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The Road to War


The Road to War The European nations by 1914 had created an unusually precarious international system the careened into war very quickly on a the basis of what was a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Road to War

The Road to War
  • The European nations by 1914 had created an
    unusually precarious international system the
    careened into war very quickly on a the basis of
    what was a minor series of provocations

The Road to War
  • Triple Entente Britain, France and Russia,
    Triple Alliance Germany, Austro-Hungarian
    Empire, Italy, but the chief rivalry was between
    Germany and Great Britain and was the most
    important reason underlying the source of
    tensions that led to WWI

The Road to War
  • June 28,1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to
    throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,
    assassinated in Sarajevo Hungary by a Serbian

The Road to War
  • Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire launched
    an assault on Serbia, Serbians called on Russia
    for help, the Russians mobilized their army,
    Germany responded by declaring war on both Russia
    and France and invading Belgium.

The Road to War
  • Great Britain declared war on Germany in order to
    stop the advance of its rival, Italy remained
    neutral at first, then entered war on the side of
    Great Britain and France, the Ottoman Empire
    (Turkey) and other small nations joined the
    fighting later in 1914 or 1915

The Road to War
  • Wilson's called on US citizens to remain
    impartial, however German Americans and Irish
    Americans sympathized with Germany, but many more
    Americans sympathized with the British

The Road to War
  • Wilson admired the British traditions, its
    culture, its political system, and attributed
    moral qualities to the Allies (Britain, France,
    Italy and Russia) that most Americans denied to
    the Central Powers (Germany, Austro-Hungarian
    Empire, Ottoman Empire)

The Road to War
  • Lurid reports of German atrocities in Belgium and
    France, skillfully exaggerated by British
    propagandists, strengthened the hostility of many
    Americans toward Germany

The Road to War
  • The British imposed a naval blockade on Germany
    to prevent munitions and supplies from reaching
    the enemy, as a neutral the US had the right to
    trade with Germany, a truly neutral US response
    would have been to stop trade with both countries

The Road to War
  • The US response was to ignore the blockade of
    Germany and continue to trade with Britain for
    economic reasons, the war orders from Britain and
    France after 1914 created one of our greatest
    economic booms, the US gradually transformed
    itself from a neutral power into the arsenal of
    the Allies

The Road to War
  • Early in 1915 Germany began to use submarines to
    try to stem the flow of supplies to Britain,
    Germany announced that enemy vessels would be
    sunk on sight

The Road to War
  • On May 7, 1915 a German submarine sunk the
    British passenger ship Lusitania without warning,
    1,198 on board died and 128 were Americans, the
    ship was also carrying munitions, most Americans
    considered it an act of piracy

The Road to War
  • Wilson demanded that Germany promise not repeat
    such outrages and that the Central Powers affirm
    their commitment to neutral rights, tensions
    between the US and Germany continued to grow
    throughout 1915

The Road to War
  • Early in 1916 the Allies announced that they were
    now arming merchant ships to sink submarines,
    Germany responded by announcing that it would
    fire on such vessels without warning

The Road to War
  • Sussex Germans attacked the unarmed French
    steamer, Wilson demanded the Germany abandon it's
    "unlawful" tactics, Germany did not have
    sufficient naval power to enforce an effective
    blockade against Britain, the Germans decided
    that the marginal advantages of unrestricted
    submarine warfare did not yet justify the
    possibility of drawing America into the war

The Road to War
  • Wilson faced a difficult re-election battle in
    1916 and had to contend with domestic politics
    first, Roosevelt insisted that nation defend its
    "honor" and economic interests, William Jennings
    Bryan and Senator La Follette denounced any
    action that seemed to increase the chance of war

The Road to War
  • In the fall of 1915 Wilson agreed to a large and
    rapid increase in the nation's armed forces,
    Wilson had to work hard to get the measure passed
    through Congress, but by midsummer 1916 armament
    for a possible war was under way

The Road to War
  • Election of 1916 Democrats created the slogan
    "he kept us out of war" for Wilson, the
    Republican candidate was the progressive NY
    governor Charles Evans Hughes who was supported
    by Roosevelt, most people felt that Hughes would
    be more likely to get the US into the European
    war, Wilson said that the nation was too proud
    to fight

