ELLs with Disabilities: From Identification to Instruction - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – ELLs with Disabilities: From Identification to Instruction PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4656a9-OTUyO



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

ELLs with Disabilities: From Identification to Instruction

Description:

SED 500: Introduction to Special Education Janet Medina, Psy.D. Associate Professor of Education McDaniel College jmedina_at_mcdaniel.edu 410-857-2417 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:694
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 130
Provided by: JanetM62
Learn more at: http://www2.mcdaniel.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: ELLs with Disabilities: From Identification to Instruction


1
ELLs with Disabilities From Identification to
Instruction
  • SED 500 Introduction to Special Education
  • Janet Medina, Psy.D.
  • Associate Professor of Education
  • McDaniel College
  • jmedina_at_mcdaniel.edu
  • 410-857-2417

2
Myths of Second Language Acquisition and
Bilingualism Take this quiz and see what you
already know the answers will be provided at the
end of this presentation
  • 1. Adults learn second languages more quickly and
    easily than young children. T F
  • 2. According to research, students in ESL-only
    programs, with no schooling in their native
    language, take 7-10 years to reach grade level
    norms. T F
  • 3. A lot of immigrant children have learning
    disabilities, not language problems. They speak
    English just fine but they are still failing
    academically. T F
  • 4. Older generations of immigrants learned
    without all the special language programs that
    immigrant children receive now. It was "sink or
    swim" and they did just fine! T F
  • 5. Second language learners will acquire academic
    English faster if their parents speak English at
    home. T F
  • 6. The more time students spend soaking up
    English in the mainstream classroom, the more
    they quickly they will learn the language. T
    F
  • 7. Once students can speak English, they are
    ready to undertake the academic tasks of the
    mainstream classroom. T F
  • 8. Cognitive and academic development in native
    language has an important and positive effect on
    second language acquisition. T F
  • 9. The culture of students doesnt affect how
    long it takes them to acquire English. All
    students learn language the same way. T F

3
Berta Hernandez is a newly-arrived student who
came to the United States just 3 months ago. She
has been placed in Megans fourth-grade classroom
because, although she is 11 years old, she is
physically very small compared to her same-age
peers. Her mother is living in Lima, Peru (her
home country), with her youngest sibling, a
sister and, so far, has not been able to get a
visa to travel to the United States. Berta
arrived in the United States with her father,
aunt (her fathers unmarried sister), and a
younger brother (he is 7). She is the oldest
child. They all now live with her grandmother and
grandfather in your school district. The
grandparents speak Quechua, a little Spanish, and
no English. The father and aunt speak Quechua,
Spanish, and very little English. Mercedes and
her brother speak Spanish as their primary
language, a little Quechua, and very little
conversational English, though they are catching
on quickly. Berta has demonstrated a great deal
of reluctance to read in class, especially aloud.
In Peru, she made it only to the second grade,
missed a year of class due to some local unrest,
and was retained for a year. Her father has
suggested that perhaps Berta was in some kind of
special class in Lima, but cannot explain it
well. Megan is also noticing that she tends to
want to sit alone, not participate in activities
with the other students, and cries whenever she
is called on to answer a question in class. Berta
has not made any new friends in the fourth grade,
and she is responsible for walking her younger
brother, who is in kindergarten, home from school
every day. What conclusions can you make about
this student? What is still not not clear?
4
(No Transcript)
5
Familiar?
  • A accomplished and
  • added at belief
  • brain cannibals certain
  • changed doing English
  • from in logical
  • method minor missionaries
  • must needed numbers
  • occurrences replace sentences
  • surgery the this
  • when 3 4

6
Elaboration Tolerance John McCarthy, Stanford
University
  • Changing a parameter
  • This is needed when the number of missionaries
    and cannibals are changed from 3 to 4. In
    English, this is accomplished by an added
    sentence. Doing it that way in logic requires a
    suitable belief revision method as part of the
    basic logical formalism. At present we must use
    minor brain surgery to replace certain
    occurrences of the number 3.

7
Did you understand that paragraph?
  • If you struggled understanding the preceding
    paragraph, maybe you are not familiar with the
    context.
  • Could you tell that this was about Computer
    Science?
  • Even if you understood each word individually,
    lack of prior knowledge and experience has an
    effect on your comprehension.

8
English is a crazy language
  • Can you read the following sentences?
  • Can you see why a student with a learning
    disability and/or an ELL might have difficulty
    figuring out these heteronyms, homographs,
    homonyms , and homophones?
  • Multiple meanings for words can throw someone off
    as well.
  • How important is it to understand the context of
    a sentence?
  • If you want to test your skills, try this
    homograph online game here (for a Flash version)
    or here (for an html version).

9
Hows that again?
  • The buzz was in the air that Freida was to become
    the heir to a fortune.
  • Liza conceded that Hillary was very conceited.
  • Your friends are not happy when youre sad.
  • Kyla was trying to plot a murder set in a garden
    plot.
  • It was an airy perch from the aerie.
  • Jessey was afraid of having a date with a lemon.
  • Canela had a great idea to stand on the grate to
    grate the cheese.
  • It is very difficult to wind the yarn in the
    wind.

10
Visual-spatial tasks
  • The next series of slides are visual-spatial
    tasks. In the assessment process, particularly in
    psychoeducational evaluations, diagnosticians
    often try to evaluate a students skills in
    viewing and reproducing what they see through a
    variety of tasks in other words, how does the
    student see the world, how do they fit in
    space, how do they manipulate the world, etc.?
    Examples of these skills are as follows looking
    for details, seeing part-to-whole or
    whole-to-part relationships, determining how much
    cueing a student might need to see something
    they might not see right away, and so on.

