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Original 13 Colonies


Unit One: Colonial Era * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Middle Passage The Middle Passage was one route of the triangular trade that occurred between the Americas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Original 13 Colonies

Original 13 Colonies
  • Unit One Colonial Era

English Colonies
  • England developed three types of colonies in
    North America
  • Royal colony a colony controlled by king or
  • Proprietary colony a colony owned by a person
    or family.
  • Corporate colony a colony controlled by a
    joint stock company.

  • SSUSH1 The student will describe European
    settlement in North America during the 17th
  • a. Explain Virginias development include the
    Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation, and
    relationships with Native Americans such as
    Powhatan, development of the House of Burgesses,
    Bacons Rebellion, and the development of

Virginias Development
  • Jamestown (1607)
  • King James I granted the Virginia company (also
    known as the London Company) a charter.
  • Joint stock companies were the forerunners of
  • They established Jamestown, the first permanent
    English colony in North America.

  • The colony faced severe hardships
  • Location- was swampy along the James River.
  • They faced Indian attacks, famine, and disease.
  • Many were gentlemen from England with no skills
  • Law of Primogeniture only the first son could
    inherit their fathers wealth.
  • Small food supplies causing colonists to nearly

John Smith
  • Under the leadership of John Smith, the colony
    started to survive but John Smith left the colony
    because of battle injuries in 1609.
  • Starving time
  • In the winter of 1609-10, Jamestown settlers
    faced a harsh winter. They eat dogs, cats, and
    sometimes each other in order to survive. By
    spring, the settlers were preparing to abandon
    the colony when supplies and more settlers
    arrived. Only 63 of the original settlers
    survived the starving time.

Tobacco Cultivation
  • Tobacco Cash crop
  • For two year, the colony barely survived until
    John Rolfe discovered a way to cure tobacco to
    make it profitable for the Virginia company.
  • Parliament and the Commonwealth forbade the
    colonist for selling their tobacco to anyone but

Problems with Tobacco Cultivation
  • Problems
  • Tobacco is labor intensive and there were labor
  • Solutions
  • Indentured servitude
  • Head right system
  • Slavery

Development of slavery
  • Tobacco required a lot of labor/Problem there was
    a labor shortage.

Development of Slavery in Jamestown
  • In 1619, a Dutch ship presented 20 African
    Americans to Jamestown selling them as indentured
    servants people who work for 7 to 10 years in
    the hopes of receiving a new start or land at the
    end of the contract.

  • However, African were slowly placed into slavery.
  • In 1630 some Africans were enslaved while
    others were indentured.
  • By 1640 African-Americans were not allowed to
    carry guns.
  • By 1692 blacks no longer could own horses or
  • By the 1700s ½ the labor force in Jamestown was
    either indentured servants or slaves.

1619 House of Burgesses
  • Also, the House of Burgesses was formed in
    Virginia in 1619. It was the first
    representative assembly in America.

Bacons Rebellion, 1676
  • The first stirring of revolutionary feeling in
    the New World.

William Berkeley
  • Settlers of the western frontier faced attack
    from Native Americans and complained to the
    Governor William Berkeley. Berkeley ordered an
    investigation, but little was done.

Picture of Nathaniel Bacon
  • Nathaniel Bacon a farmer and landowner was
    angry with his poor efforts and raised a loose
    army to attack largely peaceful Native American

Results of Bacons Rebellion
  • The rebellion ended when Bacon died of fever.
  • This showed the divisions between the poor and
    the rich in the colony.
  • Sharp class differences were exposed between
    wealthy planters and poor frontiers men or the
  • Colonial resistance to royal control.

Native Americans and Jamestown
  • Englands pattern of conquest with the Native
    Americans involved their relationship with
    Ireland. Therefore, they developed a harsh
    attitude towards the Native Americans.

Relationship with the Native Americans
Jamestown lost its charter
  • In 1624, the bankrupt Virginia Company lost its
    charter and Jamestown became a royal colony.

