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Literacy Standards for Writing in Social Studies/History, Science, and Technical Subjects Grades 6-12

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Title: Literacy Standards for Writing in Social Studies/History, Science, and Technical Subjects Grades 6-12


1
Literacy Standards for Writing in Social
Studies/History, Science, and Technical Subjects
Grades 6-12
  • This session will begin at 330 p.m. on Nov. 9,
    2011
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11/15/2013
1
2
Accessing the Session Recording
Recordings are accessed by going to
http//elluminate.gavirtualschools.org/doe and
click on the Recordings tab. Recordings are
posted approximately 15 minutes after the session
is closed (all attendees must logout before the
recordings can be created).
3
UNDERSTANDING THE COMMON CORE Georgia
Performance Standards Literacy Standards for
Writing in Social Studies/History, Science, and
Technical Subjects Grades 6-12
Wednesday, November 9, 2011 330 430 pm
4
WELCOME! Kim Jeffcoat State Program
Coordinator English Language Arts and
Literacy kjeffcoat_at_doe.k12.ga.us
CCGPS
5
Introductions
  • Sallie Mills
  • English Language Arts Literacy Program
    Specialist
  • smills_at_doe.k12.ga.us
  • Susan Jacobs
  • English Language Arts Literacy Program
    Specialist
  • sjacobs_at_doe.k12.ga.us
  • Andria Bunner
  • English Language Arts Literacy Program
    Specialist
  • abunner_at_doe.k12.ga.us
  • Angela Baker Julie Morrill
  • Education Technology Specialist Literacy Program
    Specialist
  • anbaker_at_doe.k12.ga.us jmorrill_at_doe.k12.ga.us
  • Mary Lynn Huie
  • Gates Literacy Trainer
  • mhuie_at_doe.k12.ga.us

6
Three Sets of Standards
  • College and Career Readiness Standards (CCR)
  • Common Core Georgia Performance Standards
    (CCGPS)
  • Literacy Standards for History/Social Studies,
    Science, and Technical Subjects

7
Literacy Standards for Writing
  • CCR WRITING STANDARD 1 Write arguments to
    support claims in an analysis of substantive
    topics or texts, using valid reasoning and
    relevant and sufficient evidence.
  • L6-8WHST1 Write arguments focused on
    discipline-specific content.
  • a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue,
    acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from
    alternate or opposing claims, and organize the
    reasons and evidence logically.
  • b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and
    relevant, accurate data and evidence that
    demonstrate an understanding of the topic or
    text, using credible sources.
  • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create
    cohesion and clarify the relationships among
    claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • e. Provide a concluding statement or section
    that follows from and supports the argument
    presented.

8
CCR WRITING STANDARD 1 Write arguments to
support claims in an analysis of substantive
topics or texts, using valid reasoning and
relevant and sufficient evidence.
  • L9-10WHST1 Write arguments focused on
    discipline-specific content.
  • a. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the
    claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and
    create an organization that establishes clear
    relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims,
    reasons, and evidence.
  • b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly,
    supplying data and evidence for each while
    pointing out the strengths and limitations of
    both claim(s) and counterclaims in a
    discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that
    anticipates the audiences knowledge level and
    concerns.
  • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the
    major sections of the text, create cohesion, and
    clarify the relationships between claim(s) and
    reasons, between reasons and evidence, and
    between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • d. Establish and maintain a formal style and
    objective tone while attending to the norms and
    conventions of the discipline in which they are
    writing.
  • e. Provide a concluding statement or section
    that follows from or supports the argument
    presented.

9
CCR WRITING STANDARD 1 Write arguments to
support claims in an analysis of substantive
topics or texts, using valid reasoning and
relevant and sufficient evidence.
  • L11-12WHST1 Write arguments focused on
    discipline-specific content.
  • a. Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s),
    establish the significance of the claim(s),
    distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or
    opposing claims, and create an organization that
    logically sequences the claim(s), counterclaims,
    reasons, and evidence.
  • b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly
    and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant data
    and evidence for each while pointing out the
    strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and
    counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form
    that anticipates the audiences knowledge level,
    concerns, values, and possible biases.
  • c. Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as
    varied syntax to link the major sections of the
    text, create cohesion, and clarify the
    relationships between claim(s) and reasons,
    between reasons and evidence, and between
    claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • d. Establish and maintain a formal style and
    objective tone while attending to the norms and
    conventions of the discipline in which they are
    writing.
  • e. Provide a concluding statement or section
    that follows from or supports the argument
    presented.