11
Can you trust this person? Hint If you dont see
it right away, tilt your head slightly to the
right. See it now? Side note I have discovered
that exposure to English is crucial in this
exercise.
12
(No Transcript)
13
Contrast
  • This grid, known as Hermann's Grid, is an
    example of how contrast affects color perception.
    The area at the corners of the black boxes appear
    gray. This happens because of something called
    lateral inhibition. In the retina when some
    light-receiving cells are activated others around
    them shut down. You will notice that where the
    white lines intersect, there is black on four
    sides, whereas the lines themselves are
    surrounded by black on only two sides. When you
    look at the intersections, the cells in the
    retina are surrounded on four sides by other
    cells that are also receiving light. They are
    therefore more inhibited than the cells focused
    on the lines. It is their inhibition that causes
    the dark spots to appear.

14
(No Transcript)
15
(No Transcript)
16
(No Transcript)
17
What are we really seeing?
  • These sidewalk chalk paintings give us the
    impression that they are three-dimensional
    objects, yet when we view them from another
    angle, we can see that they are actually flat.

18
The picture on the next slide looks a little
strange, some jumbled monkeys there. It will be
worth your time to fixate it for at least 10
seconds. Let your gaze hang on the tiny red
target at the centre, making ready to move your
mouse over the image thereafter. On the white
background you may recognize a face, a topic of
2009. Alternatively after fixation, close your
eyes. After a few seconds a face will appear.
19
(No Transcript)
20
You should see Charles Darwins face. Faces are
difficult to recognize when rendered as a
negative. Prolonged fixation creates a retinal
afterimage, which over several seconds is a
negative afterimage, making it recognizable. The
longer and the more steady you fixate, the longer
lasts the afterimage. When it fades, blink and it
will be prolonged. On of the tricks is to
introduce the tiny white lines (here chosen to
delineate monkeys, appropriately). These impede
face recognition in the initial negative (related
to the blocking illusion). In the afterimage,
however, they are gone because an afterimage is
always a little blurry. Rob Jenkins Richard
Wiseman give some delightful background and also
the original image on their website Happy
Darwin Day! referenced below.
http//www.richardwiseman.com/Darwin.html
21
Whats different?
  • The next two photos are borrowed from the
    Washington Post magazine (May 20, 2012). The
    first photograph is the original, and the second
    photograph has 12 alterations made to the
    original picture. Can you find the 12 differences
    in the 2nd altered photo?
  • The third photo has the answers.
  • When individuals are assessed cognitively,
    attention to detail is a crucial skill that is
    evaluated.

22
(No Transcript)
23
(No Transcript)
24
(No Transcript)
25
Color Vision
  • Pilots and others are often tested for color
    vision. Children in schools are sometimes
    assessed for color vision if they show some
    inconsistencies in recognizing colors. The most
    common color blindness is red-green color
    blindness.
  • The following three slides are samples from the
    PseudoIsochromatic Plate Ishihara Compatible
    (PIP) Color Vision Test 24 Plate Edition. What
    numbers do you see?

26
(No Transcript)
27
(No Transcript)
28
(No Transcript)
29
Answers
  • You should have seen the numbers 16, 2, and 5.
  • For more information about assessing color
    vision, you might be interested in this website
  • Color Blindness or Color Vision Deficiency
    http//www.archimedes-lab.org/colorblindnesstest.h
    tml

30
(No Transcript)
31
(No Transcript)
32
Visual Figure Ground
  • Look at the following woodcut by M.C. Escher.
    Escher frequently played around with figure
    ground in his work.
  • What do you see?

33
(No Transcript)
34
Gestalt Principles
  • Gestalt theorists followed the basic principle
    that the whole is greater than the sum of its
    parts. In other words, the whole (a picture, a
    car) carried a different and altogether greater
    meaning than its individual components (paint,
    canvas, brush or tire, paint, metal,
    respectively). In viewing the "whole," a
    cognitive process takes place the mind makes a
    leap from comprehending the parts to realizing
    the whole. We visually and psychologically
    attempt to make order out of chaos, to create
    harmony or structure from seemingly disconnected
    bits of information.
  • The major principles are
  • Similarity Continuation Closure Proximity
    Figure and Ground.
  • http//facweb.cs.depaul.edu/sgrais/gestalt_princi
    ples.htm

35
An example of Closure
Closure occurs when an object is incomplete or a
space is not completely enclosed. If enough of
the shape is indicated, people perceive the whole
by filling in the missing information. Although
neither the panda nor the IBM logo are complete,
enough is present for the eye to complete the
shape. When the viewer's perception completes a
shape, closure occurs. You can view more example
of the Gestalt Principles here at
http//graphicdesign.spokanefalls.edu/tutorials/pr
ocess/gestaltprinciples/gestaltprinc.htm And if
you want to test your understanding of these
principles, try this worksheet.
36
Definition of Diversity according to the
McDaniel College Department of Education
  • Diversity is defined as differences, or variety,
    among groups of people based on a range and
    combination of backgrounds and histories related
    to ethnicity, race, gender, language,
    socioeconomic status, sexual orientation,
    disability, geographical region, religious
    background, and exceptionalities in learning.
  • If you click on the hyperlink on the word race,
    you should be transported to the PBS website on
    Race. I recommend that you check it out. its
    very interesting.

37
Alphabet Soup Do you know what all of the terms
mean?
  • ESL
  • ESOL
  • ELL
  • CLD
  • CLDE
  • LEP
  • PHLOTE

38
Alphabet Soup Do you know what all of these
terms mean?
  • ESL English Second Language
  • ESOL English Speakers of Other Languages
  • ELL English Language Learner the preferred
    term among many professionals in the field of
    bilingual studies
  • CLD Culturally and Linguistically Diverse
  • CLDE Culturally and Linguistically Diverse with
    Exceptionality
  • LEP Limited English Proficient this is the
    term still used by the federal government to some
    degree, and some states as well
  • PHLOTE Primary Home Language Other Than English

