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PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING WITHIN THE SANDF PRESENTATATION TO THE PORTFOLIO COMMITTEE ON DEFENCE 19 JUNE 2007

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Title: PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING WITHIN THE SANDF PRESENTATATION TO THE PORTFOLIO COMMITTEE ON DEFENCE 19 JUNE 2007


1
PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING WITHIN THE
SANDFPRESENTATATION TO THE PORTFOLIO COMMITTEE
ON DEFENCE 19 JUNE 2007
2
SCOPE
  • Statutory Control of the use of Psychological
    Assessment Measures within the SANDF.
  • The Psychometric Tests used within the SANDF.
  • The Role and Function of Assessment Centres
    within the SANDF.
  • The Application of Specialist Psychological
    Measures in the Recruitment and Selection of
    Pilots within the SANDF.

3
STATUTORY CONTROL OF THE USE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
MEASURES WITHIN THE SANDF
4
SCOPE (1)
  • Terminology
  • Characteristics of Assessment Measures
  • The Need for Control of Assessment Measures
    within the SANDF
  • Control of Psychological Assessment Measures
    within the SANDF
  • Psychological Assessment within the Democratic
    South Africa
  • Fair and Ethical Practices in the Use of
    Psychological Measures within the SANDF

5
SCOPE (2)
  • Factors Affecting Psychological Assessment
    Results
  • Professional Practices that Assessment
    Practitioners within the SANDF should follow
  • Basis Statistical Concepts Reliability, Validity
    and Norms
  • Challenges faced by Psychological Assessment
    Practitioners within the SANDF

6
TERMINOLOGY (1)
  • Importantant Terms
  • Confusing and overlapping terms are used in the
    field of psychological assessment.
  • Understand the more important terms and how they
    are interlinked.
  • Tools are available to make it possible for us to
    assess (measure) human behaviour.
  • Various names are used to refer to these tools
    such as tests, measures, assessment measures,
    instruments, scales, procedures, and techniques.

7
TERMINOLOGY (2)
  • To ensure that psychological measurement is valid
    and reliable, a body of theory and research
    regarding the scientific measurement principles
    that are applied to the measurement of
    psychological characteristics has evolved over
    time.
  • Psychometrics
  • Refers to the systematic and scientific way in
    which psychological measures are developed and
    the technical measurement standards (e.g.
    validity and reliability) required of measures.

8
TERMINOLOGY (3)
  • Psychological Assessment
  • A process-orientated activity aimed at gathering
    a wide array of information by using assessment
    measures (tests) and information from many other
    sources (e.g. interviews, a persons history,
    collateral sources).
  • Evaluate and integrate all information to reach a
    conclusion or make a decision.
  • Testing
  • The use of tests, measures, etc. which involves
    the measurement of behaviour, is one of the key
    elements of the much broader evaluative process
    known as psychological assessment.

9
TERMINOLOGY (4)
  • Assessment Measure
  • In the SANDF preference is given to the term
    assessment measure as it is a broader connotation
    than the term test, which mainly refers to an
    objective, standardised measure that is used to
    gather data for a specific purpose (e.g. to
    determine what a persons intellectual capacity
    is).

10
CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES (1)
  • Different Procedures
  • Assessment measures include many different
    procedures that can be used in psychological
    assessment and can be administered to
    individuals, groups and organisations.
  • Domains of Functioning
  • Specific domains of functioning (e.g.
    intellectual ability, personality, organisational
    climate) are sampled by assessment measures.
  • Standardised Conditions
  • Assessment measures are administered under
    carefully controlled (standardised) conditions.

11
CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES (2)
  • Systematic Methods
  • Systematic methods are applied to score or
    evaluate assessment protocols.
  • Guidelines
  • Guidelines are available to understand and
    interpret the results of an assessment measure.
  • Such guidelines may make provision for the
    comparison of an individuals performance to that
    of an appropriate norm group or to a criterion
    (e.g. competency profile for a job).

12
CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES (3)
  • Evidence Based
  • Assessment measures should be supported by
    evidence that they are valid and reliable for the
    intended purpose.
  • The evidence is usually provided in the form of a
    technical test manual.
  • Context
  • Assessment measures are usually developed in a
    certain context (society or culture) for a
    specific purpose and the normative information
    used to interpret test performance is limited to
    the characteristics of the normative sample.