10
Staircase of Rigor in W1, Element a.
GRADES 6-8 a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic
or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the
claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and
organize the reasons and evidence logically.
GRADES 9-10 a. Introduce precise claim(s),
distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or
opposing claims, and create an organization that
establishes clear relationships among the
claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
GRADES !!-12 a. Introduce precise,
knowledgeable claim(s), establish the
significance of the claim(s), distinguish the
claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and
create an organization that logically sequences
the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and
evidence.
11
CCR WRITING STANDARD 2 Write informative/explana
tory texts to examine and convey complex ideas
and information clearly and accurately through
the effective selection, organization, and
analysis of content.
  • L6-8WHST2 Write informative/explanatory
    texts, including the narration of historical
    events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or
    technical processes.
  • a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what
    is to follow organize ideas, concepts, and
    information into broader categories as
    appropriate to achieving purpose include
    formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g.,
    charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to
    aiding comprehension.
  • b. Develop the topic with relevant,
    well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details,
    quotations, or other information and examples.
  • c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to
    create cohesion and clarify the relationships
    among ideas and concepts.
  • d. Use precise language and domain-specific
    vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • e. Establish and maintain a formal style and
    objective tone.
  • f. Provide a concluding statement or section
    that follows from and supports the information or
    explanation presented.
  • L6-8WHST3 (See note not applicable as a
    separate requirement)

12
CCR WRITING STANDARD 2 Write informative/explana
tory texts to examine and convey complex ideas
and information clearly and accurately through
the effective selection, organization, and
analysis of content.
  • L9-10WHST2 Write informative/explanatory texts,
    including the narration of historical events,
    scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical
    processes.
  • a. Introduce a topic and organize ideas,
    concepts, and information to make important
    connections and distinctions include formatting
    (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures,
    tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding
    comprehension.
  • b. Develop the topic with well-chosen,
    relevant, and sufficient facts, extended
    definitions, concrete details, quotations, or
    other information and examples appropriate to the
    audiences knowledge of the topic.
  • c. Use varied transitions and sentence
    structures to link the major sections of the
    text, create cohesion, and clarify the
    relationships among ideas and concepts.
  • d. Use precise language and domain-specific
    vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic
    and convey a style appropriate to the discipline
    and context as well as to the expertise of likely
    readers.
  • e. Establish and maintain a formal style and
    objective tone while attending to the norms and
    conventions of the discipline in which they are
    writing.
  • f. Provide a concluding statement or section
    that follows from and supports the information or
    explanation presented (e.g., articulating
    implications or the significance of the topic).

13
CCR WRITING STANDARD 2 Write informative/explana
tory texts to examine and convey complex ideas
and information clearly and accurately through
the effective selection, organization, and
analysis of content.
  • L11-12WHST2 Write informative/explanatory
    texts, including the narration of historical
    events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or
    technical processes.
  • a. Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas,
    concepts, and information so that each new
    element builds on that which precedes it to
    create a unified whole include formatting (e.g.,
    headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and
    multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • b. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the
    most significant and relevant facts, extended
    definitions, concrete details, quotations, or
    other information and examples appropriate to the
    audiences knowledge of the topic.
  • c. Use varied transitions and sentence structures
    to link the major sections of the text, create
    cohesion, and clarify the relationships among
    complex ideas and concepts.
  • d. Use precise language, domain-specific
    vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor,
    simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of
    the topic convey a knowledgeable stance in a
    style that responds to the discipline and context
    as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
  • e. Provide a concluding statement or section that
    follows from and supports the information or
    explanation provided (e.g., articulating
    implications or the significance of the topic).