39
Reflective of Californias diversity, the
majority of K12 girls (74) are from an ethnic
minority background. http//www.msmc.la.edu/PDFFi
les/status-of-women/3-RSWG-education.pdf
40
Percent of Students Receiving Special Education
Services by Race/Ethnicity and Disability
Category Ages 6-21 (http//www.IDEAdata.org,
2004)
Category American Indian/Alaskan Native Asian/Pacific Islander Black (Not Hispanic) Hispanic White (Not Hispanic)
Learning Disability 1.74 1.67 20.13 19.74 56.72
Speech or Language Impairments 1.31 2.95 15.89 16.12 63.74
Mental Retardation 1.21 1.98 33.46 12.35 51
Emotional Disturbances 1.52 1.17 28.42 10.46 58.44
Estimated Resident Population .98 4.1 15 17.6 62.2
41
Percent of Students Receiving Special Education
Services by Race/Ethnicity and Disability
Category Ages 6-21 (http//www.IDEAdata.org,
2007)
Category American Indian/Alaskan Native Asian/Pacific Islander Black (Not Hispanic) Hispanic White (Not Hispanic)
Learning Disability 1.75 1.74 20.67 22.17 53.67
Speech or Language Impairments 1.37 3.27 15.21 19.44 60.71
Mental Retardation 1.32 2.21 31.92 15.05 49.50
Emotional Disturbances 1.60 1.17 28.84 11.80 56.59
Estimated Resident Population .95 4.25 14.98 19.39 60.43
42
Number and percentage of children ages 6 through
21 served under IDEA, Part B, by educational
environment, race/ethnicity and state Fall 2010
https//www.ideadata.org/arc_toc12.asppartbLRE
Hispanic or Latino American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Black or African American Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander White Two or More Races
Total 21.77 1.51 2.11 19.12 0.35 53.11 2.02
gt 80 21.43 1.54 1.98 16.87 0.24 55.86 2.09
40-79 21.28 1.86 1.80 20.27 0.53 52.29 1.98
lt40 26.12 1.16 3.09 25.43 0.46 41.76 1.98



43
Number and percentage of children and students
ages 6 through 21 served under IDEA, Part B, and
as a percentage of the population, in the U.S.
and outlying areas, by gender and state Fall
2010 https//www.ideadata.org/arc_toc12.asppart
bLRE
Gender Male Female
Total 66.90 33.10
Total 3,895,455 1,927,353
44
Number and percentage of students ages 6 through
21 served under IDEA, Part B, and as a percentage
of the population, in the U.S. and outlying
areas, by LEP status and state Fall 2010
https//www.ideadata.org/arc_toc12.asppartbCC
Number of students with disabilities served under IDEA, Part B Number of students with disabilities served under IDEA, Part B Percent of students served under IDEA, Part B Percent of students served under IDEA, Part B
Limited English Proficient English Proficient Limited English Proficient English Proficient
484,088 5,337,880 8.31 91.69

45
PreK-12 Legislation Indirect Impact on
Postsecondary Education
  • No Child Left Behind (NCLB) 2001
  • Four Pillars of NCLB
  • Stronger Accountability for Results
  • More Freedom for States and Communities
  • Proven Education Methods
  • More Choices for Parents

46
Four Pillars of NCLB
  • No Child Left Behind is based on stronger
    accountability for results, more freedom for
    states and communities, proven education methods,
    and more choices for parents.
  • Stronger Accountability for Results
  • Under No Child Left Behind, states are working
    to close the achievement gap and make sure all
    students, including those who are disadvantaged,
    achieve academic proficiency. Annual state and
    school district report cards inform parents and
    communities about state and school progress.
    Schools that do not make progress must provide
    supplemental services, such as free tutoring or
    after-school assistance take corrective actions
    and, if still not making adequate yearly progress
    after five years, make dramatic changes to the
    way the school is run.

47
More Freedom for States and Communities
  • Under No Child Left Behind, states and school
    districts have unprecedented flexibility in how
    they use federal education funds. For example, it
    is possible for most school districts to transfer
    up to 50 percent of the federal formula grant
    funds they receive under the Improving Teacher
    Quality State Grants, Educational Technology,
    Innovative Programs, and Safe and Drug-Free
    Schools programs to any one of these programs, or
    to their Title I program, without separate
    approval. This allows districts to use funds for
    their particular needs, such as hiring new
    teachers, increasing teacher pay, and improving
    teacher training and professional development.

48
Proven Education Methods
  • No Child Left Behind puts emphasis on
    determining which educational programs and
    practices have been proven effective through
    rigorous scientific research. Federal funding is
    targeted to support these programs and teaching
    methods that work to improve student learning and
    achievement. In reading, for example, No Child
    Left Behind supports scientifically based
    instruction programs in the early grades under
    the Reading First program and in preschool under
    the Early Reading First program.

49
More Choices for Parents
  • Parents of children in low-performing schools
    have new options under No Child Left Behind. In
    schools that do not meet state standards for at
    least two consecutive years, parents may transfer
    their children to a better-performing public
    school, including a public charter school, within
    their district. The district must provide
    transportation, using Title I funds if necessary.
    Students from low-income families in schools that
    fail to meet state standards for at least three
    years are eligible to receive supplemental
    educational services, including tutoring,
    after-school services, and summer school. Also,
    students who attend a persistently dangerous
    school or are the victim of a violent crime while
    in their school have the option to attend a safe
    school within their district.

50
Legal Issues No Child Left Behind (NCLB) from
AFT
  • February 2004 U.S. Department of Education made
    two important policy changes with respect to the
    ELL subgroup and adequate yearly progress (AYP)
    calculations.
  • DOE will now allow states to exempt students who
    are new to this country and to the English
    language from taking the reading/language arts
    content assessment for one year.
  • still be required to also take a mathematics
    content assessment, with appropriate
    accommodations. States may, but would not be
    required to, include results from the math, and,
    if given, the reading/language arts content
    assessment in AYP calculations.
  • will continue to count for NCLB's required 95
    percent participation rate.
  • As required under Title III, ELLs will continue
    to be tested for English language proficiency.
  • (2) The second recent change announced by the
    Department will allow states, for up to two
    years, to include in the ELL subgroup students
    who have attained English proficiency.

