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Safer and Healthier Foods

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Milk is important for getting calcium-rich foods, ... noted the adulteration of food with fillers, as did Pliny the Elder (AD 23-79), and author of Natural History. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safer and Healthier Foods


1
Safer and Healthier Foods
Milestones in Public Health Chapter 7
Lectures for Medical and Clinical Education
January 2011
2
Learning Objectives
  • Discuss the role of advocacy in raising awareness
    of food safety
  • Describe the role of food fortification in public
    health
  • Explain the U.S. public health food safety
    infrastructure
  • Describe current U.S. food safety issues
  • Discuss foodborne gastrointestinal infections
  • Describe the causes, symptoms, and impact of E.
    coli on public health
  • Identify the USDA food pyramid

3
Lecture Outline
  • Looking Back
  • The U.S. Food Safety System
  • Current U.S. Food Safety Issues
  • Nutrition Labeling and Food Packaging
  • Looking Ahead

4
Safer and Healthier Foods
  • Looking Back

5
Looking Back
  • Up until the dawn of modern medicine, people did
    not
  • differentiate between food and medicine. Around
    460
  • BC, Hippocrates recognized the essential
    relationship
  • between food and health, and urged others to
    closely
  • study the daily dietary regimens he associated
  • with good health.
  • Galen (AD 131-201), a Greek physician, warned
    about the common adulteration of food, and
    advocated moderation as the principal rule for a
    sound diet.

Pfizer Inc. (2006). Chapter 7 Safer and
healthier foods. In Milestones in public health
Accomplishments in public health over the last
100 years. (p. 124). New York, NY Pfizer Inc.
6
Looking Back (Cont.)
  • During the Middle Ages in Europe, trade guilds
    regulated food products, and oversaw bakers,
    butchers, cooks, grocers, fruiters, poulters and
    salters
  • Guilds had the power to search the premises and
    seize unwholesome products, regulating the
    marketing of food to the public

7
Looking Back (Cont.)
  • In 1820, Frederick Accum published the treatise
    on Adulteration of Food and Culinary Poison, a
    milestone publication in exposing the nature,
    dangers and extent of food adulteration
  • Accum may represent the first food-safety person
    to promote public education efforts through means
    of mass communication available at his time

8
Looking Back (Cont.)
  • In 1879, Peter Collier, chief chemist at the
    Department of Agriculture, proposed the Pure Food
    and Drugs Act
  • The legislature did not approve the act until
    1906, following concerted advocacy by organized
    medicine, womens groups, the press and state
    public health officials
  • Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle, which exposed
    unsanitary conditions in the meatpacking
    industry, aided advocates in their efforts

9
Looking Back (Cont.)
10
Looking Back (Cont.)
  • Food fortification Iodized salt
  • Iodine deficiency can cause goiter, a swelling of
    the thyroid gland
  • In 1924, food fortification began in the United
    States with the introduction of iodized salt in
    Michigan
  • Following the nationwide introduction of iodized
    salt , iodine deficiency disappeared as a serious
    health threat by the 1930s

11
Looking Back (Cont.)
  • Food fortification Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
  • Niacin deficiency can result in Pellagra, which
    presents with dermatitis, diarrhea, inflamed
    mucous membranes, and in severe cases, dementia
  • Niacin is found in a variety of foods such as
    chicken, beef, liver, fish, cereal, peanuts and
    legumes

12
Looking Back (Cont.)
  • Pellagra flares up when the skin is exposed to
    strong sunlight
  • In southern states in the late 1920s pellagra
    represented a leading cause of death
  • In the 1930s bakers began introducing Niacin
    into bread

13
Safer and Healthier Foods
  • The U.S. Food Safety System

14
The U.S. Food Safety System
  • In the current federal food-safety system, 12
    different agencies enforce 35 different statues,
    which can lead to conflicts over turf that can
    potentially interfere with enforcement and
    prevention efforts

15
The U.S. Food Safety System (Cont.)
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S.
    Department of Health and Human Services
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Food Safety Inspection Service
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC),
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
  • Office of Homeland Security
  • U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT)
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
  • State and local health departments