14
CCR WRITING STANDARD 3 Write narratives to
develop real or imagined experiences or events
using effective technique, well-chosen details,
and well-structured event sequences.
No standard for narrative writing for Social
Studies/History, Science, and Technical Subjects
15
CCR WRITING STANDARD 4 Produce clear and
coherent writing in which the development,
organization, and style are appropriate to task,
purpose, and audience.
L6-8WHST4 Produce clear and coherent writing in
which the development, organization, and style
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
L9-10WHST4 Produce clear and coherent writing in
which the development, organization, and style
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
L11-12WHST4 Produce clear and coherent writing
in which the development, organization, and style
are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
16
CCR WRITING STANDARD 5 Develop and strengthen
writing as needed by planning, revising, editing,
rewriting, or trying a new approach
L6-8WHST5 With some guidance and support from
peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing
as needed by planning, revising, editing,
rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on
how well purpose and audience have been
addressed.
L9-10WHST5 Develop and strengthen writing as
needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting,
or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing
what is most significant for a specific purpose
and audience.
L11-12WHST5 Develop and strengthen writing as
needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting,
or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing
what is most significant for a specific purpose
and audience.
17
CCR WRITING STANDARD 6 Use technology,
including the Internet, to produce and publish
writing and to interact and collaborate with
others.
L6-8WHST6 Use technology, including the
Internet, to produce and publish writing and
present the relationships between information and
ideas clearly and efficiently.
L9-10WHST6 Use technology, including the
Internet, to produce, publish, and update
individual or shared writing products, taking
advantage of technologys capacity to link to
other information and to display information
flexibly and dynamically.
L11-12WHST6 Use technology, including the
Internet, to produce, publish, and update
individual or shared writing products in response
to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or
information.
18
CCR WRITING STANDARD 7 Conduct short as well as
more sustained research projects based on focused
questions, demonstrating understanding of the
subject under investigation.
L6-8WHST7 Conduct short research projects to
answer a question (including a self-generated
question), drawing on several sources and
generating additional related, focused questions
that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
L9-10WHST7 Conduct short as well as more
sustained research projects to answer a question
(including a self-generated question) or solve a
problem narrow or broaden the inquiry when
appropriate synthesize multiple sources on the
subject, demonstrating understanding of the
subject under investigation.
L11-12WHST7 Conduct short as well as more
sustained research projects to answer a question
(including a self-generated question) or solve a
problem narrow or broaden the inquiry when
appropriate synthesize multiple sources on the
subject, demonstrating understanding of the
subject under investigation.
19
CCR WRITING STANDARD 8 Gather relevant
information from multiple print and digital
sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of
each source, and integrate the information while
avoiding plagiarism.
L6-8WHST8 Gather relevant information from
multiple print and digital sources, using search
terms effectively assess the credibility and
accuracy of each source and quote or paraphrase
the data and conclusions of others while avoiding
plagiarism and following a standard format for
citation.
L9-10WHST8 Gather relevant information from
multiple authoritative print and digital sources,
using advanced searches effectively assess the
usefulness of each source in answering the
research question integrate information into the
text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas,
avoiding plagiarism and following a standard
format for citation.
L11-12WHST8 Gather relevant information from
multiple authoritative print and digital sources,
using advanced searches effectively assess the
strengths and limitations of each source in terms
of the specific task, purpose, and audience
integrate information into the text selectively
to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding
plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and
following a standard format for citation.
20
CCR WRITING STANDARD 9 Draw evidence from
literary or informational texts to support
analysis, reflection, and research.
L6-8WHST9 Draw evidence from informational texts
to support analysis, reflection, and research.
L9-10WHST9 Draw evidence from informational
texts to support analysis, reflection, and
research.
L11-12WHST9 Draw evidence from informational
texts to support analysis, reflection, and
research.
21
CCR WRITING STANDARD 10 Write routinely over
extended time frames (time for research,
reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames
(a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of
tasks, purposes, and audiences.
L6-8WHST10 Write routinely over extended time
frames (time for reflection and revision) and
shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or
two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks,
purposes, and audiences.
L9-10WHST10 Write routinely over extended time
frames (time for reflection and revision) and
shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or
two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks,
purposes, and audiences.
L11-12WHST10 Write routinely over extended time
frames (time for reflection and revision) and
shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or
two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks,
purposes, and audiences.
22
Use the Common Core Literacy Standards for
Writing to help add focus to your existing
writing assignments
23
Here is a U.S. History assignment from the DOE
frameworks
  • Uncle Sams Real Estate Company needs to attract
    immigrants for an emerging America. Students will
    create a real estate brochure that outlines the
    formation of American culture with attention to
    territorial expansion, the emergence of industry,
    and reform in society in the post-War of 1812
    environment. Students real estate brochures
    should give an overall picture of America
    following the War of 1812. This will be
    accomplished by writing persuasive articles from
    the perspective of American citizens, developing
    advertisements for technological innovations, and
    creating maps showing national development. You
    should evaluate factors of the post-War of 1812
    period causing a need for more immigrants. (Be
    sure to consider how our nation would have
    developed differently if immigrants had not
    populated America.) 1. Articles should be written
    from the perspective of an American citizen and
    should be about the following reform movements.
    You should use persuasive techniques to emphasize
    how America is changing for the better. This
    article will be used to attract immigrants from
    other countries. You should consider how America
    might be better than other places in the world.
    The following topics should be addressed
  • Education improving under ideas of Horace Mann
    and/or describe the public education system in
    the U.S. during this time period
  • Advancement of Womens Rights through the Seneca
    Falls Convention and key figures such as
    Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others
  • Abolitionism and the fight to end slavery should
    include key abolitionists
  • Typed, double spaced 12 times Roman numeral font
    - Written first person - Each topic must be a
    lengthy paragraph (6-8 sentences)
  • In addition to the persuasive arguments, students
    will have advertisements in their brochures
    showing the American Industrial Revolution
    through Eli Whitneys inventions, and other
    inventors of that era.