  • SSUSH1b
  • Describe the settlement of New England including
    religious reasons, relations with Native
    Americans including King Philips War, the
    establishment of town meetings and development of
    a legislature, religious tensions that led to
    colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way
    covenant, Salem Witch Trials, and the loss of
    Massachusetts charter.

Describe the settlement of New England including
religious reasons
  • Puritans
  • Puritans believed they had to purify the Anglican
    Church (Church of England) of Catholic practices
  • Their original colonies were Plymouth and the
    second was Massachusetts Bay colony.
  • Puritan were viewed by King James I of England as
    a threat to his religious and political
    authority. He ordered many of them jailed.

Plymouth Colony, 1620
  • Those who settled the Plymouth Colony wanted to
    do more than purify the Anglican church from
    within they formed a completely separate church.

  • They were also called Separatists because they
    separated from the Anglican Church and moved to
    the Netherlands before establishing Plymouth
    Colony in what is now Massachusetts.

Voyage of the Mayflower
  • Worried that their children were becoming
    Dutchified They received permission from the
    Virginia Company to establish a colony in
  • In 1620, a small group set sail on the Mayflower.
  • The ship was blown off course and landed not in
    Virginia but off the Massachusetts coast.

Plymouth Colony, 1621
Mayflower Compact
  • Mayflower Compact was written when the Pilgrim
    created and signed a document pledging they would
    make a decision to follow majority rule.

  • Separatists AKA Pilgrims.
  • Their first winter was difficult. Native
    Americans help them settle at Plymouth.
  • Under the leadership of Miles Standish and
    Governor William Bradford, the colony grew slowly.

Plymouth colony
  • Fish, furs, and lumber became the important parts
    of its economy.
  • The colony would eventually be overtaken by
    Massachusetts Bay colony.

Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1630
  • In 1629, a group of English Puritan (not
    Separatists) gained a royal charter to establish
    a colony.
  • In 1630, they established the Massachusetts Bay
    Colony and founded Boston and several other towns.

  • John Winthrop was their leader
  • Unlike the other colonies, their charter stated
    that their government would be in colonies.
  • A Great Migration occurred when the English Civil
    War (1642-1649) drove people to Massachusetts Bay

England allowed its American colonies a certain
degree of self-ruleMajority rule in Plymouth
  • Mayflower Compact
  • Town meeting were encouraged where all white
    landowning and Protestant males had a voice in
  • Representative Governments in Massachusetts

Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony
Limitations to democracy
  • Only (white) male property owners could vote.
  • Religious restrictions were in place in many
  • Females and those that were landless had
    practically no rights.
  • Slaves and Indentured servants had no rights.
  • Governors often ruled with absolute power
    answering only to the monarch or those who paid
    their salary.
  • There was wide spread misuse of Native Americans.

Salem Witch Trials
  • In 1692, several young women claimed that the
    devil had possessed them and blamed several
    elderly women in the community. The trials
    called the Salem Witch Trials occurred to
    determine the womens guilt.

Salem Witch Trials (cont.)
  • Twenty men and women were executed. After a few
    months, the people lost their excitement over the
    trials. However, the damage was done.
  • The Puritan church would suffer because of the

Half-Way Covenant
  • To be member of the Puritan church, a person had
    to give a verbal testimony to an experience of
    grace. Even if you were baptized, a person had
    to have an experience of faith.

  • Those who were not members of the church, could
    not vote or baptize their children. Therefore
    the size of the church remained small. The
    Half-Way Covenant was offered by some preachers
    (clergy) to those who professed limited religious

  • In other words, people could take part in the
    church service without formally declaring their
    total belief in God.
  • Many hated this practice, but as time passed the
    strict Puritan ways began to weaken. Also,
    church size increased.

King Philips War
  • In (1675-1676), Metacom (aka King Philip) united
    a group of Native Americans to fight the New
    England settlers whose increasing population had
    been slowly taking their lands.
  • Thousands on both sides were killed.
  • The New Englanders won, killed King Philip, and
    basically ended Native American resistance in New

Rhode Island
  • Roger Williams
  • Believed one should not be punished for
    worshipping or not worshiping.
  • Help to found Providence, RI

New England Led to colonies such as Rhode Island
  • Anne Hutchinson
  • One does not need a minister or church to talk to
  • Help to found Rhode Island.

