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The Realities and Challenges of Cyber Crime and Cyber Security in Africa

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Title: The Realities and Challenges of Cyber Crime and Cyber Security in Africa


1
The Realities and Challenges of Cyber Crime and
Cyber Security in Africa
  • Prof Raymond Akwule
  • President/CEO
  • Digital Bridge Institute
  • 2011 Workshop on Cyber Security and Global
    Affairs
  • With focus on
  • International Cyber Security Governance, Human
    Factors, Policies and Technologies
  • DBH, Budapest, Hungary
  • May 31 to Jun 2, 2011

2
The Dilemma of the Information Society
  • The benefits of the Information Society are well
    known
  • But the Information society has also created the
    new problems of Cyber Crime and Cyber Security

3
Cybercrime and Cyber Security in the Information
Society
  • Definition
  • Cybercrime -- all criminal offences which are
    committed with the aid of, or targeted at,
    communication devices in a network. This can be
    for example the Internet, the telephone line or
    the mobile network.

4
Cybercrime and Cyber Security in the Information
Society
  • Why are Cyber Crimes on the Rise?
  • 1. They are easy to learn how to commit
  • 2. They require few resources relative to the
    potential damage caused
  • 3. They can be committed in a jurisdiction
    without being physically present in it
  • 4. They are often not clearly illegal.

5
Issues and Challenges of Cyber security in Africa
  • Internet penetration is still relatively low but
    it is growing in Africa
  • Broadband penetration is very low
  • Mobile Telecommunications is growing
    exponentially

6
Issues and Challenges of Cyber Security in African
  • Increasingly more Cybercrimes are perpetrated
    through mobile phones
  • Social networking is on the rise and increasingly
    cybercrimes are perpetrated through the social
    networks (facebook, etc)
  • Cyber criminals target people inside and outside
    their national boundaries

7
Issues and Challenges of Cyber Security in African
  • Cloud computing is just being introduced into the
    continent but it has met with a lot of
    skepticism.
  • Uncertainty about cloud security is evident in a
    Global Risk Survey by IBMs Institute for
    Business Value, with 77 of respondents believing
    cloud made protecting privacy more difficult and
    50 expressing worries about data breach or loss.
    In a further IBM survey 66 cite security as
    their top concern when considering cloud.
  • The good news is that enterprises and governments
    around the world are addressing clouds privacy,
    authentication and security issues, and turning
    the promise of cloud computing into reality .

8
Cyber Security Initiatives in Africa
  • The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
    (UNECA) is addressing cyber security within the
    framework of African Information Society
    Initiative (AISI). It advocates coherent and
    coordinated continental and regional approach to
    cyber security, as well as enhanced consideration
    of the issue in national ICT and Information
    Society strategies and action plans.

9
Cyber security Initiatives in Africa
  • According to the UNECA, African governments are
    demonstrating increased awareness of cyber
    security issues, but existing capability to
    deter, monitor or pursue cyber security is
    relatively low. The UNECA cyber security
    initiative is implemented in cooperation with the
    African Union in order to arrive at harmonized
    legal framework, and especially with guidelines
    on Cyber crime Personal data protection
    Electronic transactions e-Signature /
    Certification Cyber security.

10
Cyber security Initiatives for Africa
  • CTOs Cyber security Forum 2011 aims to build on
    the achievements made in 2010 by encouraging a
    discourse on Cyber security between principal
    policy makers and ICT regulators from across the
    Commonwealth, particularly from Africa, with
    Global experts. The event will examine eight
    critical aspects of Cyber security
  • Protecting Government networks
  • Protecting banking networks
  • International Cooperation
  • Protection of children online
  • Security in the Cloud
  • SPAM
  • Identity theft and data protection
  • Privacy on the Net

11
Cyber security Initiatives in Africa
  • Mauritius adopted a holistic approach in ensuring
    cyber security as the country views ICT as a
    pillar of national development and plans to make
    the country a national ICT hub.
  • The countrys National Information Security
    Strategic Plan is a part of the National
    Information Communication Technologies Strategic
    Plan 2007 2011 and Mauritius has set up a
    comprehensive legal framework along with an
    implementation and institutional framework.
  • Enforcement has been improved with the setting up
    of the Police Cyber crime unit in 2000 and the
    CERT-Mu in 2008.

12
Cyber security Initiatives in Africa
  • The cyber security taskforce of East African
    Communications Organization (EACO) consisting of
    ICT Regulators and Operators of Kenya Uganda and
    Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi, was formed in 2008
    to coordinate the development and of a cyber
    security management framework for the EACO
    region.
  • It is tasked with establishment of national
    CERTs, coordinating responses to cyber security
    incidents at the regional level establishing
    regional and international partnership and
    providing Regional Cyber security Incident
    Reports annually to the EACO member countries.

13
Cyber security Initiatives in Africa
  • Managing Cyber security in the EACO member
    countries is hampered by the lack of policy,
    legal and regulatory frameworks lack of national
    security management frameworks and limited cyber
    security awareness among other factors

14
Conclusions/Recommendations
  • African governments are demonstrating increased
    awareness of cyber security issues, but existing
    capability to deter, monitor or pursue cyber
    security is relatively low. Efforts to promote
    cyber security should focus on the following
  • Create awareness and build capacity of key
    decision-makers to implement robust Cybersecurity
    frameworks
  • Help identify resilient technical measures,
    appropriate organizational structures and strong
    laws and regulations
  • Facilitate partnerships between different
    stakeholders to facilitate the flow of
    information, expertise and resources
  • Promote international cooperation

15
Conclusions/Recommendations
  • Efforts to promote cyber security in Africa
    should specifically target the following
  • Capacity Building
  • International Cooperation
  • Security for Mobile communications
  • Establishment of Policy and Legal frameworks
  • Protection of children online
  • Security in the Cloud
  • Identity theft and data protection
  • Privacy on the Net

16
Thank You!!!
  • Prof Raymond Akwule
  • President, Digital Bridge Institute
  • rakwule_at_dbieducation.org
  • rakwule_at_yahoo.com

17
Cybercrime and Cyber Security in the Information
Society
  • Types of Cybercrime
  • Auction Fraud
  • Auction Fraud Romania
  • Counterfeit Cashier's Check
  • Credit Card Fraud
  • Debt Elimination
  • Parcel Courier Email Scheme
  • Employment/Business Opportunities
  • Escrow Services Fraud
  • Identity Theft
  • Internet Extortion
  • Investment Fraud
  • Lotteries
  • Nigerian Letter or "419"
  • Phishing/Spoofing
  • Ponzi/Pyramid
  • Reshipping

18
Top Ten Countries (Cyber Crime Perpetrators)
  • 2008
  • 1. United States 66.1
  • 2. United Kingdom 10.5
  • 3. Nigeria 7.5
  • 4. Canada 3.1
  • 5. China 1.6
  • 6. South Africa 0.7
  • 7. Ghana 0.6
  • 8. Spain 0.6
  • 9. Italy 0.5
  • 10. Romania 0.5
  • 2010
  • 1. United States 91.2
  • 2. Canada 1.5
  • 3. United Kingdom 1.0
  • 4. Australia 0.7
  • 5. India 0.5
  • 6. South Africa 0.2
  • 7. Germany 0.2
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