24
How can the CCGPS Literacy Standards add Rigor
and Focus?
L6-8WHST1 Write arguments focused on
discipline-specific content. a. Introduce
claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and
distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or
opposing claims, and organize the reasons and
evidence logically. b. Support claim(s) with
logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and
evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the
topic or text, using credible sources. e.
Provide a concluding statement or section that
follows from and supports the argument
presented. L6-8WHST5 With some guidance and
support from peers and adults, develop and
strengthen writing as needed by planning,
revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new
approach, focusing on how well purpose and
audience have been addressed. L6-8WHST6 Use
technology, including the Internet, to produce
and publish writing and present the relationships
between information and ideas clearly and
efficiently. L6-8WHST8 Gather relevant
information from multiple print and digital
sources, using search terms effectively assess
the credibility and accuracy of each source and
quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of
others while avoiding plagiarism and following a
standard format for citation. L6-8WHST9 Draw
evidence from informational texts to support
analysis reflection, and research.
  • Students create brochure that gives an overall
    picture of America following the War of 1812.,
    using persuasive articles from the perspective of
    American citizens, developing advertisements for
    technological innovations, and creating maps
    showing national development.
  • Evaluate factors of the post-War of 1812 period
    causing a need for more immigrants. Articles
    should be written from the perspective of an
    American citizen and should be about the
    following reform movements. You should use
    persuasive techniques to emphasize how America is
    changing for the better. This article will be
    used to attract immigrants from other countries.
  • Horace Mann /public education system
  • Advancement of Womens Rights
  • Abolitionism and the fight to end slavery
  • Typed, double spaced 12 times Roman numeral font
    - Written first person - Each topic must be a
    lengthy paragraph (6-8 sentences)