13
CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES (4)
  • Test Bias
  • The appropriateness of an assessment measure for
    an individual, group, or organisation from
    another context, culture, or society cannot be
    assumed without an investigation into possible
    test bias (i.e. whether a measure is differently
    valid for different subgroups) and without strong
    consideration being given to adapting and
    re-norming the measure.
  • Multidimensional
  • Assessment process is multidimensional in nature.
  • It entails the gathering and synthesising of
    information as a means of describing and
    understanding functioning.
  • This can inform appropriate decision-making and
    intervention.

14
CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES (5)
  • Limits of Human Wisdom
  • Recognise the limits of human wisdom when
    reaching opinions based on assessment
    information.

15
THE NEED FOR CONTROL OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES
WITHIN THE SANDF (1)
  • Sensitive Item Content
  • In view of the potentially sensitive nature of
    some of the item content and the feedback, and
    given that assessment measures can be misused,
    the use of assessment measures need to be
    controlled so that the public can be protected.
  • Trained Professionals
  • Controlling the use of psychological measures by
    restricting them to appropriately trained
    professionals.

16
THE NEED FOR CONTROL OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES
WITHIN THE SANDF (2)
  • Practitioner Competency
  • Measures are administrated by a qualified,
    competent assessment practitioner and that
    assessment results are correctly interpreted and
    used.
  • Conveying the Results
  • The outcome of the assessment is conveyed in a
    sensitive, empowering manner rather than in a
    harmful way.
  • Psychometry Procurement
  • The purchasing of psychological assessment
    measures is restricted to those who may use them
    and that test materials are kept securely (as it
    is unethical for assessment practitioners to
    leave tests lying around) this will prevent
    unqualified people from gaining access to and
    using them.

17
THE NEED FOR CONTROL OF ASSESSMENT MEASURES
WITHIN THE SANDF (3)
  • Release of Assessment Materials
  • Test developers do not prematurely release
    assessment materials (e.g. before validity and
    reliability have been adequately established), as
    it is unethical for assessment practitioners to
    use measures for which appropriate validity and
    reliability data have not been established.
  • Public Familiarity
  • The general public does not become familiar with
    the test content, as this would invalidate the
    measure.

18
CONTROL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT MEASURES
WITHIN THE SANDF (1)
  • Statutory Control in RSA
  • In South Africa the use of psychological
    assessment measures is under statutory control.
  • A law (statute) has been promulgated that
    restricts the use of psychological assessment
    measures to appropriately registered psychology
    professionals.
  • Health Professions Act
  • Act 56 of1974 defines acts specially pertaining
    to the profession of a psychologist.

19
CONTROL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT MEASURES
WITHIN THE SANDF (2)
  • Diagnosis
  • The evaluation of behaviour or mental processes
    or personality adjustments or adjustments of
    individuals or groups of persons, through the
    interpretation of tests for the determination of
    intellectual abilities, aptitude, interests,
    personality make-up or personality functioning,
    and the diagnosis of personality and emotional
    functions and mental functioning deficiencies
    according to a recognised scientific system for
    the classification of mental deficiencies.

20
CONTROL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT MEASURES
WITHIN THE SANDF (3)
  • Method and Practice
  • The use of any method or practice aimed at aiding
    persons or groups of persons in the adjustment of
    personality, emotional or behavioural problems or
    at the promotion of positive personality change,
    growth and development, and the identification
    and the evaluation of personality dynamics and
    personality functioning according to
    psychological scientific methods.

21
CONTROL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT MEASURES
WITHIN THE SANDF (4)
  • Evaluation
  • The evaluation of emotional, behavioural and
    cognitive processes or adjustment of personality
    of individuals or groups of persons by the usage
    and interpretation of questionnaires, tests,
    projections or other techniques or any apparatus,
    whether of South African origin or imported, for
    the determination of intellectual abilities,
    aptitude, personality make-up, personality
    functioning, psychophysiological functioning or
    psychopathology.

22
CONTROL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT MEASURES
WITHIN THE SANDF (5)
  • Exercising of Control
  • The exercising of control over prescribed
    questionnaires or tests or prescribed techniques,
    apparatus or instruments for the determination of
    intellectual abilities, aptitude, personality
    make-up, personality functioning,
    psychophysiological functioning or
    psychopathology.
  • Development
  • The development of and control over the
    development of questionnaires, tests, techniques,
    apparatus or instruments for the determination of
    intellectual abilities, aptitude, personality
    make-up, personality functioning,
    psychophysiological functioning or
    psychopathology.