The Road to War
  • Wilson won reelection by fewer than 600,000
    popular votes and only 23 electoral college
    votes, one of the smallest margins for an
    incumbent in American history

The Road to War
  • Wilson's rationale for going to war was that the
    US was committed to using the war as a vehicle
    for constructing a new world order, a post war
    order in which the US would maintain peace
    through a permanent league of nations, a peace
    that would ensure self-determination for all
    nations, a peace without victory, these were
    progressive goals that were worth fighting for if
    there was sufficient provocation.

The Road to War
  • New German Policy launch a series of major
    assaults on the enemy's lines in France, begin
    unrestricted submarine warfare to cut Britain off
    from vital supplies, then on February 25 1917 the
    British gave Wilson a telegram they had
    intercepted from the German foreign minister
    (Arthur Zimmerman) to the government of Mexico

The Road to War
  • The Zimmerman Telegram proposed that in the event
    of a war between Germany and the United States,
    the Mexicans should join with Germany against the
    Americans, in return they would regain their
    lost provinces of Texas and the rest of the
    American Southwest when the war was over, the
    Zimmerman Telegram was widely publicized in the
    US and Britain, inflamed public opinion and
    helped build popular sentiment for war

The Road to War
  • In March of 1917 revolution spread throughout
    Russia toppling the czarist regime and replacing
    it with a new, republican government, now the US
    would not have to ally itself with a despotic
    monarchy, the war for a progressive world order
    could proceed untainted

The Road to War
  • On April 2, 1917, two weeks after German
    submarines had torpedoed three American ships,
    Wilson appeared before a joint session of
    Congress and asked for a declaration of war

The Road to War
  • It is a fearful thing to lead this great
    peaceful people into war, into the most terrible
    and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself
    seeming to be in the balance. But the right is
    more precious than the peace, and we shall fight
    for the things which we have always carried
    nearest to our hearts for democracy, for the
    right of those who submit to authority to have a
    voice in their own Governments, for the rights
    and liberties of small nations, for a universal
    dominion of right by such a concert of free
    peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all
    nations and make the world itself at last free

The Road to War
  • Opposition to war remained, for 4 days pacifists
    rallied in Congress against the war, in the end
    50 representatives and 6 senators voted against it

"War without Stint"
  • Wilson called on the nation to wage war "without
    stint or limit, Americas most immediate effect
    on the war was felt at sea, 1 of every 4 ships
    setting sail from British ports never returned,
    United States began to alter the balance of power
    in the Atlantic, a fleet of destroyers aided the
    British navy in its assault on the U-boats, other
    ships escorted merchant vessels across the
    Atlantic, US ships helped sow antisubmarine mines
    in the North Sea

"War without Stint"
  • 900,000 tons of Allied ships sunk during April
    1917, by December 1917 350,000 tons were sunk, by
    October 1918 112,000 tons were sunk, no American
    troop ship was lost at sea during WWI, many
    Americans thought that providing naval assistance
    alone would be enough to win the war

"War without Stint"
  • By 1918 Russia had withdrawn from the war
    altogether, after the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin
    negotiated a hasty and costly peace treaty with
    the Central Powers freeing up additional German
    troops to fight on the Western Front, this
    precipitated a major commitment of American
    ground forces in order to shore up the tottering

"War without Stint"
  • United States did not have enough men in the
    standing army, 120,000 soldiers in the regular
    army and 80,000 in the National Guard, very few
    men (including officers) had any combat
    experience, some urged voluntary recruitment.

War without Stint
  • Roosevelt offered to raise a regiment and fight
    in Europe, Wilson decided that only a draft could
    provide the needed men, won passage of the
    Selective Service Act (May 1917) which brought
    nearly 3 million men into the army, 2 million
    joined various branches voluntarily (A.E.F.)

"War without Stint"
  • For the first time in American history a large
    number of soldiers and sailors fought overseas
    for an extended time, for the first time women
    were permitted to enlist in the military, served
    crucial auxiliary roles in hospitals and offices.

