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Title: EPS 201/202 Library Book Collection Project Michie will identify a school that doesn


1
EPS 201/202 Library Book Collection
ProjectMichie will identify a school that
doesnt have a library. Donated books will be
given to individual teachers at this schoolIf
you want to donate a book (new or used in good
condition) choose your favorite or a newer
childrens book, or a Caldecott winner. Give your
donated book to me or your TA before the end of
finals week. Thanks
  • Final Exam 5 questions (20 points each), 3
    hours, Study Guide will be distributed on
    Thursday, April 28
  • Final Exam 228 Natural History Building, 8 11
    AM, Thursday, May 12
  • Conflict Final, Friday, May 13, 130-430, be
    sure to notify your TA this week if you qualify
    for the Conflict Exam. Location to be announced.
  • Thursday, April 28, and Tuesday, May 3 MAKE-UP
    LECTURE WRITES for those who need it, MAX POINTS
    10
  • Bookstores will buy back TOZER, APA MANUALS AND
    MICHIE (NOT Spring)

2
Teaching for social justice.Small acts make a
difference.
  • Some schools in Chicago have no libraries . We
    could expand the in-class libraries in one
    school.
  • Last week, many in our class indicated they
    were willing to donate books.
  • Good quality used or new books could be donated
    if the class is interested. I will collect
    donated books for one elementary school until the
    end of finals. I will contact Greg about a
    target school. Critically analyze this act!
  • Books for K-8 can be given to me or your TAs

3
APPYING THE 3 THEORIES OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY in
CHAPTER 13 TOZER with READINGS FROM THE PAST 2
WEEKS
  • 1. CULTURAL DEFICIT THEORY TOZER Chapter 13
    and the views toward capacity to learn in
    school, SOME GROUPS ARE INFERIOR.
  • POVERTY BOOKS Article on Poverty
  • CLASS ANYON Social Class and the Hidden
    Curriculum of Work
  • ETHNICITY BILLINGS Readings
  • 2. HUMANIST APPROACH TO DIFFERENCE AND
    DISCRIMINATION (Tolerance, Elliot. 1960s)
  • 3. CRITICAL THEORY 1980s (INSTITUTIONAL
    STRUCTURES, POWER)
  • a. CULTURALLY DIFFERENCE THEORY LEADS TO
    CULTURALLY RELEVANT TEACHING LADSON-BILLING, G.
    EXCERPTS in Dreamkeepers Successful Teachers of
    African American Children, and see TOZER Chapter
    13 Diversity and Equity Today (pages 430-432
    (details on Ladson-Billings Culturally Relevant
    Teaching).
  • b. ANTI-RACIST TEACHING E-RESERVES
    TENORIO, K. An interview with Enid Lee Taking
    Multicultural, Anti-racist Education Seriously
    pages 19-23.
  • c. RESISTANCE THEORY CULTURAL
    SUBORINATION LEADS TO RESISTENCE THEORY KOHL,
    H. I Wont Learn from You.

4
We dont want schools to perpetuate social
inequalities. What did Jean Anyons research
reveal about REPRODUCTION of the social class
structure in schooling? (Anyon article and Tozer,
422-423)
  • Study of five elementary schools in New Jersey
  • Schools serving working-class children were
  • Indifferent to academic content beyond the
    basics
  • Teachers viewed students as lazy
  • Instruction was by rote and repetition
  • Schools serving middle-class children were
  • Quality of content better
  • Instruction was better
  • Wanted students to think for themselves

5
Teachers Perceptions and Expectations play an
important role in determining educational
outcomes. (see Spring, 57)
  • Pygmalion in the Classroom Rosenthal and
    Jacobson, performed a research study in a
    classroom.
  • Would teacher expectations affect student
    performance?
  • Over the summer administered IQ tests to
    students.
  • Randomly identified some students as late
    bloomers and told teachers to expect a big boost
    in student performance in the next year.
  • Retested students at the end of the year, late
    bloomers made greater gains than non-bloomers.

6
Peoples perceptions of themselves and others are
influenced their group membership and views held
by the larger society about groups.
  • See Andersons article, The Historical Context
    for Understanding the Test Score Gap, page 20.
  • What are the consequences of stereotype threat
    in testing situations?
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vnGEUVM6QuMgfeature
    related

7
What is the effect of socially held negative
stereotypes on members of different groups
regarding confidence their abilities?
  • Social Psychology Research shows effect of
    stereotype threat in testing situation for any
    group that is negatively stereotyped.
  • Even among talented college students at Stanford
    University, if the students believed a test was a
    measure of their ability (like girls in math)
    there test score could be effected.
  • Remember the discussion of stereotyped
    threat-social psychology addressed in Professor
    Andersons article on the historical context for
    the achievement gap.

