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National Board Certification: Who Becomes NBPTS Certified and What Are the Consequences for Students?

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National Board Certification: Who Becomes NBPTS Certified and What Are the Consequences for Students? Dan Goldhaber University of Washington and The Urban Institute – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: National Board Certification: Who Becomes NBPTS Certified and What Are the Consequences for Students?


1
National Board Certification Who Becomes NBPTS
Certified and What Are the Consequences for
Students?
  • Dan Goldhaber
  • University of Washington and The Urban Institute

2
History of the National Board
  • Grew out of the Carnegie Forums A Nation
    Prepared Teachers for the 21st Century (1986)
  • Founded in 1987 with the stated mission to
  • Establish high and rigorous standards for what
    accomplished teachers should know and be able to
    do
  • Develop and operate a national voluntary system
    to assess and certify teachers who meet these
    standards
  • Advance related education reforms for the purpose
    of improving student learning in American schools

3
Increase in NBPTS-Certified Teachers
4
Why Should We Care About NBPTS Certification?
  • Teachers matter!
  • Unmeasured characteristics - Goldhaber et al.
    (1999), Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain (2001),
    Sanders (1997)
  • Academic Skills - Ehrenberg and Brewer (1994),
    Strauss and Sawyer (1986), Wayne (2001), Ferguson
    (1991, 1998) - 1 standard deviation increase in
    teacher licensure scores raises student scores by
    .17 standard deviations
  • NBPTS designed to identify effective teachers
  • Significant expenditures on NBPTS
  • Rewards associated with NBPTS certification are a
    significant departure from the single salary
    schedule
  • Potential long-term influence on teachers
    recruitment and career paths

5
Certification Process
  • Two major components of assessment
  • Portfolio Classroom practices, teacher
    reflection community involvement
  • Videotaped classroom interactions, collected
    student work (includes assessments, instructional
    materials), documented work with families,
    community, colleagues, and professional
    organizations
  • Assessment center exercises Content
    pedagogical knowledge tests
  • Constructive responses (essays) to challenging
    classroom situations
  • Must meet performance standard of 275 points
  • Certification process takes 6-12 months and is
    valid for 10 years

6
Expenditure on NBPTS
  • By 2002, NBPTS had received over
  • 109 million in federal funds
  • 106 million from non-federal sources
  • State and local expenditures
  • Reimbursement of assessment fees
  • Release time and preparation materials
  • One time bonus or annual salary increase

7
State and Local Expenditures on NBPTS (North
Carolina Example)
1st year Cost for Individual Certification
Total Cost to NC
Reimbursement of assessment fee
(x 2,037 applicants)
2,300
4,685,100


Annual salary increase
(x 1,064 certified)
5,389
5,706,951
Total cost 1st year
7,689
Total cost 1st year
10,392,051
10 Year Cost for Individual Certification
56,190
61,754,610
10 Year Cost to NC
8
Some Key Questions
  • What factors are associated with the decision to
    seek NBPTS certification?
  • What factors are associated with the success of
    applicants to NBPTS?
  • Can we judge the effectiveness of NBPTS based on
    student outcomes
  • Identification of effective teachers
  • NBPTS process as professional development
  • How does NBPTS certification affect teachers
    career paths
  • Length of time that teachers remain in the
    teaching profession
  • Distribution across districts, schools, and
    students?

9
Key Findings
  • Influences on probability of application
  • Teacher demographics and test scores
  • Districts financial incentives for successful
    applicants
  • Influences on probability of certification
  • Major effect of teacher race
  • Strong positive effects of teacher test scores
  • Simulations suggest major reason for increased
    certification rates is change in applicant pool
    (stronger applicants)
  • Uneven student outcome results
  • Stronger evidence favoring NBPTS certified
    teachers for younger students and in math

10
Previous Studies (1) Reasons for Seeking
Certification and Perceptions of Effects
  • CPRE case studies
  • Finds applicants in districts were motivated by
  • Desire to validate their teaching techniques and
    obtain leadership position, monetary incentive
  • Widespread belief in benefits of NBPTS
    certification to schools, teachers and students
  • NBPTS surveys
  • Most NBPTS teachers report certification process
  • Is excellent professional development (80)
  • Has positively affected teaching practices (91)
  • Has resulted in positive impacts on student
    engagement, motivation, and achievement (69)