51
NCLB and ELLs with Disabilities National Center
for Education Outcomes, 2005
  • Approximately 9 of total population of students
    with disabilities are ELLs
  • Many states have policies and guidelines in place
    for the inclusion of ELLs or for students with
    disabilities few have specific information in
    print or on the Web for those students who fall
    into both subgroups
  • Results of study of 14 states reflected that most
    states in the early stages of determining how to
    most effectively accommodate English language
    learners with disabilities in large scale
    assessments.
  • A common theme across states was utilization of
    both special education policy and ELL policy for
    determining assessment needs of ELLs with
    disabilities.
  • Members of the IEP team were the primary
    participants in the decision making process

52
Data regarding students with disabilities
  • The percentage of students with disabilities
    graduating from high school with a diploma has
    risen steadily in recent years from 51.7 in 1994
    to 55.4 in 1998 (NCSPES, 2002).
  • Data indicates that many students with
    disabilities are not being appropriately
    identified and served during childhood and
    adolescent years (National Council on
    Disabilities, 2003).
  • The number of English Language Learners (ELLs)
    with disabilities is estimated at about 357,325
    nationwide (Zehler, Fleischman, Hopstock,
    Pendzick, Stephenson, 2003) or 9 of the total
    population of students with disabilities
    (Thurlow, M. L., Anderson, M.E., Minnema, J.E.,
    Hall-Lande, J. , 2005) .

53
More Legal Issues
  • IDE(I)A 2004
  • Mandates the participation of all students,
    including students with disabilities, ELLs, and
    ELLs with disabilities in standard based
    instruction and assessment initiatives
  • Schools shall not be required to take into
    consideration whether a child has a severe
    discrepancy between achievement and intellectual
    ability in oral expression, listening
    comprehension, written expression, basic reading
    skill, reading comprehension, mathematical
    calculation, or mathematical reasoning. (Section
    1414(b))
  • Summary of Performance (SOP) For a child whose
    eligibility under special education terminates
    due to graduation with a regular diploma, or due
    to
  • exceeding the age of eligibility, the local
    education agency shall provide the child with a
    summary of the childs academic achievement and
    functional performance, which shall include
    recommendations on how to assist the child in
    meeting the childs postsecondary goals Sec.
    300.305(e)(3)
  • Universal Design the state educational agency
    shall, to the extent feasible, use universal
    design principles in developing and administering
    any assessments under this paragraph (IDEA- PL
    108-446, Section 612,16E, 2004)
  • Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990
  • No otherwise qualified individuals shall, solely
    by reason of their disabilities, be excluded from
    participation in, be denied the benefits of, or
    be subjected to discrimination in these programs
  • Section 504 of the Federal Rehabilitation Act of
    1973
  • Landmark Civil Rights Act for individuals with
    disabilities

54
Summary of Performance and Transition http//www.
nsttac.org/indicator13/sop.aspx
http//www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/adults/docs/SOP_Tem
plate.doc
  • The Summary of Performance (SOP) is required
    under the reauthorization of the Individuals with
    Disabilities Education (Improvement) Act of 2004.
    The language as stated in IDEA 2004 regarding the
    SOP is as follows
  • For a child whose eligibility under special
    education terminates due to graduation with a
    regular diploma, or due to exceeding the age of
    eligibility, the local education agency shall
    provide the child with a summary of the childs
    academic achievement and functional performance,
    which shall include recommendations on how to
    assist the child in meeting the childs
    postsecondary goals Sec. 300.305(e)(3).

55
IDE(I)A 2004 (aligned with NCLB)
  • Diagnosis of LD - A State must adopt, consistent
    with 34 CFR 300.309, criteria for determining
    whether a child has a specific learning
    disability as defined in 34 CFR 300.8(c)(10). In
    addition, the criteria adopted by the State
  • Must not require the use of a severe discrepancy
    between intellectual ability and achievement for
    determining whether a child has a specific
    learning disability, as defined in 34 CFR
    300.8(c)(10)
  • Must permit the use of a process based on the
    childs response to scientific, research-based
    intervention and
  • May permit the use of other alternative
    research-based procedures for determining whether
    a child has a specific learning disability, as
    defined in 34 CFR 300.8(c)(10).
  • A public agency must use the State criteria
    adopted pursuant to 34 CFR 300.307(a) in
    determining whether a child has a specific
    learning disability. 34 CFR 300.307 20 U.S.C.
    1221e-3 1401(30) 1414(b)(6)
  • Highly Qualified Teachers (HQT)
  • Response to Intervention (RTI)
  • Summary of Performance -For a child whose
    eligibility under Part B terminates under
    circumstances described above, the LEA shall
    provide the child with a summary of the childs
    academic achievement and functional performance,
    which shall include recommendations on how to
    assist the child in meeting the childs
    postsecondary goals. 34 CFR 300.305(e)(3) 20
    U.S.C. 1414(c)(5)(B)(ii)
  • Mandates the participation of all students,
    including students with disabilities, ELLs, and
    ELLs with disabilities in standard based
    instruction and assessment initiatives

56
Additional Legislation
  • Assistive Technology Act of 1998 (AT
    ActP.L.105-394)
  • The Tech Act focuses on consumer access
  • Funds made available to include information and
    referral services, funding assistance and cash
    loans for devices, assessment for appropriate AT,
    equipment demonstration and try-out, equipment
    loan, and refurbished AT equipment
  • English Language Acquisition, Language
    Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act PL
    107-110
  • To assist State educational agencies and local
    educational agencies, and schools to build their
    capacity to provide high-quality instructional
    programs designed to prepare limited English
    proficient children, including immigrant children
    and youth, to enter all-English instruction
    settings.
  • State Legislation
  • MD Senate Bill 467 (House Bill 59) Explore the
    Incorporation of the Principles of Universal
    Design for Learning into the Education Systems in
    Maryland http//mlis.state.md.us/2010rs/bills/hb/
    hb0059t.pdf