8
CULTURAL DIFFERENCE THEORYCultural difference
theory respects and values differences.
  • Cultural Mismatch- (Tozer, 421) can occur in
  • Subject matter
  • Learning styles
  • Ways of knowing and demonstrating knowledge
  • Attitudes toward authority
  • Modes of behavior
  • Socializing patterns--Speech Patterns, Manners,
    Values
  • When there is a mismatch, then some accommodation
    is needed for learning to occur.

9
  • Cultural Relevant Teaching
  • Not an easy prescriptive method of teaching.

10
  • Relevant approach for all students
  • Ladson-Billings believes that the problem for
    minority students is cultural deficit theories
    operate in schools, students feel the impact of
    subordination, structural disadvantages, and
    unequal power relations. How do we change this
    in schools and the larger society?

11
Why is Ladson-Billings concerned about the
education of minority students? African
Americans still dream of quality education for
their children.
  • Achievement gap of minority students
  • Poor outcomes for many minority students--higher
    dropout rates
  • Resegregation of schools since 1980s (de facto
    separate schools) means greater isolation for
    all students
  • Low funding in many schools serving minority
  • Few teachers of color (less than 10)
  • Lingering effects of cultural deficit theory on
    teachers (no attention to structural
    inequalities, teaching approaches, school
    practices and policies)

12
Ladson-Billings conducted a one-year study of 8
of the most successful teachers in minority
schools. What was the cultural reference of the
8 teachers in her study? 5 Black 3 White
  • 8 teachers
  • All 5 African American teachers demonstrated
    close cultural reference with the African
    American community
  • 1 white teacher had a bicultural orientation
  • 1 white teacher had a African American
    orientation
  • 1 white teacher had a white cultural reference
    BUT in school sought out African American
    teachers and encouraged students to share their
    cultural background in the classroom.

13
What does Ladson-Billings mean by the CUTLURAL
REFERENCE of the teacher?
The cultural group that the teacher most
closely identified with, who were her friends
inside and outside of school, what kinds of
social activities did she participate in, which
neighborhood and communities did she frequent.
14
According to Ladson-Billings what main views do
culturally relevant teachers hold about learning?
(Tozer, 430 and Ladson-Billings,
33)http//www.youtube.com/watch?vccEu7r2IwM0
340
  • CAUTION These look simple, but are complex
    ideas.
  • Conceptions of themselves and others.
  • Recognize that culture impacts everyones
    learning.
  • Conceptions of social relations.
  • Social relations impact motivation, why we learn,
    interpretations, how the community views the
    school.
  • Conceptions of knowledge.
  • Knowledge is constructed, useful, changing,
    linked to experiences.

15
  • Culturally Relevant Teaching is a comprehensive
    WORLD VIEW THE STARTING POINT IS CULTURAL
    DIVERSITY rather than ASSIMILATION to a dominant
    culture

16
Nappy Hair (1997) Carolivia Herron and
illustrated by Joe Cepeda
  • The book is written in the African American
    tradition of CALL AND RESPONSE. Addresses African
    heritage and slavery.

If you missed last Thursdays class, Read article
by Neal Lester Roots That Go Beyond Big Hair
and a Bad Hair Day Nappy Hair Pieces
17
At the family picnic, EVERYONE has something to
say about Brenda Her hair and her talents are a
gift from God.
18
Ladson-Billings suggests that all of us learn and
understand through cultural filters.
RECOGNIZING CULTURE AS PART OF THE PROCESS OF
LEARNING
  • Recognize the role that culture plays in how we
    see the world.
  • The way we read the world is culturally
    mediated.
  • Know thyself, and understand others.