"War without Stint"
  • Nearly 400,000 African American soldiers served
    in segregated, all-black units, under white
    commanders, most assigned to non-combat duties,
    served only in the army and navy because the
    marines would not accept them, August 1917 race
    riot in Houston 17 whites killed, 13 blacks
    lynched, 40 blacks sentenced to life terms in
    military jails

"War without Stint"
  • The American Psychological Association studied
    the national army, gave thousands of soldiers IQ
    tests, really measuring education, half the
    whites and vast majority of African Americans
    scored at the level of morons, working-class
    and racially mixed groups of soldiers without
    much access to education

"War without Stint"
  • Under the command of General Pershing, the AEF
    joined the existing allied forces in the spring
    of 1918, 8 months later the war was over, the
    soldiers spent most of their times in the
    trenches, the two sides relied on heavy shelling
    of each other's trenches.

War without Stint
  • The trenches were terrible, muddy, wet, cold,
    swarming with lice and rats, place of
    extraordinary physical stress and discomfort

"War without Stint"
  • Chateau Thierry (June 1918) American forces
    assisted the French in repelling a bitter German
    offensive that brought German forces to within 50
    miles of Paris, six weeks later 1,000,000
    American troops were in France and turned away
    another German assault at Rhiems

"War without Stint"
  • Meuse-Argonne Offensive (September 1918)
    American fighting forces advanced against the
    Germans in the Argonne Forest, by the end of
    October they had helped push the Germans back
    toward their own border and cut the enemy's major
    supply lines to the front.

War without Stint
  • the American forces used more ammunition during
    this 7 week offensive than they had used in the
    entire four years of the Civil War, faced with an
    invasion of their own country, German military
    leaders began to seek an armistice which was
    signed 11/11/1918

"War without Stint"
  • New Weapons trenches, tanks, flame-throwers,
    poisonous mustard gas

War without Stint
  • Logistical difficulties of supplying so many
    supplies became a major factor in planning
    tactics and strategy, faster machine guns
    required more ammunition, motorized vehicles
    required fuels, spare parts, mechanics to repair

"War without Stint"
  • Planes played an important role as relatively
    simple, bombers, fighters and reconnaissance
  • Most modern part of the military was the Navy,
    the British Dreadnought used new technology such
    as turbine propulsion, hydraulic gun controls,
    electric light and power, wireless telegraphy,
    advanced navigational aids

"War without Stint"
  • Appalling level of casualties, 1 million dead -
    British Empire 1.7 million - France Germany - 2
    million former Austro-Hungarian Empire - 1.5
    million Italy - 460,000 Russia - 1.7 million
    United States 112,000 (influenza)

The War and American Society
  • US government appropriated 32 billion for
    expenses directly related to the conflict, raised
    money in two ways solicited loans from the
    American people by selling "Liberty Bonds" (23

The War and American Society
  • New taxes on excess profits of corporations and
    a steeply graduated income tax that rose as high
    as 70 in some brackets (10 billion), the entire
    federal budget before 1915 had rarely exceeded 1

The War and American Society
  • Council of National Defense established by
    Wilson, composed of members of his Cabinet and a
    Civilian Advisory Commission, which set up local
    defense councils in every state and locality,
    economic mobilization was to rest on a
    large-scale dispersal of power to local
    communities, proved completely unworkable

The War and American Society
  • Followers of Veblen (social engineering) and
    Taylor (scientific management) proposed dividing
    up the economy by organizing a series of planning
    bodies, each to supervise a specific sector of
    the economy, one for transportation, another for
    agriculture, another for manufacturing

The War and American Society
  • War Boards were created, one to oversee the
    railroads (William McAdoo), one to supervise fuel
    supplies (mostly coal), handle food (Herbert
    Hoover), these War Boards generally succeeded in
    meeting essential war needs without paralyzing
    the domestic economy

