Phylogeny and Systematics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Phylogeny and Systematics PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 46a37c-YjU2Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Phylogeny and Systematics

Description:

In constructing phylogenies Fossil Records Systematics Morhphological resemblances Molecular systematics Classification and Evolutionary History Taxonomy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:77
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 13
Provided by: monkem
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Phylogeny and Systematics


1
Phylogeny and Systematics
  • AP Biology 2012
  • Monkemeier

2
Phylogeny
  • The evolutionary history of a species or a group
    of species.
  • In constructing phylogenies
  • Fossil Records
  • Systematics
  • Morhphological resemblances
  • Molecular systematics

3
Classification and Evolutionary History
  • Taxonomy an ordered division of organisms into
    categories based on a set of characteristics used
    to assess similarities and differences.
  • Binomial Nomenclature
  • Hierarchical classification Domain, Kingdom, etc

4
Cladogram
  • A diagram that that shows patterns of shared
    characteristics between organisms.
  • If the shared characteristics between organisms
    are due to a common ancestry than the cladogram
    forms the basis of a phylogenetic tree.
  • Clade (a branch) a group of species that
    includes an ancestral species and all its
    descendents.

5
Showing Relationships
  • Homologous Structures Corresponding organs and
    other body parts that are alike in basic
    structure and origin.
  • Shared Derived Characters specific modifications
    of homologous structures unique to a particular
    clade.

6
How to Build a Cladogram
  • How to Build a Cladogram

7
Cladograms -
  • A valid Clade is monophyletic.
  • Monophyletic conisists of the ancestral species
    and all of its descendants.

8
Paraphyletic
  • A Grouping that consists of an ancestral species
    and some, but not all, of the descendants.

9
Polyphyletic
  • Polyphyletic a grouping of several species that
    lack a common ancestor.

10
Phylogenetic Trees Depict hypotheses about
evolutionary relationships.
  • Taxon biological unit species, family, kingdom,
    etc.
  • Branches represent the pathway that traces the
    proposed evolutionary history of the lineages
  • Nodes represent hypothetical ancestors of the
    descendant clades (more technical language,
    clades being a group of taxa) of that node
  • Dades Pairs of Taxa
  • Outgroup the taxon used to act as a basis for
    the analysis that produced the tree

11
Interpreting a Phylogenetic Tree
  • Taxons A and B did not evolve more recently than
    Taxons E and F.
  • The common ancestor of E, F preceded the last
    common ancestor of A and B
  • The sequence of the branching does not indicate
    actual ages of the particular species.

12
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com