11
Previous Studies (2) Student Outcomes
  • Bond study
  • NBPTS teachers outperform non-certified peers in
    11 of 13 key teaching dimensions
  • Does not use pre- and post-year measures of
    student performance or adjust for differences
    among students
  • Stone study
  • NBPTS certified teachers are not particularly
    effective as measured by TVAAS scores
  • No comparison group or control for student
    background factors, reliance on 115 as a
    benchmark for high performing

12
Data Sources
  • N. C. Department of Public Instruction
  • Teacher and student records
  • NBPTS/Educational Testing Service
  • NBPTS candidate teacher records
  • Common Core of Data
  • Community and school district characteristics
  • Survey of administrative offices of N.C. school
    districts
  • Incentives for NBPTS candidates and teachers

13
Why North Carolina Data?
  • Comprehensive accountability system allows for
    student teacher links
  • Student level (about 1 million obs/year)
  • Background race, parent education level
  • Subject and year-end test scores grades 3-12
  • Teacher level (over 70,000 obs/year)
  • Background race, age, license, years experience
  • Candidates scores on NBPTS assessments
  • Strong backing of NBPTS by Gov. Hunt
  • NC has about a quarter of the NBPTS teachers in
    U.S.

14
Teacher Characteristics
15
School Characteristics
16
District and Community Characteristics
17
Analytic Approach
  • OLS and logit models of the factors associated
    with
  • Application for NBPTS certification
  • The likelihood of successful certification
  • NBPTS assessment scores
  • Fixed and random effects models to account for
    potential correlation of error terms across
    schools/districts over time
  • Bivariate probit to account for potential
    correlation of error terms between applicant and
    certification models

18
Selected Coefficient Estimates
19
Application Model Results
  • Teacher variables
  • Those who are younger, African-American, and/or
    female are more likely to apply
  • Those fully licensed, and receiving a license
    from a North Carolina approved teacher training
    institution more likely to apply
  • Teacher test score and year dummy variables are
    significant
  • Salary incentive, but not bonus, has an impact

20
Certification Model Results
  • Those who are younger, female, and/or with
    Masters degrees are more likely to obtain
    certification
  • African-Americans far less likely to obtain
    certification
  • Teacher test score is significant, but no
    significant difference in slope or intercepts
    across years
  • Suggests certification is not becoming easier
  • NBPTS assessment model results parallel results
    from certification models

21
Simulations
  • Application and certification probabilities, and
    NBPTS assessment scores over time
  • For a hypothetical teacher with the same
    characteristics as the 1997 sample mean
  • With changes in teacher test (z-) scores
  • For teachers who switches from an affluent to a
    disadvantaged school/district
  • Application probabilities with changes in
    district incentive variables
  • Use these results to simulate costs and benefits

22
Probability of Application (Teacher with 1997
Mean Characteristics)
23
Simulated Application Rates by Z-Score and Year
24
Simulated Conditional Certification Rates by
Z-Score and Year
25
Mean Characteristics of Affluent and
Disadvantaged Schools
26
Simulated Application and Certification Rates by
School and Teacher Type
27
Simulated Marginal Effects of Local Salary
Incentives
28
So is NBPTS Identifying Effective
Teachers? (Using NC test scores as measure of
student gains to measure teacher effectiveness)
  • What are the Right Student Outcome Comparisons?
  • Certified versus non-certified teachers
  • Relative effectiveness of NBPTS certified
    teachers
  • Non-certified applicants versus non-applicants
  • Evidence of teacher motivation
  • Non-certified applicants versus certified
    applicants
  • NBPTS ability to discern teacher effectiveness
  • Certified applicants over time
  • NBPTS process as professional development
  • Multiple grades and subjects

29
Preliminary Evidence 1997
30
Preliminary Evidence 1998
31
Preliminary Evidence 1999
32
Student Achievement Results
  • Relative to students of non-certified applicants
    in
  • 18 of 18 cases students of NBPTS teachers had
    higher end-of-year scores
  • 17 of 18 cases students of NBPTS teachers had
    higher beginning-of-year scores
  • 9 of 18 cases students of NBPTS teachers had
    higher growth scores
  • 5 of 6 cases in 3rd grade
  • 2 of 6 cases in 4th grade
  • 2 of 6 cases in 5th grade
  • 6 of 9 cases in math, across grades
  • 3 of 9 cases in reading, across grades

