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Do Circuit Training Programs Improve Student Fitness More Than Traditional Physical Education Classes in Secondary Schools?


Do Circuit Training Programs Improve Student Fitness More Than Traditional Physical Education Classes in Secondary Schools? By Jeffrey Uebelhoer – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Do Circuit Training Programs Improve Student Fitness More Than Traditional Physical Education Classes in Secondary Schools?

Do Circuit Training Programs Improve Student
Fitness More Than Traditional Physical Education
Classes in Secondary Schools?
  • By
  • Jeffrey Uebelhoer

  • Students are not receiving an adequate amount of
    physical activity intensity in P.E. class to
    elicit improvement in physical fitness.
  • Obesity among young children and adolescents has
    increased in the past 20 years with the rates of
    obesity ranging between six and 33 percent .

Key Terms
  • Circuit Training
  • Circuit Training is a type of exercise program
    designed to work on selected exercises and
    activities performed in a sequence or order.
    Circuit Training combines a high-energy aerobic
    workout combined with weight resistance equipment
    in a series of stations, stopping only briefly
    before each exercise to keep your heart rate
    within an acceptable range.
  • Conceptual Physical Education
  • According to Dale and Corbin (2000) Conceptual
    Physical Education is ideally a curriculum that
    includes classroom lessons that teach concepts of
    health and fitness, as well as laboratories or
    activity sessions that focus on personalized
    fitness programs, self-monitoring, and a
    noncompetitive environment for fitness
    assessment (p. 61).
  • Traditional Physical Education
  • The Traditional Physical Education program is
    one where the students take part in a more sports
    based curriculum such as basketball, soccer,
    floor hockey, volleyball, football, softball, or
    some type of dodge ball.
  • Target Heart Rate
  • According to the Bio-Nutritional Glossary
    (http// the ideal
    intensity level at which your heart is being
    exercised but not overworked and is determined by
    finding your maximum heart rate and taking a
    percentage of it (60 to 85 percent).

  • Implementing circuit training in physical
    education programs will improve student fitness
    levels more than traditional P.E.

  • Secondary school physical education class setting
  • Four Middle Schools, grades 6-8, and four High
  • Two Middle Schools and two High Schools will be
    randomly selected as the control group. The other
    four schools (2 Middle Schools and 2 High
    Schools) will serve as my experimental group.
  • The research will take place in the spring
  • Students will also have to be classified as
    weather or not they play a school sponsored sport
    in the spring

Research Design
  • Quantitative
  • Quasi-Experimental
  • Cluster Sampling - schools are naturally
    occurring groups
  • Independent Variable Type of P.E. Curriculum
    (CPE or TPE)
  • Dependant Variable subjects fitness level

  • Fitnessgram
  • one mile walk/run to measure aerobic capacity
  • BMI to measure body fat percentage
  • Curl-Up test for abdominal strength
  • 90 Push-Up test for upper body strength
  • Sit-and-Reach for flexibility

Circuit Training Program
  • When students are tested Student test scores
    may be affected by the time of day they take do
    the Fitnessgram testing. I think if they have
    class later in the day they will be fatigued from
    their full day of school.
  • Students on Sports Teams Students who
    participate in sports will obviously have
    increased fitness scores and most likely those
    scores will be higher than those not in sports. I
    tried to eliminate this by grouping those who
    play sports and those who dont.
  • BMI is unreliable The BMI measures body fat by
    comparing body weight to height. It does not take
    into account that lean muscle mass weighs more
    that fat mass. Unfortunately with a large group
    of students in is not time feasible to do a skin
    fold test on all of them.
  • Different Curriculum Within the Control Groups
    Because each control group has the teachers going
    about their regular set curriculum there in no
    guarantee that the lessons will be the same. A
    set traditional curriculum could be set up by
    researcher but the curriculum would have to me
    each schools curriculum standards.
  • Student Nutrition What the students eat is not
    being controlled. If students are eating
    unhealthy they will not get the benefits of the
  • Puberty students in the age group being looked
    at go through hormonal changes at this time in
    their life which may affect fitness test outcomes
    such as BMI.