New England ColoniesThe loss of the
Massachusetts charter.
  • Charter-document granting an area/group specific
    rights laws

Loss of Charter Cont.
  • The British King took the charter away
  • Massachusetts losses its independent colony.
  • Reason to gain more control over trade.
  • Combined all of New England colonies into one
  • Colonist did not like the loss of their charter.

  • c. Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic
    colonies include the Dutch settlement of New
    Amsterdam and subsequent English takeover, and
    the settlement of Pennsylvania.

Explain the development of the mid-Atlantic
  • The Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam and
    subsequent English takeover
  • The Dutch controlled New Netherlands (today New
  • New York City was called New Amsterdam (Amsterdam
    is the capital of the Netherlands.)
  • Owners Dutch, then French, then English aka
  • The Dutch accepted diversity (other religions)

(No Transcript)
Mid-Atlantic Colonies Pennsylvania
  • Pennsylvania

  • Founded by William Penn, a wealthy Quaker
  • A Quaker AKA Society of Friends
  • They were Protestants who believed that men and
    women were equal in Gods eyes
  • Later, many will become abolitionists.

Analyze the impact of location and place for the
southern, middle, and New England colonies
regarding their colonies settlement,
transportation, economic development
  • Southern colonies
  • Geography
  • Long growing seasons
  • Good harbors
  • Accessible rivers
  • Economy
  • Depended on cash crop/stable crop
  • Virginia, 1607
  • Maryland, 1636
  • North Carolina,
  • South Carolina,
  • Georgia, 1733

Southern colonies Virginia
  • Virginia, 1607
  • 1st permanent English colony in North American
  • Business venture by Virginia Company
  • Poor relations with Native Americans/Powhatan
  • Economic
  • Tobacco

Maryland, 1636
  • Founded by the two Lord Baltimores
  • Cecilius and George Baltimore
  • Created as a haven for Catholics
  • Eventually, Act of Toleration was created to
    ensure the rights of Catholics because more
    protestant lived in Maryland than Catholics.

The Act of Toleration (Cont.)
  • The Act of Toleration is a part of the
    foundation for religious freedom in the

Georgia, 1733
  • Last of the 13 colonies
  • Trusteeship
  • James Oglethorpe settled Savannah, GA
  • Created as a buffer colony betw. Spanish Florida
    and South Carolina
  • At 1st did not allow slavery
  • Also used as a debtors haven (safe place
  • Grew slowly

Middle Colonies/Mid-Atlantic Colonies(Bread
Basket Colonies)
  • New York
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • Delaware
  • Geography
  • Good harbors
  • Decent growing seasons
  • Economy
  • Diverse agriculture
  • Diverse economy/business

New England Colonies
  • New England Colonies
  • Geography
  • Water ways
  • Mainly rivers, harbors, bays, and ocean.
  • Subsequent farming
  • Economics
  • Fur trade
  • Shipping/trade
  • Poor farming land
  • Massachusetts
  • Connecticut
  • New Hampshire
  • Rhode Island

Life in the American Colonies

Events that effected the colonies between
  • English Civil War, (1642-1649)
  • King Charles I was beheaded by Parliament
  • Oliver Cromwell established a Commonwealth
  • Restoration Period (1660-1680)
  • King Charles II restored to the throne.
  • Glorious Revolution, (1688)
  • King James II peacefully removed from power and
    replaced by William and Mary, his Protestant
    son-in-law and daughter.

  • TSWBA Trace the ways that economy and society
    of British North America developed.
  • a. Explain the development of Mercantilism and
    the Trans-Atlantic trade.

  • Theory of Mercantilism
  • A country should try to get and keep as much
    bullion, or gold and silver, as possible.
  • To achieve this, a countrys balance of trade, or
    the difference between imports and exports,
    should show more exports than imports.