The War and American Society
  • War Industries Board was created in 1917 to
    coordinate government purchases of military
    supplies, in March 1918 Wilson placed it under
    the control of Bernard Baruch (Wall Street
    financier), wielded greater powers than any other
    government agency decided which factories would
    convert to the production of which war materials
    and set prices for goods they produced

The War and American Society
  • When goods were scarce Baruch decided to whom
    they should go, when corporations were competing
    for government contracts Baruch decided who got
    the contract, resulted in centralized regulation
    of the economy

The War and American Society
  • In reality WIB plagued by mismanagement and
    inefficiency, Baruch viewed himself as the
    partner of business, the dollar-a-year men
    helped major industries earn enormous profits
    from their efforts rather than working to
    restrict power and limit corporate profits.

The War and American Society
  • Baruch ensured that manufacturers who coordinated
    their efforts in accord with his goals would be
    exempt from antitrust laws, government was
    working to enhance the private sector through a
    mutually beneficial alliance, many government and
    corporate leaders were convinced of the
    advantages of a close, cooperative relationship
    between the public and private sectors

The War and American Society
  • The National War Labor Board (April 1918)
    pressured industry to grant 8 hour work day,
    maintenance of minimal living standards, equal
    pay for women doing equal work, recognition of
    right of unions to organize but insisted that
    workers forgo strikes and employers not engage in
    lockouts, membership in unions increased by 1.5
    million workers between 1917 and 1919

Union Membership 1900-1920
The War and American Society
  • Western Federation of Miners staged a series of
    strikes in the West to improve the horrible
    conditions in the underground mines, the Ludlow
    Massacre Colorado militia attacked the workers
    tent colony, killing 39 people who were on strike

The War and American Society
  • Remarkable period of economic growth, European
    demand for US products, industrial production
    soared, manufacturing activity spread to regions
    that did not have it already, shipbuilding
    industry grew on the west coast, employment
    increased resulting in new opportunities for
    women, blacks, Mexican and Asian workers, net
    loss of purchasing power as inflation ate into
    wage increases, farm prices rose, agricultural
    production increased dramatically

The War and American Society
  • The Great Migration was the migration of hundreds
    of thousands of blacks from the rural south into
    northern industrial cities, the push factors were
    the poverty, indebtedness, racism, violence in
    the South.

The War and American Society
  • The pull factors were the prospect of factory
    jobs in the urban north, more freedom and
    autonomy, which resulted in dramatic growth in
    black communities in northern industrial cities
    (New York, Chicago, Cleveland and Detroit), older
    blacks feared newcomers would increase their
    vulnerability to white racism

African-American Migration
The War and American Society
  • In East St. Louis, Illinois (July 1917), a white
    mob attacked a black neighborhood, burned down
    many houses and shot the residents as they fled,
    as many as 40 African American died

The War and American Society
  • Margaret Drier Robins, an official of Women's
    Trade Union League, said in 1918 "The war has
    created new values. Men and women are conscious
    that as citizens they must share in the
    management of industry and the administration of

The War and American Society
  • A million or more women worked in a wide range of
    jobs, which in peacetime would be considered male
    jobs steel, munitions, trucking, public
    transportation, but as soon as the war was over
    almost all of the women working in these jobs
    were fired or quit

The Search for Social Unity
  • Peace Movement German Americans, Irish
    immigrants, religious pacifists (Quakers,
    Mennonites), intellectuals, Socialist Party,
    Industrial Workers of the World considered war
    a meaningless battle among capitalistic nations
    for commercial supremacy

The Search for Social Unity
  • Carrie Chapman Catt helped created the Women's
    Peace Party, these women peace activists became
    sharply divided upon entering war, claimed to
    represent the "mother half of humanity", maternal
    opposition to war

The Search for Social Unity
  • The National American Woman Suffrage Association
    supported the war and presented itself as a
    patriotic organization dedicated to advancing the
    war effort, single largest women's organization,
    Carrie Chapman Catt became a member but Jane
    Addams and Charlotte Perkins Gilman stayed in the
    Peace Party

The Search for Social Unity
  • Most Americans supported intervention once
    America became involved, women joined the Red
    Cross, children raised money for war bonds, and
    churches included prayers for the president and
    the troops during services, the war caused a
    revivalism in religion, Billy Sunday was the
    leading revivalist of the time