19
Teachers need to read the world..requires that
you cross boundaries beyond your immediate
experiences.How does the culture shape
society?How do political economy and ideology
shape society?
SPECIAL INTEREST GROUPS
DEMOCRACY and DOMINANT CULTURAL IDEAS AND VALUES
RELIGIONS
POVERTY
OUR HISTORY
FAMILY
SCHOOLS
POLITICS
ECONOMY
FEDERAL STATE LAWS
DEMOGRAPHICS
20
No simple recipe Culturally Relevant Teachers
According to Ladson-Billings (E-Reserves)Two
pages in Chapter 13 See Tozer page 430 and 431
Education that is multicultural and social
reconstructionist Emphasis is on WHAT and HOW
we teach.
  • Believe in the intellectual capacity of all
    students, all students are capable of success.
  • Hold beliefs about minority students that all can
    learn (and hold them to high expectations).
  • See themselves as part of the community in which
    the students live.
  • See teaching as giving back to the community.
  • Maintain fluid, equitable teacher/students
    relationships.
  • Demonstrate a connectedness to all students.
  • Develop a community of leaders among students.
  • Encourage students to learn collaboratively
  • Is passionate about learning.
  • Views the curriculum critically.
  • Scaffolds or builds bridges that facilitates
    students learning.
  • Believes that assessment needs to be
    multifaceted.
  • Committed to providing readiness and support
    necessary for learning.

Is this just good teaching?
21
  • Ladson-Billings believes that teachers should
    not.
  • treat EQUALITY as SAMENESS.

22
What does this statement mean to you?
  • Ladson-Billings believes that culturally
    relevant teaching does not represent a kind of
    separatism, reverse racism, or special privileges
    to the African American community, but rather
    compares culturally relevant teaching to
    middle-class demands on schools to serve their
    communities.

23
http//www.youtube.com/watch?v4xP11RgMlMUfeature
relatedWhat is a Mexican? Seward School,
Chicago Michies Media Class 1990sYoutube see
bestofssn
  • Your comments on Michie
  • Imagination missing in todays classrooms
  • The question of what it means to be a good
    teacher.
  • Resist idea of a bad neighborhood
  • Make students part of school evaluation process
  • No method for teaching in urban schools
  • A walk through teacher evaluation sounds awful
  • Make connections with the students community in
    some way
  • Ask questions, be humble, and listen
  • Observe at all types of schools, observe master
    and novice teachers
  • Thankfully, my subject, history is not tested in
    schools today
  • One interesting question that did not get asked
    How does Michie feel about uncertified teachers?
    He wasnt certified when he started.
  • Spend money out of pocket for your class?

24
Can you count on being able to have these
experiences in your daily life? Yes or No?
  • I can arrange to protect my children most of the
    time from people who might not like them.

25
Can you count on being able to have these
experiences in your daily life? Yes or No?
  • I do not have to educate my children to be
    aware of systemic racism for their own daily
    physical protection.

26
White Privilege Unpacking the Invisible
Knapsack by Peggy McIntosh This article is now
considered a classic by anti-racist educators.
  • Peggy McIntosh is associate director of the
    Wellesley Collage Center for Research on Women.
  • It has been used in workshops and classes
    throughout the United States and Canada for many
    years.
  • While people of color have described for years
    how whites benefit from unearned privileges, this
    is one of the first articles written by a white
    person on the topic.

27
Can you assume?
  • 7. I can be sure that my children will be given
    curricular materials that testify to the
    existence of their race.
  • 9. I can do well in a challenging situation
    without being called a credit to my race.
  • 10. I am never asked to speak for all the people
    of my racial group.
  • 11. I can choose public accommodation without
    fearing that people of my race cannot get in or
    will be mistreated in the place I have chosen.

28
Daily effects of white privilegeProfessor Peggy
McIntosh (1988)
  • I decided to try to work on myself at least by
    identifying some of the daily effects of white
    privilege in my life.
  • I have chosen those conditions that I think in
    my case attach somewhat more to skin-color
    privilege than to class, religion, ethnic status,
    or geographic location, though of course all
    these other factors are intricately intertwined.

29
MEMBERS OF MAINSTREAMGENERALLY HAVE..a free
pass in many civic, social, political, economic,
educational activities-- and ideology is kind and
generous to members.
  • But I have worked hard to get where I am
    today.