57
IDEIA (2008) and Disability Categories -
Percentage of Students in Special Education
Disability Categories Nationally in Fall 2008
(IDEA 300.7 (Authority 20 U.S.C. 1401(3)(A) and
(B) 1401(26 National Center on Educational
Outcomes - http//movingyournumbers.org/purpose/st
udents.cfm
58
Key Legislative Events Related to Language
  • Title VI Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibited
    discrimination in Federally funded programs.
    Subsequently cited in many court cases. Basically
    stated that a student has a right to meaningful
    and effective instruction.
  • Bilingual Education Acts of 1968 and 1974 Also
    known as Title VII. Provided supplemental funding
    for school districts interested in establishing
    programs to meet the "special educational needs"
    of large numbers of children of limited English
    speaking ability in the United States.
  • May 25, 1970 Memorandum The Department of
    Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) issued an
    interpretation of the Title VII regulations that
    prohibited the denial of access to educational
    programs because of a students limited English
    proficiency.
  • Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1974
    Provided definitions of what constituted denial
    of equal educational opportunity. Among them is
    "...the failure by an educational agency to take
    appropriate action to overcome language barriers
    that impede equal participation by students in an
    instructional program."
  • Lau vs. Nichols 1974 The US Supreme Court
    reaffirmed the 1970 Memorandum regarding denial
    of access and participation in an educational
    program due to inability to speak or understand
    English in a class action suit brought by Chinese
    speaking students in San Francisco against the
    school district.

59
Additional Language-related Legislation
  • Lau Remedies 1975 HEW established some basic
    guidelines for schools with Limited English
    Proficient (LEP) students. Discontinued by the
    Reagan Administration.
  • Civil Rights Language Minority Regulations 1980
    Regulations including four basic components
    Identification, assessment, services and exit.
    Requirement that bilingual instruction be given
    by qualified teachers.
  • Castañeda vs. Pickard 1981 Set the standard
    for the courts in examining programs for LEP
    students. Basically districts must have
  • 1. A pedagogically sound plan for LEP students.
  • 2. Sufficient qualified staff to implement the
    plan (includes hiring of new staff and training
    of current staff).
  • 3. A system established to evaluate the program.
  • Castañeda did not require bilingual education
    programs to meet these standards. It required
    only that "appropriate action to overcome
    language barriers" be taken through well
    implemented programs.
  • Idaho vs. Migrant Council 1981 Established the
    legal responsibility of the State Department of
    Education to monitor implementation of programs
    for LEP students.
  • Denver vs. School District No. 1 (Denver) 1983
    Used Castañeda vs. Pickard decision to evaluate
    the district program for LEP students.
  • Illinois vs. Gómez 1987 State responsibility
    includes establishing and enforcing minimums for
    implementation of language remediation programs
    requirements for the redesignation of students
    from LEP to FEP (Fluent English Proficient)
    status.
  • Teresa P. vs. Berkeley Unified 1987 Used
    Castañeda vs. Pickard decision to evaluate the
    district program for LEP students.
  • California Legislation
  • 1967 Governor Ronald Reagan signs SB 53, the
    legislation allowing the use of other languages
    of instruction in California public schools. This
    bill overturned the 1872 law requiring
    English-only instruction 
  • June 3, 1998 Passage of Proposition 227 virtually
    banning bilingual education except under certain
    special conditions and establishing a one-year
    "sheltered immersion" program for all LEP
    students.

60
U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor
Statistics
  • Teachers Special Education
  • Excellent job prospects are expected due to
    rising enrollments of special education students
    and reported shortages of qualified teachers.
    Bilingual special education teachers and those
    with multicultural experience also are needed to
    work with an increasingly diverse student
    population.
  • (http//www.bls.gov/oco/ocos070.htm)

61
Challenges for Bilingual Special Education
  • Few states either recognize or certify for
    bilingual special education
  • Special Education teachers rarely receive
    training in Bilingual and/or ESOL education
  • And ESOL teachers rarely receive training in
    Special Education
  • Appropriate assessment materials limited
  • Limited and inconsistent training of
    diagnosticians
  • Inconsistent programming
  • Under- and Overrepresentation
  • Take a moment to click on the hyperlink above
    diagnosticians and take the Self-Assessment
    Checklist at this url http//www11.georgetown.edu
    /research/gucchd/nccc/documents/Checklist.CSHN.doc
    .pdf

62
Challenges Specific to ELLs with Disabilities
  • Paucity of materials appropriate for ELLs (most
    are in Spanish only)
  • Not all diagnosticians adequately prepared to
    assess ELLs with disabilities
  • The goal would be to conduct assessments in the
    individuals native language in order to get the
    most accurate picture
  • As immigrant population increases, more ELLs may
    arrive on college campuses with previously
    diagnosed, or more often undiagnosed, LD ELLs
    with disabilities and/or their families may not
    understand how to access services.
  • Few states recognize unique needs of bilingual
    special education students even in the PreK-12th
    grade settings enough to certify teachers as
    Bilingual Special Education specialists many
    states follow ESOL vs. Bilingual model
  • Communication/instruction exclusively in English
    more problematic potential language and cultural
    barriers

63
Alignment of Instruction with State
Content/Performance Standards (OELA, 2003)
http//www.ncela.gwu.edu/files/rcd/BE021195/polic
y_report.pdf
  • Instructional programs for ELLs with disabilities
    are not aligned with state content/performance
    standards to the same extent as are instructional
    programs for other students with disabilities
  • In 89.8 of districts teachers of ELLs with
    disabilities received materials related to the
    general education curriculum, whereas materials
    specific to the curriculum for ELLs were only
    available in 47.9 of districts
  • In 4 of districts, no curriculum materials were
    provided to teachers of ELLs with disabilities

64
Alignment of Instruction with State
Content/Performance Standards
  • Training for applying content standards to ELLs
    is not offered to the same extent as training for
    applying content standards to other students.
    Teachers of ELLs with disabilities received
  • General training for applying standards in 82.7
    of districts
  • Training specific to the application of standards
    to ELLs in 41.7 of districts
  • Training specific to the application of
    standards to ELLs with disabilities in 32.2 of
    districts