The Search for Social Unity
  • Government leaders wanted to unite public opinion
    behind the military effort, Committee on Public
    Information was directed by George Creel,
    supervised the distribution of innumerable tons
    of pro-war literature

The Search for Social Unity
  • War posters plastered the walls of offices,
    shops, theaters, and schools, newspapers
    dutifully printed the government accounts of the
    reasons for the war and the prospects for quick
    victory, reporters were encouraged to exercise
    self-censorship when reporting news about the

The Search for Social Unity
  • Government-promoted posters and films encouraged
    people to look at Germans as something close to
    savages, the CPI ran full-page advertisements
    urging citizens to notify the Justice Department
    when they encountered the man who spreads the
    pessimistic storiescries for peace, or belittles
    our efforts to win the war

The Search for Social Unity
  • The Espionage Act of 1917 created stiff penalties
    for spying, sabotage or obstruction of the war
    efforts (crimes that were often broadly defined),
    it empowered the Post Office to ban "seditious"
    material from the mails including statements that
    might impugn the motives of the government and
    thus encourage insubordination.

The Search for Social Unity
  • The Espionage Act also covered anything that
    suggested that the government is controlled by
    Wall Street or munitions manufacturers, or any
    other special interests, including all
    publications of the Socialist Party

The Search for Social Unity
  • The Sabotage Act and Sedition Act of 1918
    expanded the meaning of the Espionage Act to make
    illegal any public expression of opposition to
    the war, allowed officials to prosecute anyone
    who criticized the president or the government.

The Search for Social Unity
  • You shall not criticize anything or anybody in
    the Government any longer or you shall go to
    jail., the most targeted groups of the
    legislation were anti-capitalist groups the
    Socialist Party and the Industrial Workers of the

The Search for Social Unity
  • Eugene Debs was sentenced to 10 years in prison
    in 1918 but was later pardoned by President
    Harding in 1921, Big Bill Haywood fled to the
    Soviet Union to avoid long imprisonment, in 1918
    more then 1,500 people were arrested for the
    crime of criticizing the government

The Search for Social Unity
  • Vigilante mobs sprang up to "discipline" those
    who dared challenge the war, in Cincinnati a
    dissident Protestant clergyman was pulled from
    his bed one night by a mob, dragged to a nearby
    hillside, and whipped in the name of the women
    and children of Belgium

The Search for Social Unity
  • The American Protective League enlisted the
    services of 250, 000 people who served as
    "agents" prying into the activities and
    thoughts of their neighbors, opening mail, taping
    telephones and in general attempting to impose
    the unity of opinion (the National Security
    League, the Boy Spies of America, the American
    Defense Society), the most frequent targets of
    oppression were immigrants.

The Search for Social Unity
  • "100 percent Americanism" the melting pot has
    not meltedthere are vast communities in the
    nation thinking today not in terms of America,
    but in terms of Old World prejudices, theories,
    and animositiesIn the bottom of the melting pot
    there lie heaps of unfused metal

The Search for Social Unity
  • A campaign to purge society of all things German
    quickly gathered speed, sauerkraut was renamed
    "liberty cabbage", hamburger became liberty
    sausage, performance of German music banned,
    German books were removed from the shelves of
    libraries, courses in language were removed,
    there is something fundamentally wrong with the
    Teutonic soul

The Search for a New World Order
  • Wilson had led the country into the war promising
    a more just and stable peace at its conclusion,
    Wilsonianism was a philosophy of internationalist

The Search for a New World Order
  • In 1918 Wilson presented to Congress the
    principles for which he claimed the nation was
    fighting for 8 specific recommendations for
    adjusting postwar boundaries and for establishing
    new nations (right to self-determination)

The Search for a New World Order
  • 5 general principles to govern international
    conduct in the future freedom of the seas, open
    covenants instead of secret treaties, reduction
    in armaments, free trade, impartial mediation of
    colonial claims, a proposal for a League of
    Nations that would help implement these new
    principles and territorial adjustments to resolve
    future controversies taken together these were
    the Fourteen Points.