23
CONTROL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT MEASURES
WITHIN THE SANDF (6)
  • Domain of Psychology
  • According to Act 56 of 1974, the use of measures
    to assess mental, cognitive, or behavioural
    processes and functioning, intellectual or
    cognitive ability or functioning, aptitude,
    interest, emotions, personality,
    psychophysiological functioning or
    psychopathology (abnormal behaviour), constitutes
    an act that fall in the domain of the psychology
    profession.

24
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT WITHIN THE DEMOCRATIC
SOUTH AFRICA (1)
  • Post 1994
  • Since 1994 and the election of South Africas
    first democratic government, the application,
    control, and development of assessment measures
    have become contested terrain.
  • Constitution and Labour Relations Act
  • With the adoption of the new Constitution and the
    Labour Relations Act in 1996, worker unions and
    individuals now have the support of legislation
    that specifically forbids any discriminatory
    practices in the workplace and includes
    protection for applicants as they have all the
    rights of current employees in this regard.

25
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT WITHIN THE DEMOCRATIC
SOUTH AFRICA (2)
  • Employment Equity Act
  • To ensure that discrimination is addressed within
    the testing arena, the Employment Equity Act No.
    55 of 1998 (section 8) refers to psychological
    tests and assessment specifically and states
    that
  • Psychological testing and other similar forms or
    assessments of an employee are prohibited unless
    the test or assessment being used
  • has been scientifically shown to be valid and
    reliable
  • can be applied fairly to all employees
  • is not biased against any employee or group.

26
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT WITHIN THE DEMOCRATIC
SOUTH AFRICA (3)
  • Impact of Employment Equity Act
  • The impact of this Act on the conceptualisation
    and professional practice of assessment in South
    Africa in general is far-reaching as assessment
    practitioners and test publishers are
    increasingly being called upon to demonstrate, or
    prove in court, that a particular assessment
    measure does not discriminate against certain
    groups of people.
  • Despite the fact that the Employment Equity Act
    is not binding on Defence Act Personnel,
    Directorate Psychology is still obliged to ensure
    that its practices are fair and equitable.

27
FAIR AND ETHICAL PRACTICES IN THE USE OF
PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASURES WITHIN THE SANDF
  • International Guidelines on Test Use (Version
    2000)
  • Fair Assessment Practices
  • The appropriate, fair, professional, and ethical
    use of assessment measures and assessment
    results.
  • Taking into account the needs and rights of those
    involved in the assessment process.
  • Ensuring that the assessment conducted closely
    matches the purpose to which the assessment
    results will be put.
  • Taking into account the broader social, cultural,
    and political context in which assessment is used
    and the ways in which such factors might affect
    assessment results, their interpretation, and the
    use to which they are put.

28
FACTORS AFFECTING PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
RESULTS (1)
  • Viewing Assessment Results in Context.
  • A test score in only one piece of information
    about how a person performs or behaves.
    Therefore, if we look at an individual in terms
    of a test score only, we will have a very limited
    understanding of that person.
  • A test score can never be interpreted without
    taking note of and understanding the context in
    which the score was obtained.
  • In addition to the test score, the information in
    which we are interested can be obtained by
    examining the context in which a person lives.
  • When you think about it, you will realise that
    people actually function in several different
    contexts concurrently.

29
FACTORS AFFECTING PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
RESULTS (2)
  • At the lowest level there is the biological
    context, referring to physical bodily structures
    and functions, which are the substrata for human
    behaviour and experiences.
  • Then there is the intrapsychic context which
    comprises abilities, emotions, and personal
    dispositions.
  • Biological and intrapsychic processes are
    regarded as interdependent components of the
    individual as a psychobiological entity.
  • In addition, because people do not live in a
    vacuum, we need to consider a third and very
    important context which is the social context.

30
FACTORS AFFECTING PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
RESULTS (3)
  • The social context refers to aspects of the
    environment in which we live such as our homes
    and communities, people with whom we interact,
    work experiences, as well as cultural and
    socio-political considerations.
  • Methodological Considerations
  • In addition to looking at the effects of the
    different contexts within which people function,
    we also need to examine methodological
    considerations such as test administration, which
    may also influence test performance and therefore
    have a bearing on the interpretation of a test
    score.