65
English Learners With Disabilities
  • Five states and all 12 case study districts
    raised challenges associated with accurate
    identification of ELs with disabilities.
  • As discussed at the beginning of this chapter,
    ELs represent a diverse group of students. Title
    III officials in four states specifically
    mentioned challenges associated with accurately
    identifying EL students who also had
    disabilities,and interviewees in all 12 case
    study districts mentioned the same challenges.
    Their common theme was the difficulty of
    disentangling learning difficulties from
    language barriers when determining whether ELs
    should receive special education services. As a
    result, ELs may be placed in special education
    programs even when they would not need these
    services, or conversely, ELs may not be placed in
    special education programs even when they could
    benefit from these services.
  • Across the case study districts, students who had
    disabilities and were not proficient in English
    were typically identified as ELs first and
    subsequently received further consideration for
    special education. However, the actual
    identification process for special education
    varied. Four districts screened ELs for special
    education by following the same general
    procedures designed for non-ELs.
  • Another seven districts included additional
    steps in the special education screening process
    to address the language issue when they screened
    ELs with disabilities. For example, six of the
    seven districts included teachers who specialize
    in EL instruction or a team of EL specialists in
    the special education team who screened ELs. The
    team considered students native language
    assessment results, nonverbal assessment results,
    and records of language support services
    received.
  • The case study data indicate that districts were
    cautious about referring ELs to special education
    because of the difficulty in distinguishing
    learning difficulties from language barriers.
    Interviewees in at least three case study
    districts B, A, and J expressed concern over
    the delays this could cause in getting students
    the services they needed. For example, at least
    four case study districts H, K, G, and A
    discouraged immediate placement of ELs into
    special education in order to prevent
    overrepresentation of ELs in special education.
    Three of these districts required additional
    language interventions or strategies to be tried
    out before ELs were screened for special
    education .
  • You might find additional information from this
    report of interest, as follows
  • National Evaluation of Title III Implementation
    Report on State and Local Implementation, US
    Department of Education (2012, p. 33-34)
    http//www2.ed.gov/rschstat/eval/title-iii/state-l
    ocal-implementation-report.pdf

66
Learning is a Complex Neurological Process
http//fame.oln.org/udl/f2_18_173.html
  • Students with Learning Disabilities, for example,
    activate larger and more diverse areas of the
    brain when they read. For children with dyslexia,
    disruption in the rear reading systems in the
    left hemisphere that are critical for skilled,
    fluent reading (Area B in Figure 2) leads the
    children to try and compensate by using other,
    less efficient systems (Area A in Figure 2 and
    systems in the right hemisphere).
  • Hudson, R.F., High, L., Al Otaiba, S. (2007).
    Dyslexia and the brain What does current
    research tell us? Retrieved from
    http//www.ldonline.org/article/14907/

67
According to a recent study, students with
blindness or visual impairments utilize the
visual cortex when they kinesthetically "read"
Braille. In fact, the visual cortices clearly
responded to language, not to space. Moreover,
they were most active in response to high-level
language demands, just as the brains
traditional language centers are.
http//www.wired.com/wiredscience/2011/03/languag
e-and-blind-brains/ Students with Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) may be
using different pathways to process information,
especially in working memory tasks. Individuals
with AD/HD showed a very different pattern of
blood flow in the brain while taking the test.
Instead of having activity in the frontal
regions, they had increased blood flow in the
basal ganglia, especially when their answers were
correct. The basal ganglia area is typically
associated with response readiness and motor
control. Read more http//www.umm.edu/news/releas
es/adhd.htmixzz1vkV77atU
68
At the neuronal level, a person who learns to
read in Chinese uses a very particular set of
neuronal connections that differ in significant
ways from the pathways used in reading English.
When Chinese readers first try to read in
English, their brains attempt to use
Chinese-based neuronal pathways. The act of
learning to read Chinese characters has literally
shaped the Chinese reading brain (Wolf, 2007, p.
5). Taken from Proust and The Squid The Story
and Science of the Reading Brain
69
American Multicultural Transitions
  • 19th century Americanization model (merging all
    students into one American ideal)
  • Melting Pot (1900s) cultural assimilation or
    amalgamation
  • Salad Bowl
  • Ethnic Stew

70
Worldview (based on Ibrahim, 1991)
  • In its application, two things are necessary
  • The worldviews of both the teacher and the
    student must be recognized and understood
    (including an awareness of the cultural
    identities of both parties), and
  • the worldviews must be placed within a
    sociopolitical context, history of migration,
    acculturation level, languages spoken, and
    comfort with mainstream assumptions and values

71
(No Transcript)
72
Scale to Assess World View (SAWV) (Ibrahim
Kahn, 1994)
  • Nature
  • people vs. nature orientation, including
    whether we believe people subjugate and control
    nature, live in harmony with nature, or accept
    the power and control of nature over people
  • Time Orientation
  • temporal focus, including whether we value and
    function according to the past, present, or
    future
  • Activity Orientation
  • preferred modality of human activity, including
    being, being-in-becoming, and doing
  • Human Relationships
  • relational orientation or how we function in
    social relationships, including
    linear-hierarchical, collateral-mutual, and
    individualistic
  • Human Nature
  • view of humankind, including good, bad, or
    immutable (a combination of good and bad). A
    person who believes that all human beings have
    the potential for good is at the opposite end of
    the continuum compared to someone who believes
    that most people are born with the propensity to
    do bad things

73
Worldview Model
  • Sue (1981) offers the concept of a Worldview
    model in order to understand how one thinks and
    behaves in making decisions and interpreting
    events. This is a useful model to consider when
    working with families.
  • Two psychological orientations
  • locus of control (C) and
  • focus of responsibility (R) and
  • Two directions of force
  • internal (I) and
  • external (E).
  • IC-IR  These individuals believe that success is
    the result of one's own efforts, and they have a
    strong sense of control over what happens.
  • EC-ER  These individuals feel they have no
    control over what is happening and feel that such
    obstacles are not their responsibility either.
  • IC-ER  These individuals realize they are able
    to affect their children's lives if given a
    chance, though they realize that outside barriers
    like prejudice might hinder their ability to
    succeed.
  • EC-IR These individuals accept the dominant
    culture's definition of self responsibility, yet
    do not have any control over what is happening
    around them.