The Search for a New World Order
  • Flaws in the Fourteen Points no formula for
    deciding how to implement the "national
    self-determination" he promised subjugated
    peoples, he said little about economic rivalries
    and their impact on international relations

The Search for a New World Order
  • The Fourteen Points reflected Wilsons belief in
    the ideals of progressivism, that the world was
    capable of just and efficient government as were
    individual nations that once the international
    community accepted certain basic principles of
    conduct, and once it constructed modern
    institutions to implement them, the human race
    could live in peace

The Search for a New World Order
  • The Fourteen Points were also a last minute
    effort to persuade the Bolshevik regime to keep
    Russia in the war, Wilson realized that Lenin was
    a competitor in the effort to lead the postwar
    order, Liberalism is the only thing that can
    save civilization from chaos from a flood of
    ultra-radicalism that will swamp the
    worldLiberalism must be more liberal than ever
    before, it must even be radical, if civilization
    is to escape the typhoon.

The Search for a New World Order
  • European leaders resented what they considered
    Wilson's tone of moral superiority, Wilson
    refused to make the US their "ally" but kept his
    distance as an "associate" of his European
    partners, they had been offended that Wilson
    insisted on keeping American military forces
    separate from the Allied armies they were
    joining, most of all, Britain and France were in
    no mood for a benign and generous peace after
    their losses in WWI

The Search for a New World Order
  • David Lloyd George the British prime minister
    insisted for a time that the German Kaiser be
    captured and executed, Georges Clemenceau the
    president of France wanted to gain something to
    compensate them for the catastrophe they had

The Search for a New World Order
  • Wilson appealed to the American voters to support
    his peace plans by sending Democrats to Congress
    in the November 1918 elections, a Republican
    victory would be interpreted on the other side
    of the water as a repudiation of my leadership,
    Republicans captured both houses in 1918 which
    damaged Wilson's ability claim popular support
    for his peace plans.

The Search for a New World Order
  • Wilson refused to appoint any important
    Republicans to negotiating team that would
    represent the US at the peace conference

The Search for a New World Order
  • The Peace Conference in Paris was dominated by
    the Big Four David Lloyd George (Britain),
    Georges Clemenceau (France), Vittorio Orlando
    (prime minister of Italy) and Woodrow Wilson
    (U.S.), Russia was not represented (it was in the
    midst of a civil war between white and red
    Russians) and Wilson refused to recognize Lenin's
    new government

The Search for a New World Order
  • Wilson was unable to win approval of many of the
    broad principles he had wanted, the British
    refused to even discuss freedom of the seas,
    open covenants openly arrived at the Paris
    negotiations were often conducted in secret,
    support for impartial mediation of colonial
    claims he was forced to accept the transfer of
    German colonies in the Pacific to Japan, economic
    and strategic demands were constantly coming into
    conflicts with the principles of cultural

The Search for a New World Order
  • President opposed demanding compensations from
    Central Powers, the Allies wanted 56 billion to
    pay for damages to civilians and for military
    pensions, in the end Germany paid 9 billion
    which was still more than its crippled economy
    could afford, the reparations combined with other
    territorial and economic penalties constituted an
    effort to keep Germany prostrate for the
    foreseeable future

The Search for a New World Order
  • Wilson did have some successes in setting
    boundaries and dealing with former colonies, his
    plan placed former colonies in trusteeship
    under the League of Nations (mandate system),
    designed the creation of Yugoslavia and

The Search for a New World Order
  • Wilsons most important success was the creation
    of a permanent international organization to
    oversee world affairs and prevent future wars, on
    January 25, 1919 the Allies voted to accept the
    "covenant" of the League of Nations which was an
    assembly of nations that would meet regularly to
    debate the means of resolving disputes and
    protecting peace.