16
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • FDA regulates 417 billion worth of
  • domestic food and 49 billion worth of
  • imported food each yeareverything
  • we eat except for meat, poultry,
  • and some egg products, which are
  • regulated by the U.S. Department of
  • Agriculture.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Food
Protection Plan. Retrieved June 7, 2010 from
http//www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodSafetyProgr
ams/FoodProtectionPlan2007/default.htm
17
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level (Cont.)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
    (HACCP)
  • A management system in which food safety is
    addressed through the analysis and control of
    biological, chemical, and physical hazards from
    raw material production, procurement and
    handling, to manufacturing, distribution and
    consumption of the finished product

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Hazard
Analysis Critical Control Points. Retrieved June
7, 2010 from http//www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/H
azardAnalysisCriticalControlPointsHACCP/default.ht
m
18
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level (Cont.)
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)
    is the public health agency in the USDA
    responsible for ensuring that the nation's
    commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg
    products is safe, wholesome, and correctly
    labeled and packaged

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2010). Food
Safety and Inspection Service. Retrieved June 7,
2010 from http//www.fsis.usda.gov/About_FSIS/inde
x.asp
19
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level (Cont.)
  • USDA, The Food Safety and Inspection Service
    (FSIS)
  • Presently the FSIS lacks a comprehensive national
    regulatory program that governs the handling of
    poultry, egg, and meat products once they leave
    the leave a regulated plant
  • As of now, a mishmash of state and local
    regulations govern the transportation of these
    perishable foods from the time they leave the
    plant to the time they reach the consumer

Pfizer Inc. (2006). Chapter 7 Safer and
healthier foods. In Milestones in public health
Accomplishments in public health over the last
100 years. (p. 144). New York, NY Pfizer Inc.
20
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level (Cont.)
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Under the 2002 Bioterrorism Act, the USDA
    collaborates with the Department of Homeland
    Security in protecting the public from suspect
    foods and in securing the U.S. food
    infrastructure.

21
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level (Cont.)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    (CDC)
  • Surveillance Systems
  • FoodNet
  • PulseNet
  • Environmental Health Specialists (EHS-Net)

22
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level (Cont.)
  • FoodNet, CDC an active surveillance system
    providing comprehensive and timely data on 9
    foodborne diseases. Routinely contacts all
    clinical laboratories in the 10 Foodnet sites to
    collect information on every laboratory-confirmed
    case under surveillance
  • Monitors trends and illness to specific locations
    and foods, permitting Foodnet and its partners to
    implement and assess interventions at many points
    in the farm to table continuum

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
(n.d.). Foodnet Brochure. Retrieved June 8, 2010
from http//www.cdc.gov/foodnet/foodnet_brochure.p
df
23
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level (Cont.)
  • Pulsenet, CDC a national network of public
    health and food regulatory agency laboratories
    coordinated by the Centers for Disease Control
    and Prevention (CDC) consisting of state health
    departments, local health departments, and
    federal agencies (USDA/FSIS, FDA)
  • PulseNet participants perform standardized
    molecular subtyping (or fingerprinting) of
    foodborne disease-causing bacteria by
    pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). PFGE
    can be used to distinguish strains of organisms
    such as Escherichia coli O157H7, Salmonella,
    Shigella, Listeria, or Campylobacter at the DNA
    level

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
(2009). CDC Pulsenet. Retrieved June 8, 2010 from
http//www.cdc.gov/pulsenet/
24
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level (Cont.)
  • Environmental Health Specialists Network
    (EHS-Net), CDC
  • A collaborative forum of environmental health
    specialists whose mission is to improve
    environmental health. These specialists
    collaborate with epidemiologists and
    laboratorians to identify and prevent
    environmental factors contributing to foodborne
    and waterborne illness and disease outbreaks

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
(2009). CDC EHS-Net. Retrieved June 8, 2010 from
http//www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/EHSNet/
25
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level (Cont.)
Environmental Health Specialists Network
(EHS-Net), CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
(2009). CDC EHS-Net. Retrieved June 8, 2010 from
http//www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/EHSNet/
26
The U.S. Food Safety System Federal Level (Cont.)
  • The U.S. Department of Transportation
  • (DOT)
  • Regulates conditions for the transport of
    eligible products
  • In 1994, Congress approved a transportation bill
    that contained provisions addressing the sanitary
    transportation of food (e.g. the proper
    temperature of refrigerated trucks transporting
    food)