30
  • History contains blatant racism, sexism,
    classism, disable-ism
  • Today, there are both visible and invisible (very
    subtle) differences in treatment in society and
    in schools.
  • Visiblewhen disability is not accommodated in
    schools, when anti-Catholic stories are in
    textbooks, when no women or minority authors are
    read in literature classes (if authors are
    absent the assumption is that no good literature
    is produced by that group)
  • Invisible--

OK, so it is not really invisible just hard to
see, HIDDEN CURRICULUM (so embedded) unless you
are looking, using a critical eye. Authoritarian
teaching approaches for some students, how rules
are enforced, who has the best teachers and most
motivating classes.
31
CULTURE AS NORMS It determines the meaning of
rituals, success, manners, behaviors, language,
social status, ethnicity, gender --all meaning
  • Definition You are part of mainstream American
    culture if you
  • Act and PERCIEVED like a member
  • Have income for the lifestyle
  • Internalize its core values
  • Have ready access to participate in institutions
  • Speak English
  • Accept a mainstream identity

Can teachers build a bridge between cultures? Can
students respect the mainstream and their
own culture?
32
  • How much cultural uniformity is needed to be
    successful in mainstream culture?
  • How much respect is given to cultural difference
    today?
  • In Schools Can students learn in an environment
    where they have to reject their home culture? Or
    if their culture or identity is disrespected?

33
What does Ladson Billings mean bydysconsciousnes
s?
  • Dysconsciousness means, as teachers, we
    recognize the privilege of some children and the
    disadvantage for other children, but we fail to
    challenge the status quo, or accept PRIVILEGES
    FOR SOME AS A GIVEN OR INEVITABLE
    (Ladson-Billings, 32).
  • ENID LEE suggests challenging the status quo in
    schools
  • Curriculum changes that study the SOURCES of
    discrimination
  • Involving students in social change in their
    neighborhoods
  • Giving minority parents more voice in school
    decisions
  • Examining who is hired at a school
  • Equipping students and parents to combat racism
    and ethnic discrimination.

34
Multicultural Approaches to Teaching
  • Enid Lee suggests that Anti-Racist, Multicultural
    Education means to examine the biases of our own
    education,
  • Examine what is considered normal (Is normal
    excluding some people?).
  • Ask Who benefits from the status quo? How can
    more people benefit from social institutions?

35
Enid Lee suggests how to implement a more
multicultural, anti-racist education.
Implement in stages
  • Surface stagemore expressions of culture within
    the school and begin to transform the curriculum
  • Transitional stagecreate units of instruction on
    that address different cultural groups
  • Structural changesintegrate units on different
    cultures into the regular curriculum
  • Social changecreate a curriculum that helps to
    lead changes outside the school (Such as media
    literacy studies-- how does the media portray
    different people? Study health conditions of a
    neighborhood)

36
Critical Theorists believe that
  • Many people experience institutions differently
    based on group membership.
  • Cultural Subordination Theory helps us to examine
    inequalities structured in the social system,
    differences in power between superior and
    inferior and what it means in schools.
  • Examine the social processes lead to the lower
    status of certain groups.

37
Pluralist Approach to Curriculum for All
StudentsExample of recent changes in how history
is taught. More inclusive of diverse experiences,
but still room for improvement.
Critical Theorists Seek Pluralism For ALL
38
Two documentaries were made on Jane Elliots Eye
Discrimination Experiment
39
Chapter 13 Teacher Jane Elliot Tozer 414-416
What happened during the two-day experiment?
SUPERIOR INFERIOR
40
Jane Elliots Eye Discrimination DayYou can view
Eye of the Storm and A Class Divided on YouTube
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vJCjDxAwfXV0
Part 1http//www.youtube.com/watch?v43-QAvekTpU
Part 3 610
41
Humanist Approach IndividualsCritical Theory
Change Racist Structures
  • Define Colorblind Can be thought of several
    ways.
  • As a positive, Human Relations Approach What are
    the main goals of Jane Elliots approach to
    discrimination?
  • Students learn about discrimination, become
    tolerant.
  • The experience changes some individuals
  • Not to be prejudiced. Not to see color as a
    negative status. Not to see white as superior.
    Not to treat students any differently because of
    their color. (like Jane Elliot for her
    students, see Tozer, 431)
  • As an absolute Everyone is just the same, no
    differences.

42
What assumptions operated in Jane Elliots class?
One group was inferior to the other.
One group had power over the other.Negative
impact of blatant discrimination.
  • Superior group was
  • Entitled to special privileges
  • Given positive encouragement for learning
  • A group that was assigned positive attributes
  • Individual members behavior was attributed to
    group membership
  • Could students in the bottom group ever change
    their lower status?

43
How are groups perceived in society?How do
perceptions influence teachers?
  • Social perception comes in part from our
    membership in groups.--American, New Englander,
    Irish-American, women, working class, teacher
  • GROUPS DO SHARE SOME CHARACTERISTICS
    Generalizations are limited.
  • BUT SOCIAL STEREOTYPES OF GROUPS ARE LIMITING
    When stereotyped, a person takes on all
    attributes of a group, there is no individualism,
    and no personal knowledge is considered.