The Search for a New World Order
  • Authority to implement League decisions rested
    with 9-member Executive Council the 5 permanent
    members of the council were US, Britain, France,
    Italy and Japan

The Search for a New World Order
  • Many Americans, accustomed to their nations
    isolation from Europe, questioned the wisdom of
    this major new commitment to internationalism,
    Senators wanted to limit Americas obligations to
    the League by ensuring that the U.S. would not be
    obliged to accept a League mandate to oversee a
    territory and that the League would not challenge
    the Monroe Doctrine, Wilson agreed to these
    compromises but refused to compromise further

The Search for a New World Order
  • Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles to the
    Senate on July 10, 1919 asking Dare we reject it
    and break the heart of the world?

The Search for a New World Order
  • Wilson received opposition in Congress and did
    not want to revise the Treaty of Versailles, the
    Irreconcilables were 14 senators many were
    western isolationists who opposed the agreement
    on principle, other opponents were concerned with
    creating a winning issue for the Republicans in
    the presidential election of 1920.

The Search for a New World Order
  • Most notably of these was Henry Cabot Lodge who
    was chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee,
    loathed the president with genuine passion, used
    every possible tactic to obstruct and delay the

The Search for a New World Order
  • Public sentiment favored ratification, so Lodge
    stalled for time, he eventually formed a series
    of reservations which were amendments to the
    League covenant limiting American obligations to
    the organization.

The Search for a New World Order
  • Wilson refused to make changes, instead he
    embarked on a grueling cross country speaking
    tour to arouse public support for the treaty,
    Wilson suffered a major stroke in Pueblo,
    Colorado and could not conduct public business,
    his wife and doctor shielded him from anything
    that might impede his recovery

The Search for a New World Order
  • The Senate Foreign Relations Committee sent the
    Treaty of Versailles to the full Senate for
    ratification with almost 50 amendments and
    reservations, Wilson refused to consider any of
    them and told Democrats to vote for the treaty
    only if no revisions had been made, any other
    version must be defeated, the Treaty of
    Versailles was never ratified by the US Senate

The Search for a New World Order
  • Wilson thought the 1920 national election would
    serve as a solemn referendum on the League,
    however by then the public lost interest in the
    peace process as more serious crises came about

A Society in Turmoil
  • The social environment after 1918 was no longer
    receptive to progressive reform, the economy
    experienced a sever postwar recession,
    middle-class America responded with fearful
    conservative hostility, a period of repression
    and reaction followed WWI not liberal reform

A Society in Turmoil
  • Postwar prosperity created by demand for American
    products in European war ravaged nations, demand
    for scarce consumer goods at home, also
    accompanied by raging inflation (over 15 a year)
    through the loss of wartime price controls

A Society in Turmoil
  • Between 1920 and 1921 the GNP declined nearly
    10, 100,000 businesses went bankrupt, 453,000
    farmers lost their land, 5 million workers lost
    their jobs, leaders of organized labor set out to
    consolidate the advances they had made

A Society in Turmoil
  • The raging inflation of 1919 - 1921 wiped out the
    modest wage gains that had been made during the
    war, employers began to rescind benefits that
    were made during WWI under the watchful eye of
    the government, 1919 saw an unprecedented wave of
    strikes, more than 3,600 in all and involving
    more than 4 million workers

A Society in Turmoil
  • The Boston Police force went out on strike in
    September 1919, Boston erupted in violence and
    looting, Governor Calvin Coolidge called in the
    National Guard to restore order, there is no
    right to strike against the public safety, by
    anybody, anywhere, any time

A Society in Turmoil
  • In September 1919, the greatest strike in
    American history began when 350,000 steelworkers
    in several Eastern and Midwestern cities walked
    off the job, demanding an 8-hour day and
    recognition of their union.

A Society in Turmoil
  • Employers hired armed guards to disperse picket
    lines and escort strikebreakers into factories,
    steel executives managed to keep the factories
    running with non-union labor, and public opinion
    was hostile to the strikers, the strike finally
    collapsed in January 1920, organized labor would
    not recover for a decade.