27
The U.S. Food Safety System State Level
  • Mandatory certification for managers of
  • food service operations is present in
  • some states, not all
  • According to CDC and FDA, establishments without
    a certified manager are more likely to be
    associated with food-borne outbreaks

28
Safer and Healthier Foods
  • Current U.S. Food Safety Issues

29
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues
  • Importing of foods from countries with less
    stringent food safety standards
  • Overabundance of sugar, salt, and hydrogenated
    oils over-indulgence in processed foods and
    control of portion size
  • Combined with a sedentary lifestyle, leads to
    increased incidence of chronic disease that
    disproportionately affects vulnerable populations

30
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues Food-Borne
Illnesses
  • Food-borne Illnesses
  • Symptoms Ranging from mild to serious, in many
    cases resemble intestinal flu and may last a few
    hours or even several days
  • abdominal cramps
  • fever
  • dehydration
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea, which is sometimes bloody

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2010 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
31
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues Food-Borne
Illnesses (Cont.)
  • Food-borne Illnesses
  • Vulnerable Populations, including young
    children, pregnant women and their fetuses, and
    older adults, are at greatest risk due to age and
    or state of immune system.

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2010 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
32
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues Food-Borne
Illnesses (Cont.)
  • Food-borne Illnesses
  • Public Health Impact
  • Each year approximately 76 million cases of
    food-borne diseases occur in the U.S.
  • Each year, food-borne illnesses causes more than
    300,000 hospitalizations and an estimated 5,000
    deaths

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2010 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
33
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues Food-Borne
Illnesses (Cont.)
  • Raw foods are the most common source of
    foodborne illnesses
  • Raw meat and poultry contaminated during
    slaughter
  • Seafood contaminated during harvesting/processing

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2010 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
34
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues Food-Borne
Illnesses (Cont.)
  • Food-borne illnesses
  • Causes
  • Caused by eating food or drinking beverages
    contaminated with bacteria, parasites, viruses or
    harmful chemicals

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2010 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
35
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues Food-Borne
Illnesses (Cont.)
  • Food-borne Illnesses
  • Causes
  • Bacteria are the most common cause of foodborne
    illnesses
  • Contamination can take place during growing,
    harvesting, processing, storing, shipping or
    final preparation

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2010 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
36
U.S. Food Safety Issues Food-Borne Illnesses
(Cont.)
  • Food-borne illnesses
  • Causes
  • Bacteria O157H7 (E. coli), Campylobacter
    jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus,
    Shigella, Salmonella
  • Parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichinella
  • Viruses Hepatitis A, Noroviruses

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2010 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
37
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues Food-Borne
Illnesses (Cont.)
  • Food-borne Illnesses
  • Diagnosis
  • Food intake history
  • Examination of the feces
  • Examination of the suspected food (bacterial
    toxins, viruses and parasites)

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2010 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
38
Current U.S. Food Safety Issues Food-borne
Illnesses (Cont.)
  • Food-borne illnesses
  • Sources
  • Bacteria O157H7 (E. coli), Campylobacter
    jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus,
    Shigella, Salmonella
  • Parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Trichinella
  • Viruses Hepatitis A, Noroviruses

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2010 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
39
Eschirichia coli O157H7
  • First recognized as a pathogen in 1982 during an
    outbreak investigation of hemorrhagic colitis
  • Between 1982 and 2002, 49 states reported 350
    outbreaks, representing 8,598 cases, 1,493 (17)
    hospitalizations, 354 (4) hemolytic uremic
    syndrome cases, and 40 (0.5) deaths
  • Transmission route for 183 outbreaks (52) was
    foodborne
  • 75 (41) of the foodborne outbreaks were due to
    contaminated ground beef, and for 38 (21)
    outbreaks, produce

Rangel, J.M., Sparling, P.H., Crowe , C.,
Griffin, P.M., Swerdlow, D.L. (2005, April).
Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157H7
outbreaks, United States, 19822002. Emerging
Infectious Diseases. Retrieved from
http//www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no04/04-0739.ht
m
40
Eschirichia coli O157H7 (Cont.)
  • Annually causes 73,000 illnesses in the U.S.
  • Majority of reported U.S. cases transmitted
    through food
  • Majority of food-borne outbreaks attributed to
    ground beef
  • Symptoms bloody diarrhea, severe abdominal
    cramps, fever, profound toxicity
  • May produce hemolytic uremic syndrome
  • Antibiotics not known to be effective