25
GRADE SIX SOCIAL STUDIES, UNIT 2, PAGE 5
EUROPE TODAY
L6-8WHST1 Write arguments focused on
discipline-specific content. a-e L6-8WHST
4,5,6,7, 8, 9
  • L6-8WHST1 a. acknowledge and distinguish the
    claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and
    organize the reasons and evidence logically.
  • b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and
    relevant, accurate data and using credible
    sources.
  • L6-8WHST5 develop and strengthen writing as
    needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting,
    or trying a new approach, focusing on how well
    purpose and audience have been addressed.
  • L6-8WHST7 Conduct short research projects to
    answer a question (including a self-generated
    question), drawing on several sources and
    generating additional related, focused questions
    that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
  • L6-8WHST8 Gather relevant information from
    multiple print and digital sources, using search
    terms effectively assess the credibility and
    accuracy of each source and quote or paraphrase
    the data and conclusions of others while avoiding
    plagiarism and following a standard format for
    citation.
  • L6-8WHST9 Draw evidence from informational texts
    to support analysis reflection, and research.
  • Students will create a three circle Venn diagram
    comparing and contrasting the governments of the
    United Kingdom, Germany, and Russia. After
    recording the information through teacher
    directed discussion, students will discuss with a
    partner which government they prefer and why.
    After the peer discussions, students will write a
    three paragraph essay. The essay will discuss the
    similarities and differences between the
    governments as well as which government they
    prefer and why. SS6CG5a

26
GRADE SEVEN BUSINESS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE, UNIT
9, PAGE 4 INFORMATION SYSTEMS CAREERS
L6-8WHST2 Write informative/explanatory texts,
including the narration of historical events,
scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical
processes. a-f L6-8WHST4,5,6,7,8,9
  • LESSON 1 INFORMATION SYSTEMS CAREERS
  • Discussion
  • Students choose an information systems career.
    Using www.bls.gov, collect information about the
    career. (Career Research handout)
  • Using Microsoft Publisher or Word, create a
    flyer to display the information about the
    career. (Flyer Rubric)

27
GRADE EIGHT SCIENCE, UNIT FOOD AND COOKING,
PAGE 5
L6-8WHST2 Write informative/explanatory texts,
including the narration of historical events,
scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical
processes. a-f L6-8WHST4,5,6,7,8,9
  • Write questions or activities to use or apply the
    concept (represent, model, visualize, or design
    new experiments).
  • What method was best, according to your criteria?
  • Did each of your cooking methods utilize only one
    method of heat transfer?
  • Was all the energy transferred in each method? If
    not, did it disappear? How can you account for
    it?
  • How could you increase the efficiency of heat
    transfer with each method of cooking?
  • What energy conversions were involved in your
    cooking of food?
  • What forms of energy were involved?
  • Was potential or kinetic energy involved? Was one
    converted to the other?

28
GRADES NINE-TEN WORLD GEOGRAPHY, UNIT 9,
MILITARY BRIEFING, PAGE 2
L9-10WHST2 Write informative/explanatory texts,
including the narration of historical events,
scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical
processes. a-f L9-10WHST4,5,6,7,8,9
  • You will write a briefing of the military
    situation in Baghdad, Iraq, as though you were a
    deployed soldier. The statement should explain
    how historical events in Southwest Asia influence
    contemporary issues and how the interrelationship
    between human and physical systems will impact
    the mission(s) of the troops. Based on the
    following information from the US Army website
    Format for the briefing
  • Introduction. Greeting. Address the person(s)
    being briefed. Identify yourself and your
    organization. Give the type and classification of
    the briefing. Explain the purpose and scope of
    your briefing. Provide an outline.
  • Body. Arrange the main ideas in a logical
    sequence. Use visual aids correctly to emphasize
    your main ideas. Plan effective transitions from
    one main point to the next. Be prepared to answer
    questions at any time.
  • 3. Closing. Ask for questions. Briefly recap
    your main ideas and make a concluding
    statement.

29
GRADES ELEVEN-TWELVE PHYSICS, UNIT 1, WAVES,
PAGE 9
L11-12WHST2 Write informative/explanatory texts,
including the narration of historical events,
scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical
processes. a-f L11-12WHST4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
  • Student Research Project
  • Objective
  • The objective of this culminating task is to
    connect the physics concepts presented throughout
    this unit with real life applications. To
    accomplish this, the student will complete a
    research project in which he/she will build an
    instrument that can be used to measure a physical
    variable. Furthermore, it is also expected that
    the student will prepare an oral presentation
    with visual aids and write a final report of
    his/her experiment. Both will emphasize
    connections between what he/she did and physical
    concepts studied.

