2 Qs - Quantity quality matters
    nutritional value of protein foods
  • Food processing insignificant effect
  • Digestibility () varies among sources
  • Egg gt soy, milk, corn gt wheatgtmilkgt ricegt
    corn, beans, milk gt corn gt corn, beans ( taken
    together)

Nutrition wellness -. Dr. Asna Urooj.
13
Facts about fats
  • Source of energy, 1g 9kcal,
  • Source of Essential Fatty Acids.
  • Carrier for fat sol vit A, D,E, K
  • Palatability
  • Satiety value
  • Invisible visible fat
  • Cholesterol only foods of animal origin

14
  • Three major types of fat
  • SATURATED FATS -------
    BAD
  • Carbon chains with hydrogen bonds
  • Meat, Butter, coconut, milk chocolate, creams,
  • Ghee
  • UNSATURATED FATS ------- GOOD
  • carbon chains with one or more double bonds
  • Monounsaturated olive oil, nut oils
  • Polyunsaturated corn oil, vegetable oils, soy
    etc.
  • TRANS FATS
    -------- BAD
  • Manufactured fats. Liquid ? Solid
    (hydrogenation)

15
Energy Fuel
  • 65 Carbohydrates (cereals, roots tubers,
    sugar, sweets, bread, )
  • 20 Fats (dairy products, oil)
  • 12- 15 Protein (pulses, eggs, milk, meat,
    poultry, fish)
  • Energy yield per gram is as follows Carbohydrate
    - 4 kcal, Fats - 9 kcal and Protein - 4 kcal.

Nutrition wellness - Nutritional perspective.
Dr. Asna Urooj.
16
Balanced Diet
  • - Contains different types of foods in such
    quantities proportions so that the need for
    various nutrients is adequately met
  • - provision for extra nutrients to withstand
    short duration of low intake
  • - to calculate know Recommended Dietary
    Allowances RDA ICMR
  • - Tables of Food Composition

Nutrition wellness - Nutritional perspective.
Dr. Asna Urooj.
17
Energy is used in 3 ways
  • 1 Digesting food 10
  • 2 - Physical activity 25
  • 3 - Basal Metabolic rate ( BMR) 65
  • BMR all functions that support life 24
    hours
  • Cant change the percent
  • But
  • You can change your energy demand

Nutrition wellness - Nutritional perspective.
Dr. Asna Urooj.
18
Facts about Body weight
  • Body is composed water, fat, muscle,
    bone,minerals
  • Composition varies with age
  • Controlled by hormones, diet, exercise, stress
    etc.
  • Body Mass Index wt (kg) / ht 2 (m)
  • Ideal range 19 23 for Indians
  • Over weight BMI is gt 23 26,
  • Waist to Hip ratio (WHR) Central obesity
  • obese gt27
  • Ideal 0.8

19
Body Mass Index indicator of health risk
  • eg 75 kg / 1.7 X 1.7 m 26
  • BMI class Presumptive diagnosis
  • lt 16.0-18.5 Chronic energy deficiency
  • 18.5 - 20 Low weight normal
  • 20 - 24 Normal
  • 25 - 30 Obese grade I
  • gt 30 Obese grade II

20
What are the energy requirements
  • Personal energy requirement basic energy
    requirements extra energy requirements
  • Basic energy requirements (BER)
  • For every Kg of body weight 1.3 kcal is required
    every hour.
  • An adult weighing 50Kg would require 1.3
    24hrs 50Kg 1560 kcal/day

21
Factors affecting Basal energy expenditure
  • Body size - larger taller people , have
    metabolic rates.
  • Body composition lean body mass, single
    determinant of BEE
  • Age - younger age
  • Gender differences in body size composition
  • Hormonal status endocrine disorders. In women
    metabolic rates change with menstrual cycle ,
    pregnancy menopause

22
  • Nutritional Status condition of health of the
    individual as influenced by utilization of
    nutrients.
  • determined ? medical, dietary history,
  • physical examination
  • laboratory tests
  • Malnutrition pathological state .. Relative or
    absolute deficiency or xs of one or more
    essential nutrients 4 forms
  • Under nutrition 2. Over nutrition
  • 3. Imbalance 4. Specific deficiency

23
Who are likely to have nutrition problems
Pregnant women
Elderly
Children
People in isolated communities
Large size families
Poor
24
Deficiencies seen
Vitamin A children
Malnutrition prot-energy in children
Anemia children, preg lact women,
elderly
Iodine IDD newborn, cren, Adults
25
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
26
BREAKFAST
  • Should be main meal of the day
  • Up to 1/3 of RDA may be supplied
  • Should be eaten in mid-morning rather than later
  • Should be eaten within 45 min. of waking
  • Thyroid activity is maximum and insulin activity
    is low better energy utilization of food, hence
  • People trying to lose weight should not skip
    breakfast
  • Should contain
  • Carbohydrates minimum of 50g
  • Stimulate/initiate insulin action
  • Neurotransmitters serotonin catecholamine
  • Protein 12-15g
  • Sustains insulin action
  • Promotes positive mood

27
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
  • Regular physical activity can help you
  • Feel better
  • Control weight
  • Have more energy
  • Increase your sense of well-being
  • Reduce stress
  • Build healthy bones, muscles and joints
  • Become stronger
  • Live longer
  • Regular physical activity can reduce your risk
    of
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Dying prematurely
  • Developing
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Osteoporosis
  • Colon cancer

28
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
  • High impact exercises no effect on fat
  • Low impact exercises regulate fat loss
  • Aerobic exercise improves O2 capacity of the
    cells
  • Controls ?hypertension, cholesterol
  • Stimulates release of certain chemicals-
  • Endorphin, Enkephaline
  • Natural pain killers, ?? anxiety
  • Interleukin, Interferons
  • Strengthen defense mechanism

AIM AT FAT LOSS, NOT WEIGHT LOSS
29
STRESS
  • Can affect onset of disease as well as
    progression recovery from disease
  • Under stress, Adrenaline is released burns fat
    for release of glucose for energy.
  • Cortisol released for utilization of left-over
    released energy favours redistribution of fat
    to abdomen
  • Higher Waist-to-Hip ratio (gluteal femoral
    obesity)
  • - An adaptation to stress
  • Stress has been linked to
  • Cancer Alcohol and substance abuse
  • Diabetes Cardiovascular disease
  • Breakdown in the immune system

30
IMPLICATION
  • Amount of physical activity - regulated to bridge
    gap - energy intake and expenditure
  • Achieve energy balance or cause negative
    energy balance / energy deficit
  • - result in controlled weight loss.

31
Dietary guidelines
  • Nutritionally adequate diet variety
  • Addnl food pregnancy lactation
  • Breast feeding must - 4-6 months
  • Supplements infants by 4-6 months
  • GLV, other veg, fruits eat in plenty
  • Cooking oils moderation
  • Avoid over-eating
  • Limit use of Salt Sugar -

Nutrition wellness - Nutritional perspective.
Dr. Asna Urooj.
32
General Dietary Recommendations
  • Consume high-carbohydrate fibre, low to normal
    fat and moderately high protein diet.
  • Regular meal timings with breakfast eaten within
    45 min. of waking.
  • Inclusion of pulses, especially in the breakfast.
  • Consumption of a mixed cereal diet with green
    leafy vegetables at least 3-4 times a week.
  • Consumption of fruits should be along with meals
    if diabetic.
  • If overweight/obese, exercise along with dieting
    to reduce body weight.
  • Even if one has normal body weight, exercise to
    maintain weight.

33
THANK YOU
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com