31
Professional Practices that Assessment
Practitioners within the SANDF should follow (1)
  • Rights of Test-takers
  • Informing test-takers about their rights and the
    use to which the assessment information will be
    put.
  • Informed Consent
  • Obtaining the consent of test-takers to assess
    them, to use the results for selection,
    placement, or training decisions and, if needs
    be, to report the results to relevant third
    parties.
  • Treatment
  • Treating test-takers courteously, respectfully,
    and in an impartial manner, regardless of
    culture, language, gender, age, disability, and
    so on.

32
Professional Practices that Assessment
Practitioners within the SANDF should follow (2)
  • Preparation
  • Being thoroughly prepared for the assessment
    session.
  • Confidentiality
  • Maintaining confidentiality to the extent that it
    is appropriate for fair assessment practices.
  • Language
  • Establishing what language would be appropriate
    and fair to use during the assessment and making
    use of bilingual assessment where appropriate.
  • Training
  • Only using measures that they have been trained
    to use.

33
Professional Practices that Assessment
Practitioners within the SANDF should follow (3)
  • Administration
  • Administering measures properly.
  • Scoring
  • Scoring the measures correctly and using
    appropriate norms or cutpoints or comparative
    profiles.
  • Background Information
  • Taking background factors into account when
    interpreting test performance and when forming an
    overall picture of the test-takers performance
    (profile).

34
Professional Practices that Assessment
Practitioners within the SANDF should follow (4)
  • Communication
  • Communicating the assessment results clearly to
    appropriate parties.
  • Subjectivity
  • Acknowledging the subjective nature of the
    assessment process by realising that the final
    decision that they reach, while based at times on
    quantitative test information, reflects their
    best guess estimate.
  • Utilisation of Assessment Information
  • Using assessment information in a fair, unbiased
    manner and ensuring that anyone else who has
    access to this information also does so.

35
Professional Practices that Assessment
Practitioners within the SANDF should follow (5)
  • Research
  • Researching the appropriateness of the measures
    that they use and refining, adapting, or
    replacing them where necessary.
  • Storage
  • Securely storing and controlling access to
    assessment materials so that the integrity of the
    measures cannot be threatened in any way.

36
BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS RELIABILITY, VALIDITY
AND NORMS (1)
  • Statistical Concepts
  • Psychological assessment measures often produce
    data in the form of numbers.
  • We need to be able to make sense of these
    numbers.
  • Basic statistical concepts can help us here, as
    well as when it comes to establishing and
    interpreting norm scores.
  • Statistical concepts and techniques can also help
    us to understand and establish basic psychometric
    properties of measures such as validity and
    reliability.

37
BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS RELIABILITY, VALIDITY
AND NORMS (2)
  • Reliability
  • This refers to the degree to which a psychometric
    test consistently produces the same results by
    the same candidates.
  • Validity
  • This refers to the degree to which the
    psychometric test measures what it claims to
    measure.

38
BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS RELIABILITY, VALIDITY
AND NORMS (2)
  • Norms
  • Norms refer to the records of performance by
    other candidates who have previously been
    assessed using the same test.
  • A candidate must be measured against norms taken
    from the context and population group to which
    that candidate belongs, i.e candidates are
    measured against other South African candidates
    who have previously undergone assessment on a
    specific test.
  • As a database of results is built, SANDF specific
    norms are developed and used.
  • The current SANDF database consists of primarily
    Black candidates.

39
NORMAL DISTRIBUTION RAW SCORES TRANSLATED INTO
NORMED SCORE
40
CLASSIFICATION OF STANINE SCALE
STANINE DESCRIPTION
1 Very Poor
2-3 Poor
4-6 Average
7-8 Good
9 Very Good
41
CHALLENGES FACED BY PSYCHOLOGY ASSESSMENT
PRACTITIONERS WITHIN THE SANDF (1)
  • Influence of Multiculturalism
  • In the latter part of the twentieth century and
    at the start of the twenty-first century,
    multiculturalism has become the norm in many
    countries.
  • As a result, attempts were made to develop tests
    that were culture-free.
  • It soon became clear that it was not possible to
    develop a test that is free of any cultural
    influences.
  • Consequently, test developers focused more on
    culture-reduced or culture-common tests in
    which the aim was to remove as much cultural bias
    as possible from the test by including only
    behaviour that was common across cultures.