74
Expressing ourselves non-verbally in writing
Cross-cultural differences
  • Western emoticons
  • D laughing
  • QQ crying
  • X embarrassed
  • ?_? look of disapproval
  • Eastern emoticons
  • (_) laughing
  • (_) sad/crying
  • (_) embarrassed
  • m(__)m kowtow, as a sign of respect

75
(No Transcript)
76
Non-verbal body language - Handshakes
  • Handshakes can vary from culture to culture, and
    can even be different among individuals within
    the same culture. In parts of Northern Europe a
    quick firm one-pump handshake is expected. In
    parts of Southern Europe, Central and South
    America, a handshake is longer and warmer the
    left hand usually touches the clasped hands, the
    elbow, or even the lapel of the shakee. In
    Turkey, a firm handshake may be considered rude
    and aggressive. In certain African countries, a
    limp handshake is the standard. Men in Islamic
    countries usually do not shake the hands of women
    outside the family. In the highlands of New
    Guinea, the traditional greeting is for one
    person to extend a bent forefinger , which the
    other person pinches between his fore and middle
    fingers. Both hands are then rapidly pulled
    apart, causing the fore and middle fingers to
    make a "snapping" sound. The process is then
    repeated with the roles reversed.

77
Disability in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Groce,
1999)
  • Cultures view disability in three ways
  • By its cause
  • By its effect on valued attributes
  • By the status of the individual with a disability
    as an adult

78
Cultural Perspectives
  • Collectivism (Asian, African American, Native
    American, Latino/a) vs. Individualism (European
    American)
  • In Northern Mexico Botswana disability is
    evidence of God's trust in a parent's ability to
    care for a child
  • African American parents may hold broader
    perceptions of normalcy and have a broader range
    of expectations for children's behavioral
    developmental milestones than do many educational
    professionals may also depend heavily on
    spiritual support
  • Among Hispanics/Latinos, families often serve as
    a powerful support system and some conditions are
    viewed as reflection of individual differences
    rather than disability therefore, they adapt
    family and work roles to accommodate those
    differences. However, severe disability,
    especially developmental disability, is
    considered a stigma for many traditional Hispanic
    families some groups may use folk healing with
    professional interventions
  • Asian families sometimes struggle with loss of
    face, feelings of guilt, privacy, desire to use
    traditional practitioners along with or in lieu
    of professionals
  • Native American families may use belief in the
    interrelatedness of spirit and body and seek
    spiritual help in conjunction with mainstream
    practices

79
Medical Model vs. Cultural Model (Kalynapur
Harry, 1999)
  • Medical Model
  • Disability is a physical phenomenon.
  • Disability is an individual phenomenon.
  • Disability is a chronic illness.
  • Disability requires remediation or fixing.
  • Cultural Model
  • Disability is a spiritual phenomenon.
  • Disability is a group phenomenon (e.g., the
    family and society are causal agents).
  • Disability is a time-limited phenomenon.
  • Disability must be accepted, which affects
    whether the family seeks intervention.

80
Cultural Reciprocity (Kalyanpur Harry, 1999)
  • Step 1 Identify the cultural values in your
    interpretation of a student's difficulties or in
    the recommendation for service.
  • Step 2 Find out whether the family members being
    served recognize and value your assumptions, and
    if not, how their views differ from yours.
  • Step 3 Acknowledge and give explicit respect to
    any cultural differences identified, and fully
    explain the cultural basis of your assumptions.
  • Step 4 Through discussion and collaboration, set
    about determining the most effective way of
    adapting your professional interpretations or
    recommendations to the value system of this
    family.

81
Understanding Your Cultural Identity
  • Teachers can also use Vaughn, Bos Schumms
    (2009) twelve cultural characteristics as a basis
    for self- assessment by examining their own
    values and morays as follows
  • Time Perceptions of both time and timeliness.
  • Space Measure of personal space when interacting
    with others.
  • Dress and Food Examining whether there are
    different dress codes for different ages,
    genders, and socioeconomic background acceptable
    clothing and characteristic foods.
  • Rituals and Ceremonies General rituals and
    ceremonies observed by the individual and his or
    her family measures of demonstrating respect.
  • Work Values of employment, including age at
    which an individual should begin to work and type
    of work expected in the home and in the
    community, and comfort with collaboration.
  • Leisure Opportunities for and ways of playing,
    relaxing, and enjoyment in the home and the
    community.
  • Gender Roles An examination of specific tasks
    performed by males and females and expectations
    of each genders achievements, with attention
    given to specific subject areas.
  • Status Examining family influences on ones
    place in society, and evaluating the role that
    schools and educators play in an individuals
    life as opposed to the influence of family on
    educational choices.
  • Goals Identifying influential and attractive
    employment goals, the role of education in
    achieving those goals, and the educational
    expectations for the individual.
  • Education Examining how the individual was
    taught at home, including exploring styles such
    as stories, analogies, direct instruction,
    nonverbal cues, imitation and modeling, corporal
    punishment, etc.
  • Communication Exploring the significance of
    verbal and nonverbal communication for learning
    and teaching examining the function of silence,
    specific questions, rhetorical questions, and
    mode of discussion identifying the language(s)
    of communication and exploring the value of and
    intensity of reading and writing.
  • Interaction Exploring how and whether the
    individual interacts individually, cooperatively,
    and competitively.