44
What occurred in Elliots class? Teacher as
Wicked Witch of the East? --She was a mean
individual? OR, as a teacher with power and
authority in school is she adopting the
prejudices of the larger society? Her aim TO
TEACH TOLERANCE TO INDIVIDUALS Are changes to
minds or structures more important to effect real
long-term changes in society? What would
critical theorist say?
45
Compare Approaches to Discrimination1. Human
Relations (Tozer, 431) Jane Elliot2. Critical
Theory (Tozer, 419-424, Ladson-Billings, Enid Lee
(Tenorio article), and Kohl
  • .
  • What are the main goals of critical educators
    like Lee or Ladson-Billings?
  • Show how cultural differences matter in
    teaching and learning.
  • Create a more inclusive, multicultural
    curriculum.
  • Examine and change discriminatory school
    structures.
  • Equip students to combat discrimination.
  • Provide a high
    level of education and social awareness.
  • Change school structures.
  • Change
    institutions and power relations.

46
What are the main goals of a critical educator
like Ladson-Billings?
Make schools work well for all students.
  • Critical Theory challenges
  • Negative stereotypes
  • Cultural deficit views
  • Political, social, and economic arrangements in
    the larger society that cause inequalities in all
    aspects of life.
  • Not considering the impact of subordination
    like the response of resistance
  • CHANGING SCHOOLS

47
  • Critical theory differs from liberal theories
    that take for granted the existing social
    arrangement when it
  • a) calls into question the whole social order.
  • b) places the concept of power relations at the
    center of the problems between rich and poor,
    mainstream and subordinate groups.
  • c) examines the power relationship between the
    childs culture and the school culture.
  • d) seeks to serve the needs of the child and
    legitimate interests of the larger society.
  • e) All of the above are correct.

48
An example in Kohl showing why somestudents
resist school (26).
  • Kohl was consulting for a school in San Antonio
    that had a large Mexican American population with
    a high failure rate.
  • Few Latino teachers, no Latino administrators.
  • He observes in a History Classa Lesson on The
    first people to settle Texas (arrived from New
    England and the South)
  • Kohl challenged the textbooks assumptions, and
    then engaged students in conversation about
    racism within the textbooks and the school.

49
Resistance Theory (Tozer, 424 and
Kohl)Students reject negative environments and
reject opportunities in schools in order to
preserve their identity and cultural connections.
  • When students experience discriminatory
    practices, some students retreat into a posture
    of resistance, a conscious refusal to learn.
  • Cooperation in schools means capitulating to an
    alien culture.
  • Resistance in school is self-destructive at one
    level--a foregoing an education but it preserves
    the integrity of subordinate cultural identity.

50
According to Kohl what is meant by
  • Failing to learn?
  • Tried and failed for different reasonsteaching
    approaches, materials, readiness skills.
  • Not learning?
  • Willfully choosing not to learn because of a
    challenge to self-respect, self-identity,
    cultural integrity, or loyalty to family or
    group.
  • Kohl acknowledges the essential role of free will
    in learning.

51
Resistance by many students is a response to
subordinate status in society and school.
  • Deciding to actively not-learn something involves
    closing off part of oneself and limiting ones
    experiences (Kohl, 106).
  • As a teacher, Kohl assumes that there are complex
    factors behind apparent failure to learn, which
    could be used to transform the situation into
    positive learning (Kohl, 107).
  • Kohl concludes thatteachers need to understand
    why not-learning occurs, and education needs to
    be built on the hard truth of the experiences of
    our students in society (Kohl, 120)
  • Teachers should seek ways to address
    discrimination and racism as it connects to the
    students lives, as it functions in schools and
    operates throughout the curriculum.

52
Summary-- Chapter 13 and Lee, Ladson-Billings,
and Kohl Readings What theories contribute to
answering these complex questions about teaching
and learning?
  • Teachers ask themselves these questions
  • What are the learning styles of my students?
  • How can I learn more about my students?
  • Why do students behave this way?
  • Why do students fail to read? Fail to achieve in
    school?
  • What interventions might have a positive impact
    on student performance?
  • How do conditions in the larger society shape my
    thinking and my students thinking?
  • At an institutional level
  • How can schools change the outcomes for students?
  • How can schools change the general pattern of
    social reproduction?
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