42
CHALLENGES FACED BY PSYCHOLOGY ASSESSMENT
PRACTITIONERS WITHIN THE SANDF (2)
  • For example, a number of non-verbal intelligence
    tests were developed (e.g. Raven Progressive
    Matrices) where the focus was on novel
    problem-solving tasks and in which language use,
    which is often a stumbling block in
    cross-cultural tests, was minimised.
  • In an attempt to address issues of fairness and
    bias in test use, the need arose to develop
    standards for the professional practice of
    testing and assessment.

43
CHALLENGES FACED BY PSYCHOLOGY ASSESSMENT
PRACTITIONERS WITHIN THE SANDF (3)
  • Representivity of Assessors
  • Legitimate concern is sometimes expressed
    regarding the representivity of psychologists in
    the SANDF.
  • This is a challenge that the organisation is
    currently striving to meet and some degree of
    progress has already been made.
  • Directorate Psychology conducts targeted
    recruitment in order to recruit Black
    psychologists, and regularly engages the
    Professional Board for Psychology and academic
    institutions in this regard.

44
CHALLENGES FACED BY PSYCHOLOGY ASSESSMENT
PRACTITIONERS WITHIN THE SANDF (4)
  • However, the lack of availability of Black
    psychologists in South Africa remains a
    challenge.
  • The Professional Board for Psychologys official
    registration statistics reflect that 11 (known
    disclosures) of South African psychologists are
    Black.

45
CHALLENGES FACED BY PSYCHOLOGY ASSESSMENT
PRACTITIONERS WITHIN THE SANDF (5)
  • Language
  • Language is generally regarded as the most
    important single moderator of performance on
    assessment measures.
  • This is because performance on assessment
    measures could be the product of language
    difficulties and not ability factors if a measure
    is administered in a language other than the
    test-takers home language.
  • When a test is written in a different language,
    it may present a range of concepts that are not
    accessible in our home language.

46
CHALLENGES FACED BY PSYCHOLOGY ASSESSMENT
PRACTITIONERS WITHIN THE SANDF (6)
  • Current Dilemma regarding Psychometric Tests
  • Historically the Human Science Research Council
    (HSRC) was mandated to provide cost effective
    psychometric tests that had been proven to be
    valid within the South African population.
  • After the advent of democracy in the Republic of
    South Africa, the HSRC underwent transformation.
  • The HSRC redefined its role regarding
    psychometric tests and surrendered the license to
    most of these tests to the private sector.
  • This led to the current dilemma where there is a
    shortage of cost effective psychometric
    instruments that are approved for use in the
    Republic of South Africa.

47
CHALLENGES FACED BY PSYCHOLOGY ASSESSMENT
PRACTITIONERS WITHIN THE SANDF (7)
  • The situation has reached critical proportions
    within the broader industry sector.
  • Consequently, members of the Professional Board
    for Psychology have indicated that the HSRC will
    be requested to provide this essential service to
    the nation.
  • Due to the scarcity of validated psychometry for
    the South African context, the South African
    National Defence Force has been obliged to
    develop or validate some psychometric tests for
    use within the organisation.
  • This is done in consultation with the
    Psychometric Committee of the Professional Board
    for Psychology.

48
PSYCHOMETRIC TESTS USED IN THE SANDF
49
SCOPE
  • Academic Aptitude Test (AAT).
  • Blox Test.
  • Differential Aptitude Test (DAT).
  • Ravens Progressive Matrices (RPM).
  • Potential Insight Battery (PIB).
  • Psychological Risk Inventory (PRI).
  • Vienna Test System (VTS).

50
ACADEMIC APTITUDE TEST (1)
  • Origin
  • South Africa.
  • Human Sciences Research Council.
  • Representative sample.
  • Different languages.
  • Northern Sotho Zulu
  • Southern Sotho Afrikaans
  • Tswana English
  • Tsonga Other
  • Venda
  • Xhosa

51
ACADEMIC APTITUDE TEST (1)
  • Aim
  • To serve as an objective, reliable and valid aid
    in the guidance of candidates in respect of
    subject and occupational choice.
  • Provides an indication of a candidates
  • General intellectual ability (intelligence).
  • Verbal ability and the level achieved in the
    official languages.
  • Mathematical ability.
  • Level of spatial ability.