Rangel, J.M., Sparling, P.H., Crowe , C.,
Griffin, P.M., Swerdlow, D.L. (2005, April).
Epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157H7
outbreaks, United States, 19822002. Emerging
Infectious Diseases. Retrieved from
http//www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol11no04/04-0739.ht
m
Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.). (pp.619). Rochester, MNInforma
Healthcare
41
Eschirichia coli O157H7 (Cont.)
  • Meat becomes contaminated from cattle feces and
    cattle intestinal tract which contain E. coli

42
Eschirichia coli O157H7 and Food Safety
Inspection
  • FDAs Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
    (HAACP)
  • requires microbial testing to detect E. coli and
    Salmonella
  • PulseNet, CDC
  • Network of state public health laboratories
    throughout the country that fingerprint E. coli
    O157H7
  • Matching fingerprints among different victims
    of an outbreak permits a focused investigation

43
Preventing Eschirichia coli O157H7
  • Consumers
  • urged to cook hamburgers well-done, with internal
    temperatures over 155 degrees Fahrenheit
  • Meat industry
  • sprays cattle with milk-based substance that
    appears to kill E. coli
  • passes meat through steam cabinets in bags of hot
    water to kill bacteria
  • irradiation

44
Preventing Eschirichia coli O157H7 (Cont.)
  • Researchers
  • Dr. James Russell recommends feeding cattle hay
    in order to change pH balance of cattle stomachs
    to prevent growth of E. coli
  • Meat industry resists feeding cattle due to
    increased cost from hay in comparison to corn

Pfizer Inc. (2006). Chapter 7 Safer and
healthier foods. In Milestones in public health
Accomplishments in public health over the last
100 years. (p. 136). New York, NY Pfizer Inc.
45
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni)
  • Associated with consumption of unpasturized dairy
    products and poultry
  • Incidence peaks in summer to late fall
  • 10-30 of Guillain-Barre syndrome are preceded by
    C. jejuni infection
  • Invasive diarrhea, may be bloody, associated with
    fever
  • Diagnosis by isolation of organism from stool
  • Treatment Erythromycin/supportive care

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.), (p.618). Rochester, MN Informa
Healthcare
46
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)
  • Preformed toxin ingested from contaminated food
  • Onset is abrupt (2-6 hours after ingestion)
  • Severe vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps
  • Duration of infection 8-24 hours
  • Diagnosis based on rapidity of onset, presence of
    fever and history
  • Treatment supportive care

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.), (p.618). Rochester, MN Informa
Healthcare
47
Clostridium perfringens
  • Associated with toxins formed in vivo, often in
    improperly stored and prepared foods (poultry and
    meat products)
  • Toxin is destroyed in precooked food, but spores
    may survive and can germinate in rewarmed food
  • Toxin is produced when food is ingested
  • Associated with diarrhea (worse than vomiting),
    vomiting, and prominent abdominal cramping
  • Diagnosis based on later onset of symptoms than
    S. aureus and gram stain/culture of food
  • Treatment supportive care

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.), (p.618). Rochester, MN Informa
Healthcare
48
Bacillus cereus
  • Associated with two types of food poisoning
  • 1. Short incubation period (1-6 hours)
  • Associated with ingestion of preformed toxin
    (usually in fried rice)
  • Diarrhea
  • 2. Longer incubation period (8-16 hours) post
    consumption of meat or vegetables
  • Diarrhea
  • Diagnosis by isolation of organism from food
  • Treatment supportive care

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN Informa
Healthcare
49
Vibrio cholerae
  • Causes toxigenic bacterial diarrheal disease
  • Associated with ingestion of undercooked
    shellfish
  • Treatment fluid replacement (mainstay)
  • Tetracyclene shortens the duration of the disease

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN Informa
Healthcare
50
Shigella species
  • Often acquired outside the U.S.
  • Associated with drinking/eating contaminated
    water/food
  • Bloody diarrhea, bacteremia may occur, associated
    with fever
  • May precede onset of Reiters syndrome in
    individuals with HLA-B2 and group B Shigella
    flexneri
  • Treatment Ampicillin (resistant strains are
    common), Norfloxacin or Ciprofloxacin