  • Effects on War and Politics
  • The Navigation Act tightened English control over
    colonial trade by requiring the colonies to sell
    certain goods only to England.
  • If colonists wanted to sell goods to other parts
    of the world, they had to pay a duty, or tax, on

  • Effects on Trade Laws
  • European countries fought over territory and
    trade routes.
  • British rulers tightened controls over the
    American colonies. King James II tried to take
    direct control over New York and New England by
    creating the Dominion of New England.

  • Anger in the Colonies
  • Colonists resented Jamess grab for power and
    hated the governor appoint by James II.
  • King James lost in throne in the Glorious

Tradition of Self Government
  • Magna Carta, 1215
  • English Bill of Rights, 1689
  • House of Burgesses, (1619)
  • Town meeting (New England colonies)
  • Colonial assemblies had a lot of power
  • Often paid governors salaries
  • Created local laws concerning defense and

  • Salutary Neglect
  • Britain allowed its colonies more freedom to
    govern themselves than other European nations
    did. This British policy, known as salutary
    neglect, had three causes
  • England had a long tradition of strong local
    government and weak central power.
  • British government lacked the resources to
    enforce its wishes.
  • Britain gave the colonies freedom because the
    existing economy and politics served the British

The trans-Atlantic Trade
  • Triangular Trade
  • Explanation
  • Triangular trade involved several routes
    including the continents of Africa (slaves),
    Europe (manufactured goods), and the Americas
    (raw materials rum, naval stores, tobacco, etc.
  • The routes were varied but essential to the
    survival of the colonies and mercantilism.

Middle Passage
  • The Middle Passage was one route of the
    triangular trade that occurred between the
    Americas, Europe, and Africa.
  • It also refers to the forced transportation of
  • It is believed that between 10 to 40 percent of
    the Africans on slave ship typically died in the

Describe the Middle Passage
  • Middle Passage

Growth of African Population
  • Slavery
  • Experience of slaves varied greatly in colonial
  • It was legal everywhere.
  • In the Northeast the population of slaves was
    small/In the South it was high.
  • In South Carolina, slaves made up a majority of
    the slaves.
  • In South Carolina and Georgia, slaves had a
    difficult life because they lived along the
    coastal areas growing the labor intensive crops
    of indigo and rice.

  • TSWBA Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of
    social mobility and individualism.

Benjamin Franklin
  • Benjamin Franklin was a famous printer in
  • He was a famous printer who was known for Poor
    Richards Almanac an almanac is a book
    containing information such as colanders, weather
    predictions, wise sayings, and advice.
  • He retired from his career by his early 40s. He
    then worked in politics, science, and would later
    work in the cause of the American Revolution.

Benjamin Franklin
  • He invented
  • Bifocals
  • Lightening rod
  • The Franklin stove

Social Mobility and Individualism
  • In the colonies wealth meant land.
  • Most land owners were white males.
  • A small group of elite, landowning men dominated
  • However, there were more social mobility
    (movement from one social class to another) in
    the colonies than in Europe.

  • Most colonial households worked to be
    self-sufficient able to make everything they
  • Yankee ingenuity was important!

  • TSWBA Explain the significance of the Great

Great Awakening
  • In the early 1700s, many ministers, mostly
    Congregationalists, believed that the Puritans
    had become unfaithful to their original beliefs.
  • Between 1730s to 1740s, there was a series
    religious rival to renew enthusiasm and
  • The movement sought to remind people of the power
    of God.

Great Awakening (cont.)
  • Important people Jonathan Edwards and George
  • Result
  • Spread democratic ideals because the new
    ministers focused on faith and sincerity as
    oppose to education.

Sinners in the hands of an angry God
  • New churches grew out of these ministers efforts
    Baptists and the Methodists.
  • Baptists and Methodists claimed that individuals
    could act on their own faith, w/o relying on
    preachers (clergy) or other authority, they were
    indirectly attacking the ideal some people were
    better than others.
  • Other denominations split

By the mid 1700s
  • The colonies population was growing and pushing
    westward. The problem was the French and Native
    Americans lived in the area west of the
    Appalachian Mountains called the Ohio River
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