52
ACADEMIC APTITUDE TEST (2)
  • Description
  • Consists of 9 tests with 37 items in the first
    and 33 items in each of the other tests.
  • All items are of multiple choice type
  • Correct answer which the candidate can choose
    from five possibilities, is indicated on a
    separate answer sheet.

53
ACADEMIC APTITUDE TEST (3)
  • AAT 1 Non-verbal reasoning
  • Measures the ability to reason inductively.
  • Consists of two parts, viz.
  • Figure series.
  • Pattern completion.
  • Figure series
  • Four figures are given and the fifth figure in
    the series must be selected from the given
    possibilities.
  • Pattern completion
  • Total picture must be formed of the matrix, a
    rule deduced and the matrix completed
    accordingly.
  • The candidate is consequently expected to deduce
    and apply a general principle.
  • The test should in conjunction with the verbal
    score, provide a good indication of general
    intellectual ability.

54
ACADEMIC APTITUDE TEST (4)
  • AAT 2 Verbal reasoning
  • Candidates are required to grasp verbal concepts
    and their relationships.
  • Inductive as well as deductive reasoning is
    required.
  • Items include analogies, letter codes and logical
    deductions.

55
ACADEMIC APTITUDE TEST (5)
  • AAT 5 Number comprehension
  • Ability to manipulate and apply fundamental
    principles and operations.
  • Items include, inter alia, percentages,
    fractions, exponents and basic sets.
  • Reliability
  • Degree of accuracy and consistency.
  • Reliability coefficients Vary from 0.69 to 0.90
    for the individual tests.
  • Reliability in the SANDF .74

56
ACADEMIC APTITUDE TESTNORMS (6)
STANINE AAT 1 NVR AAT 2 VR AAT 5
1 0-8 0-8 0-3
2 9-12 9-10 4
3 13-16 11-12 5-6
4 17-20 13-14 7-8
5 21-23 15-17 9-10
6 24-26 18-19 11-13
7 27-28 20-22 14-16
8 29-31 23-25 17-19
9 32 26-30 20-26
57
ACADEMIC APTITUDE TESTNORMS (7)
  • Implementation
  • Military Skills Development
  • Youth Foundation Programme
  • Nursing Study Scheme
  • Other Study Schemes
  • Pilot Selection

58
BLOX TEST (1)
  • ORIGIN
  • South Africa.
  • Human Sciences Research Council.
  • Previously known as Perceptual Battery.
  • Determine own norms for SANDF Population.

59
BLOX TEST (2)
  • AIM
  • Measures visual orientation.
  • Ability to comprehend the nature of arrangements
    within visual stimulus pattern primarily with
    respect to candidates body or frame of
    reference.
  • Ability to recognise spatial arrangements from
    different orientations without the benefit of
    physical shifts of the body.
  • Recognise the same visual stimulus pattern from
    different angles.
  • Ability to manipulate (rotate, twist) on or two
    parts of a visual stimulus pattern in the
    candidates imagination in order to recognise
    change appearance of the object.

60
BLOX TEST (3)
  • Description
  • Test format
  • Paper and pencil test.
  • Consists of 6 practice items and 45 test items.
  • Non-verbal test.
  • Rationale
  • Spatial ability consists of spatial relations and
    orientation.
  • The ability to comprehend the nature of
    arrangements within a visual stimulus pattern
    primarily wrt the examiners body or frame of
    reference.

61
BLOX TEST (4)
  • Item format
  • Isometric drawings of different combinations of
    two, three, four, five or six cubes.
  • Each set of cubes must be compared to similar
    arrangements of cubes viewed from other angles.
  • Each page is divided into two sections with a
    easy black line.
  • Above the line are five sets of cubes which are
    the responses and below the line are nine sets of
    cubes which form the stimuli.
  • Candidate must analyse each stimulus set and
    choose the corresponding set seen from a
    different angle, from the five possible
    responses.
  • Time required
  • Time limit for the test is 30 minutes.

62
BLOX TEST (5)
  • Reliability
  • Reliability in the SANDF .72

63
BLOX TEST (6)
STANINE NORM
1 0-13
2 14-17
3 18-21
4 22-26
5 27-30
6 31-32
7 33-36
8 37-39
9 40-45
64
BLOX TEST (7)
  • Implementation
  • Apprentices.
  • Youth Foundation Training.
  • Explosive Device Disposal Operator.
  • VIP Protector.
  • Pilot Selection.