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN Informa
Healthcare
51
Salmonella (non-typhi)
  • Associated with eating contaminated foods or with
    exposure to reptiles (pet iguanas, turtles)
  • Common cause of severe diarrhea (often
    non-bloody) and may cause septicemia in patients
    with sickle cell anemia or AIDS
  • Can lead to seeding of abdominal plaques yielding
    mycotic anuerysms
  • Diagnosed through stool culture
  • Treatment supportive care

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN Informa
Healthcare
52
Vibrio vulnificus
  • Associated with eating raw oysters
  • Associated with bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and
    cellulitis (bullous skin lesions)
  • Occurs in people with cirrhosis and the
    immunocompromised
  • Incubation period 18 hours
  • High mortality rate
  • Treatment for uncomplicated gastroenteritis,
    supportive care

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN Informa
Healthcare
53
Vibrio parahemolyticus
  • Associated with eating undercooked shellfish
  • Acute onset of explosive diarrhea, watery
    diarrhea and fever
  • Diagnosed through stool culture
  • Treatment supportive care

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN Informa
Healthcare
54
Viral diarrhea, Noroviruses
  • Common cause of epidemic diarrhea and winter
    vomiting among children and adults
  • Self-limited (lt36 hours)
  • Occurs in families, communities, and institutions
  • Associated with ingestion of shellfish,
    undercooked fish, cake frosting, salads and
    contaminated water
  • Cause up to 10 of gastroenteritis outbreaks
  • Cause outbreaks in entire communities and on
    cruise ships
  • Treatment supportive care

Virk, A., Orenstein, R., Estes, L., Wilson, J.W.,
Virk, A. (2008). Infectious Diseases. In Ghosh
A., (Ed), Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine Review,
(8th ed.), (p.619). Rochester, MN Informa
Healthcare
55
Safer and Healthier Foods
  • Nutrition Labeling and Food Packaging

56

57
USDA Food Pyramid

58
Safer and Healthier Foods
  • Looking Ahead

59
Looking Ahead How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply
  • Irradiation
  • The treatment of food with x-rays, gamma rays or
    electron beams as a means of cold pasteurization
  • This process destroys living bacteria to control
    foodborne illnesses

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2008 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
60
Looking Ahead How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply
(Cont.)
  • Irradiation
  • The U.S. employs gamma rays, which are similar to
    miccrowaves and ultraviolet light and pass
    through food with no residue
  • Food irradiation is approved for dry or
    dehydrated products, whole fresh fruits,
    potatoes, wheat, seasonings, spices, poultry,
    red meats and pork

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2008 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
61
Looking Ahead How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply
(Cont.)
  • Irradiation
  • Irradiation destroys many bacteria but does not
    sterilize food
  • To safeguard against any surviving organisms,
    consumers must continue to take precautions
    against foodborne illnesses

National Digestive Diseases Clearing House.
(n.d.). Bacteria and Foodborne Illness.
Retrieved August 29, 2008 from
http//digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/bact
eria/
62
Looking Ahead How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply
(Cont.)
  • Regulation
  • The presence of resistant strains of Salmonella
    and other food-borne pathogens results from
    sub-therapeutic antibiotic doses administered by
    farmers to poultry, swine, and penned fish in
    overcrowded facilities
  • Regulators need to carefully examine antibiotic
    use by farmers

63
Looking Ahead How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply
(Cont.)
  • Genetic Engineering
  • Process of inserting new genetic information into
    existing cells in order to modify a specific
    organism for the purpose of changing one of its
    characteristics

U.S . Environmental Protection Agency. (n.d.).
Terms of Environment, Glossary, Abbreviations,
and Acronyms. Retrieved June 8, 2010
http//www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms/gterms.html
64
Looking Ahead How to Ensure a Safe Food Supply
(Cont.)
  • The Role of Education
  • Educating those involved in producing,
    transporting, and preparing food, including
    consumers, can help stem the threat of serious
    foodborne illness.

Pfizer Inc. (2006). Chapter 7 Safer and
healthier foods. In Milestones in public health
Accomplishments in public health over the last
100 years. (p. 144). New York, NY Pfizer Inc.
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