30
GRADES ELEVEN-TWELVE ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY,
UNIT 11, COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS, PAGES 4,5
L11-12WHST2 Write informative/explanatory texts,
including the narration of historical events,
scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical
processes. a-f L11-12WHST4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
  • Assessment(s) Title Communications Systems
    PowerPoint Project
  • Assessment(s) Description/Directions
  • Students are to examine one communication
    technology system and provide the class with an
    in-depth presentation. Minimum requirements of
    the presentation can be found below in the
    assessment rubric. The assignment sheet and
    requirements can also be found in the document
    titled Communications Systems PowerPoint Project,
    an instructional material accompanying this
    lesson.
  • Attachments for Assessment(s) Please list.
  • 5 slide minimum including 4 graphics/photographs,
    2 sound bytes, minimum
  •  Name of communication technology, your name,
    course and date
  • Date the communication technology was introduced
    or patented, and person or company credited with
    innovation or invention
  • Description of the technology and how it works
  • Explanation of the social change that this
    technology brought about Example drive thru
    technologies have impacted the relationship we
    have with local merchants
  • Bibliography, including books, web-sites used for
    information, and photographs
  •  

31
TOOLS IN DEVELOPMENT SAMPLE LDC TEMPLATE TASK
LDC Step One Formulate your question Fill in the
analysis prompt blanks After reading
____________________, write an ______________
that addresses the question and support your
position with evidence from the text(s). Be sure
to acknowledge competing views. Give examples
from past or current vents or issues to
illustrate and clarify your position.
SCIENCE STANDARD Students will understand that
electromagnetic waves, including radio waves,
microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light,
ultraviolet radiation, x-rays, and gamma rays
result when a charge object is accelerated, After
reading ____________________, write an
______________ that addresses the question and
support your position with evidence from the
text(s). Be sure to acknowledge competing views.
Give examples from past or current vents or
issues to illustrate and clarify your position.
Do cell phones have the potential to impact our
health in a negative way? After reading a variety
of peer-reviewed scientific journal articles on
the subject, write a report that addresses the
question and support your position with evidence
from the text. Be sure to acknowledge competing
views. Give examples from past or current vents
or issues to illustrate and clarify your
position.
32
IT IS ALL ABOUT ANCHORING WRITING TO TEXTS, AND
INCREASING RIGOR
How can the rigor levels of tasks be varied?
Individual tasks can be made simple or complex
by varying the task demand, with up to three
tiers of possibilities Level 1 refers to the
most fundamental ?level of difficulty? and
narrows the task to those skills in reading,
writing and critical thinking that are essential
for the task. Often more than one version of L1
is given to allow for choice. Level 2 refers to
a ?next-step-up skill or cognitive demand such as
managing more than one point of view or multiple
processes. Level 3 adds additional demand to the
task in which student writers are asked to make
connections and use background knowledge to
reflect implications beyond the specific topic.
By choice of reading materials. The rigor level
of a task also can be adjusted by varying text
type and complexity, as well as by the number and
length of texts students are asked to read.
Reading demands are tethered to difficulty levels
that are being established by the CCSS through
its text complexity specifications. Currently,
common core exemplars and systems such as Lexile
scores set the demand levels. By type of
writing demand. Demand levels for academic
writing will be established as common core
exemplars are produced and assessment systems are
developed. The type of writing demand can be
varied as part of a larger instructional strategy
that includes scaffolding and student engagement.
By content difficulty. The selection of the
level of content difficulty is based on state and
local expectations, as well as on the
practitioners knowledge of the field.
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Literacy Strategies
  • Anticipation Guides
  • Chunking
  • Directed Reading/Thinking (ex KWL)
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Fishbowl
  • Frayer
  • Précis
  • Jigsaw
  • Summarizing/Paraphrasing
  • RAFT/TPCASTT/ SOAPSTONE
  • Semantic mapping
  • SQ3R
  • Graphic organizers (Venn diagram, herring bone)
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