33
Conclusions
  • Strong correlation (across time) between teacher
    test scores and application, certification, and
    NBPTS assessment scores
  • Significant differences by race
  • Clear increase over time in the inclination to
    apply, but little evidence that the likelihood of
    certification has gone up over time
  • More academically skilled applicants explain
    majority of increase in certification rate
  • Uneven student outcome results
  • Stronger evidence favoring NBPTS certified
    teachers for younger students and in math

34
Next Steps
  • Multivariate analysis of effectiveness of NBPTS
    assessment process based on student outcomes
  • Identification of NBPTS teachers
  • NBPTS process as professional development
  • Assess impact of NBPTS on teachers career paths
  • Measure the influence of NBPTS certification on
    length of time in teaching profession and length
    of time teaching in particular districts or
    schools
  • Determine the types of districts, schools, and
    students are NBPTS-certified teachers most likely
    to teach
  • Measure the affect of district-specific
    NBPTS-related incentives on the mobility and
    distribution of NBPTS-certified teachers within
    the profession

35
BACKUP SLIDES
36
NBPTS Assessment Model Results
  • Generally parallel results from certification
    models
  • Interactions between teacher pretest score and
    year dummies are statistically significant
  • Implies a reduced correlation between pretest
    scores and NBPTS assessment scores in years
    following 1997

37
Probability of Certification (Teacher with 1997
Mean Characteristics)
38
NBPTS Assessment Score (Teacher with 1997 Mean
Characteristics)
39
Growth in Certification Areas
Projected
40
CPRE Study
  • Qualitative study to assess effects of NBPTS
    certification
  • Conducted interviews with 30 teachers, NBPTS
    candidates, administrators in 5 districts in 5
    different states that vary by level of incentive
    offered
  • Finds applicants in districts were motivated by
  • Desire to validate their teaching techniques
  • Obtain leadership position
  • Monetary incentive
  • Strong widespread belief in benefits of NBPTS
    certification to schools, teachers and students

41
Bond Study
  • Compares NBPTS certified to non-certified
    teachers (a total of 65) in 2 states and D.C.
  • Uses teacher surveys, observations and student
    work to measure 13 areas of teacher effectiveness
    and 2 areas of student learning
  • Finds NBPTS teachers outperform non-certified
    peers in 11 of these key teaching dimensions,
    and produce higher achieving students as measured
    by student work samples
  • Does not use pre- and post-year measures of
    student performance or adjust for differences
    among students

42
Stone Study
  • Compares NBPTS-certified teachers to
    non-NBPTS-certified teachers in Tennessee
  • The study includes only 16 NBPTS-certified
    teachers
  • Finds that NBPTS certified teachers were not
    exceptionally successful in improving student
    achievement
  • The study does not use conventional techniques
    for demonstrating statistical significance
  • The Value-Added system in Tennessee used here to
    measure student achievement does not directly
    account for differences in students backgrounds

43
NBPTS Surveys
  • Most NBPTS teachers report certification process
  • Is excellent professional development (80)
  • Has positively affected teaching practices (91)
  • Has resulted in positive impacts on student
    engagement, achievement, and motivation (69)
  • No comparison group

44
Fixed and Random Effects Application Models
  • Specification tests
  • Random effects models preferred over OLS
    (Lagrange multiplier test)
  • Reject the null hypothesis of joint significance
    of school and district fixed-effects being zero
  • Coefficients are quite robust across model
    specifications
  • Unobserved school and district characteristics
    important predictors of application, but
    uncorrelated with included explanatory variables

45
Effect Size of Select Variables on Application
46
Effect Size of Select Variables on Conditional
Certification
47
Effect Size of Select Variables on Unconditional
Certification
48
NBPTS Governance Structure
  • Governed by a 63-member Board of Directors
  • Classroom teachers
  • District administrators and school board members
  • State officials
  • Business and community leaders
  • Union officials
  • Certification Areas
  • Offers certificates in 24 areas
  • Most common in generalist certificates for
    teachers of multiple subjects (early childhood,
    middle childhood, and early adolescence)

49
Demographic Information 1997
50
Demographic Information 1998
51
Demographic Information 1999
52
Simulated NBPTS Assessment Scores by Z-Score and
Year
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