82
Cultural Characteristics and Collaboration with
Families (Orza, J. Medina,. J. 2011)
  • Dealing with feelings of alienation
  • Value extended family
  • Facilitate positive parent-school relationships
  • Maintain high expectations

83
Collaborating With Teachers, Administrators,
Support Personnel, and Family
  • Emphasis on confidentiality
  • Stress students self-advocacy and
    self-awareness/self-determination (teach if
    necessary)
  • Develop a collaborative partnership with all
    parties including the student, if appropriate
  • Provide adequate and equal services ESOL and
    Special Education

84
Myths of Second Language Acquisition and
Bilingualism
  • Answer each of the following statements with
    true or false.
  • 1. Adults learn second languages more quickly and
    easily than young children. T F
  • 2. According to research, students in ESL-only
    programs, with no schooling in their native
    language, take 7-10 years to reach grade level
    norms. T F
  • 3. A lot of immigrant children have learning
    disabilities, not language problems. They speak
    English just fine but they are still failing
    academically. T F
  • 4. Older generations of immigrants learned
    without all the special language programs that
    immigrant children receive now. It was "sink or
    swim" and they did just fine! T F
  • 5. Second language learners will acquire academic
    English faster if their parents speak English at
    home. T F
  • 6. The more time students spend soaking up
    English in the mainstream classroom, the more
    they quickly they will learn the language. T
    F
  • 7. Once students can speak English, they are
    ready to undertake the academic tasks of the
    mainstream classroom. T F
  • 8. Cognitive and academic development in native
    language has an important and positive effect on
    second language acquisition. T F
  • 9. The culture of students doesnt affect how
    long it takes them to acquire English. All
    students learn language the same way. T F

85
The IEP Process for CLDE (Collier,C. 2004)
  • Set up and conduct IEP meeting
  • Review Intervention and Evaluation information
  • Identify all of the students needs
  • Acculturation
  • Cognitive learning styles
  • Culture
  • Experience
  • Language
  • Identify appropriate interventions and
    approaches, including Assistive Technology
  • Dont forget about transition

86
  • To ensure adequate instruction for
  • students with LD Fletcher, Coulter, Reschly,
    Vaughn
  • Identification must focus on assessments that
    are directly related to instruction.
  • Services for struggling students must focus on
    intervention, not eligibility.
  • Special education must focus on results and
    outcomes, not eligibility and process.
  • Identification models that include RTI will
    lead to better achievement and behavior outcomes
    for students with LD and those at risk for LD.

87
Factors Related to Identification and Prevention
of Language-related Disabilities Lyon Fletcher
  • Remediation rarely effective beyond 2nd grade
  • Current measurement practices run counter to
    identifying LD prior to 2nd grade
  • Federal policy and the sociology of public
    education allow ineffective policies to continue
    unchecked.
  • Early intervention is key!

88
Response to Intervention Model NRCD
Baca/Fletcher
  • Students receive high quality instruction in
    general education classroom
  • Native language literacy should be priority
  • General education instruction is research-based
  • General education personnel play an integral role
    in curriculum assessment
  • Use CBA and dynamic assessment
  • Assessment focus on bilingual strengths
  • Universal screening of academics behavior
  • Continuous monitoring of performance identify
    difficulties
  • Use of research-based interventions
  • Systematic assessment of intervention
  • Collect data on intervention efficacy and modify
    as needed

89
Essential Components of RTI
National Center on RTI - http//www.rti4success.or
g/
90
Response to Intervention
91
Response to Intervention Three-tiered Model
  • Tier 1 General Education Research-based core
    curriculum
  • Tier 2 Early Intervening Services - Increasing
    the time and intensity of the child's exposure to
    the core curriculum for children who do not
    appear to be responding appropriately to Tier 1
    instruction.
  • Tier 3 Intensive Intervention - Includes many
    children who have been found eligible for special
    education and related services, and some who have
    not.

92
Alphabet Soup
  • AYP adequate yearly progress
  • Auditory Discrimination The ability to identify
    the differences between sounds.
  • Automaticity The ability to complete a task
    without thinking of the step-by-step process.
    Reading requires automaticity, as does driving a
    car with standard transmission.
  • BICS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
  • CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
  • CHC Model Catell-Horn-Carroll Theory of
    Cognitive Abilities
  • Executive Functions The process of cognitive
    activity, including thought processes revolving
    around the ability to participate in and control
    directed, strategic, self-regulated, and
    goal-oriented behavior.

93
More Alphabet Soup
  • Corroboration In looking at test results from
    different instruments, there should be
    confirmation between tests for similar skills.
    For example, you would expect to find similar
    results in tests and subtests that evaluated
    reading comprehension skills.
  • Crystallized Intelligence Raymond Cattells
    theory that intelligence falls into two types
    crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf). Crystallized
    intelligence is made up of abilities that are
    influenced by acculturation. On the WJ-III, Gc
    may be measured by Verbal Comprehension and
    General Information.
  • FAPE Free and Appropriate Education
  • Fluid Intelligence Raymond Cattells theory
    that intelligence falls into two types
    crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf). Fluid
    Intelligence is affected by neurological and
    biological causes, as well as supplementary
    learning via interfacing with ones environs. On
    the WJ-III, Gf can be measured by Concept
    Formation and Analysis-Synthesis.
  • LRE least restrictive environment

94
Principles of Assessment
  • An assessment is only as good as the individual
    who interprets the data
  • An assessment is a continuous, dynamic process
  • A test is only a small sample of behavior a
    snapshot
  • Any single test or observation in isolation is
    insufficient grounds for drawing meaningful
    diagnostic conclusions
  • Academic or other difficulties are rarely
    attributable to a single cause
  • Assessment is far more than determining an
    individuals weaknesses it is more important to
    ask, What can this student do?

95
Assessment of English language learners with
special needs should include the
followingadapted from Morrison
  • Consideration of cultural and developmental
    information
  • Collaboration of parents, teachers, counselors,
    psychologists, speech/language pathologists, and
    ESL specialists
  • Determination of first language proficiency
  • Determination of English Language Proficiency
  • Examination of assessor's cultural assumptions
    and expectations
  • Continual revision of the assessment instruments
    and procedures used

96
(No Transcript)
97
Identification of English language learners with
exceptionalities should also include
consideration of the following factorsadapted
from Morrison
  • Family history
  • Developmental and health history
  • First language and literacy development
  • Previous schooling
  • Cultural attitudes toward education
  • Learning styles
  • Learners current academic ability

98
Assessment of English language learners with
special needs should also include the following
  • Consideration of cultural and deve
About PowerShow.com