A Society in Turmoil
  • Black soldiers (almost 400,000 of them) served as
    inspiration to thousands of urban blacks, the
    glory of black heroism in the war would make it
    impossible for white society to ever again treat
    African Americans as less than equal citizens, in
    reality, the fact that black soldiers had fought
    in WWI had almost no impact at all on white

A Society in Turmoil
  • WWI accentuated African American bitterness,
    increased their determination to fight for their
    rights, it raised economic expectations, in the
    South there was a dramatic increase in lynchings
    (70 in 1919 alone), in the North black factory
    workers faced widespread layoffs as returning
    white veterans replaced them from their jobs, no
    significant new opportunities for advancement of
    black veterans

A Society in Turmoil
  • Racial violence broke out during the summer of
    1919 Chicago Race Riots, different from earlier
    racial violence in that African Americans were
    fighting back Like men well face the murderous
    cowardly pack. Pressed to the wall, dying, but
    fighting back Claude McKay

A Society in Turmoil
  • Marcus Garvey stressed an ideology of black
    nationalism, encouraged blacks to take pride in
    their own achievements, reject assimilation, take
    pride in their own race and culture, founded the
    United Negro Improvement Association which
    launched a chain of black owned grocery stores
    and pressed for the creation of black business,
    Garvey was indicted on charges of business fraud
    in 1923 and deported to Jamaica two years later.

A Society in Turmoil
  • To much of the white middle-class the industrial
    warfare, the racial violence, and other forms of
    dissent all appeared to be frightening omens of
    instability and radicalism

A Society in Turmoil
  • Concerns about communist threat grew in 1919
    after the Soviet government announced the
    formation of the Communist International
    (Comintern) purpose was to export revolution
    around the world, the American Communist Party
    was also founded in 1919

A Society in Turmoil
  • A series of bombings in the spring of 1919
    produced great national alarm, in April the Post
    Office intercepted several dozen parcels
    addressed to leading businessmen and politicians
    that were triggered to explode when opened, one
    bomb went off in front of the Attorney Generals
    home, another went off in front of JP Morgans
    bank in NY killing 30 people.

A Society in Turmoil
  • These bombings crystallized what was already a
    growing determination among middle class
    Americans to fight against radicalism, a
    determination steeled by the repressive
    atmosphere of the war years and reinforced by the
    idea of 100 Percent Americanism.

A Society in Turmoil
  • The Red Scare antiradical newspapers began to
    portray almost every form of instability and
    protest as a sign of radical threat, armed
    revolutionaries running rampant through our
    cities and the steel strike was penetrated with
    the Bolshevik ideasteeped in the doctrines of
    the class struggle and social overthrow, nearly
    30 states enacted new peacetime sedition laws
    imposing harsh penalties on those who promoted
    revolution, over 300 sent to jail

A Society in Turmoil
  • On New Years Day, 1920 Attorney General A.
    Mitchell Palmer and his assistant, J. Edgar
    Hoover, orchestrated a series of raids on alleged
    radical centers throughout the country and
    arrested more than 6,000 people, the Palmer Raids
    were intended to uncover huge caches of weapons
    and explosives, they netted a total of 3 pistols
    and no dynamite, 500 people who were not American
    citizens were summarily deported.

A Society in Turmoil
  • Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were charged
    with the murder of a paymaster in Braintree
    Mass., the evidence against them was
    questionable, but both were confessed anarchists,
    they faced a widespread public presumption of
    guilt, they were convicted by an openly bigoted
    judge, Webster Thayer, and sentenced to death, on
    August 23, 1927 still proclaiming their
    innocence, Sacco and Vanzetti died in the
    electric chair.

A Society in Turmoil
  • On August 26, 1920 the 19th Amendment, giving
    women the right to vote, became part of the
    Constitution, but it marked an end to an era of
    reform, economic problems, feminist demands,
    labor unrest, racial tensions and the intensity
    of the antiradicalism produced general sense of

A Society in Turmoil
  • Election of 1920 The Democratic nominees were
    James Cox for President and Franklin D. Roosevelt
    for Vice President, they ran trying to keep
    Wilsons ideals alive, the Republican
    presidential nominee was Warren G. Harding who
    offered no ideals, only a vague promise of a
    return to normalcy, Harding won 61 of the vote
    and the Republicans made major gains in Congress.