Review of Related Research
  • Kerner, M.S. (2005). Leisure-time physical
    activity, sedentary behavior, and physical
    fitness among adolescents. Journal of Physical
    Education, Rectration, Dance. 76(8), 26-30.
  • Discusses the relationship between kids who
    partake in leisure physical activity or sedentary
    activity and their fitness levels. They found
    that sedentary behavior such as watching
    television or being on the internet are reasons
    for not participating in physical activity. This
    article gave me a lot of information on the
    growing obesity problem in our country and the
    health issues correlated to inactivity in

  • Beets, M.W. Pitetti, K.H. (2005). Contribution
    of physical education and sport to health-related
    fitness in high school students. Journal of
    School Health. 75(1). 25-29.
  • Studies the fitness levels of kids that partake
    in school sports along with P.E. class and those
    who only take P.E. They found that students who
    participate on school sport teams have a greater
    cardiovascular fitness level than those only
    participating in P.E. class. This article is the
    one that started me off on my direction towards
    the problem that traditional P.E. classes alone
    are not helping students fitness levels.

  • Baquet, G., Berthoin, S., Van Praagh, E.
    (2002). Are intensified physical education
    sessions able to elicit heart rate at a
    sufficient level to promote aerobic fitness in
    adolescents? Research Quarterly for Exercise and
    Sport. 73(3), 282-288.
  • This article studied the affects of a high
    intensity P.E. class on students targets heart
    rate for the duration of class time. They found
    that the high intensity lesson done once a week
    improved students cardiovascular fitness more
    than traditional P.E. This article gave me the
    idea to come up with some program that could be
    done in P.E. that can get students in their
    target heart rate zone.

  • Corbin, C.B. Dale, D. (2000). Physical activity
    participation of high school graduates following
    exposure to conceptual or traditional physical
    education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and
    Sport. 71(1), 61-68.
  • This article studies how physically active high
    school graduates were who took part in two
    different P.E. type classes. Conceptual P.E. and
    Traditional P.E. The graduates filled out a
    survey and mailed them in. They found that those
    who took conceptual P.E. classes we less
    sedentary than traditional P.E. students even
    though it was based on the subject perceived
    level of physical activity. This article relates
    to my idea because circuit training can be
    considered conceptual P.E.

  • Talley, J.S. (2004). Shapes for kids! Life
    fitness for grades 5 through 12. Journal of
    Physical Education, Recreation, Dance. 75(2),
  • This article talks about a physical education
    teachers circuit training program that she has
    implemented in her curriculum. This was important
    to my research because I used her program for my
    experimental group.

  • Krampf, H. (1993). Circuit training for young
    children. Journal of Physical Education,
    Recreation, Dance. 64(1), 15.
  • This article is just basically another teachers
    version of a circuit training program. The author
    also discusses why circuit training good thing to
    teach children.

  • Kwong, W.T. Macfarlane, D. (2003). Childrens
    heart rates and enjoyment levels during physical
    education classes in hong kong primary schools.
    Pediatric Exercise Science. 15, 179-190.
  • This particular article studied students heart
    rates during different types of physical activity
    and whether or not the students enjoyed the
    activity or not. They found that student heart
    rates are in their target heart rate zone for at
    most 20 of their active class time. This is
    another article that looked into how P.E. classes
    are not giving students the adequate exercise
    they need.

  • Kliber, A., Kulinna, P.H., Lai, Q., Martin, J.,
    Reed, B. (2003). Student physical activity
    patterns Grade, gender, and activity influences.
    Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 22,
  • This article studied students cardiovascular
    response differed based on gender, grade, and the
    activity. This article shows that fitness type
    activity keeps students in their target heart
    rate zone for a greater of class time as
    opposed to a traditional P.E. lesson such as

  • Corbin, C.B., Dale, D., Welk, G.J. (2000).
    Measurement issues in the assessment of physical
    activity in children. Research Quarterly for
    Exercise and Sport. 71(2), 59-73
  • This article discusses some things that can make
    it complicated to assess physical activity in
    children. It also discusses the pros and cons of
    using certain measurement techniques such as the
    use of a heart monitor which are weakly
    correlated due to signal interruptions causing
    lost data, delayed heart rate response, and
    discomfort. This article did not help me because
    I was looking for any kind of problems with the
    Fitnessgram assessment and none were mentioned.

  • Keating, X.D. (2003). The current often
    implemented fitness tests in physical education
    programs Problems and future directions. Quest.
    55, 141-160.
  • This articles examined youth fitness tests used
    in the U.S. to see what problems they have and
    what they can do to fix it. Again I was looking
    for any issues with the Fitnessgram test. None
    were found so this article was on not use.