65
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (1)
  • ORIGIN
  • South Africa.
  • Human Sciences Research Council.
  • Standardised
  • Blacks
  • Coloureds
  • Whites
  • Indians

66
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (2)
  • AIM
  • Provide information on candidates who want to
    undergo tertiary training or gain entry to
    particular high-level occupations, especially
    with the view to the provision of counselling,
    and the placement in and selection for tertiary
    or other post-school training and specific
    occupations.

67
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (3)
  • Rationale
  • Aptitude is the potential a candidate has which
    will enable him/her to achieve a certain level of
    ability with a given amount of training and/or
    practice.
  • Aptitude, together with interest, attitude,
    motivation and other personality characteristics,
    will to a large extend determine the ultimate
    success of a candidate.
  • Aptitude with other information, predict possible
    success in a specific field of study/training
    programme/occupation should a candidate make a
    particular choice, ort should the employer wish
    to make a particular appointment.

68
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (4)
  • Description of tests
  • Vocabulary.
  • Verbal reasoning.
  • Non-verbal reasoning.
  • Calculations.
  • Reading comprehension.
  • Comparison.
  • Price controlling.
  • Spatial visualisation.
  • Mechanical insight.
  • Memory.

69
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (5)
  • Test 1 Vocabulary
  • Aim To measure Verbal Comprehension, which can
    be defined as knowledge of words and their
    meaning, as well as the application of this
    knowledge in spoken and written language.
  • Rationale The ability of a learner to recognise
    a word and to choose a synonymous word is
    regarded as a valid indication of his/her
    knowledge of the meaning of words and as a valid
    criterion for the verbal comprehension factor.

70
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (6)
  • Test 2 Verbal Reasoning
  • Aim To measure an aspect of general reasoning on
    the basis of verbal material.
  • Rationale The assumption that the ability to
    determine relationships, to complete word
    analogies, to solve general problems requiring
    logical thought, as well as a candidates
    vocabulary, is a valid indication of an aspect of
    general reasoning.

71
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (7)
  • Test 3 Non-verbal Reasoning Figures
  • Aim To measure an aspect of general reasoning on
    the basis of non-verbal material.
  • Rationale Assumption that the ability to see
    relationships between figures and, by analogy, to
    identify an appropriate missing figure, as well
    as, following the changes that the figures of a
    figure series undergo, to deduce the work
    principle and to apply it again, is a valid
    indication of an aspect of non-verbal reasoning
    ability.

72
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (8)
  • Test 4 Calculations
  • Aim To measure arithmetical ability.
  • Rationale Assumption that the candidates
    ability to do mechanical calculations and to
    solve arithmetical problems with the help of four
    basic arithmetic operations, namely adding,
    subtracting, dividing and multiplying, provides a
    valid indication of his/her arithmetical ability.

73
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (9)
  • Test 5 Reading Comprehension
  • Aim To measure the ability to comprehend what
    the candidate is reading.
  • Rationale Assumption that the candidates
    ability to choose the right answers to questions
    on prose passages is a valid indication of
    reading comprehension.

74
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (10)
  • Test 6 Comparison
  • Aim To measure visual perceptual speed as a
    certain aspect of clerical ability, which
    consists mainly of the quick and accurate
    perception of differences and similarities
    between visual configurations.
  • Rationale Assumption that the ability to quickly
    and accurately indicate from five symbol groups
    the one that corresponds precisely with a given
    symbol group, is a valid indication of visual
    perceptual speed.

75
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (11)
  • Test 7 Price Controlling
  • Aim To measure a general speed of clerical
    ability, namely the ability to look up data
    quickly and accurately.
  • Rationale Assumption that the ability to look up
    the prices of articles in a table quickly and
    accurately is a valid indication of success in
    numerous clerical tasks.

76
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (12)
  • Test 8 Spatial Visualisation 3-D
  • Aim To measure the three-dimensional spatial
    perceptual ability.
  • Rationale Assumption to-
  • Manipulate mentally a cube whose sides are marked
    in a certain way and which is presented three
    dimensionally in such a way that the relative
    position of a certain cube to that of a given
    cube can be determined.
  • Recognise and indicate certain sides of a flat
    figure that has been folded to make a
    three-dimensional figure.
  • Visualise what the three-dimensional result will
    be if a flat figure is rolled up or folded
  • Is a valid criterion of three-dimensional spatial
    perceptual ability.

77
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (13)
  • Test 9 Mechanical Insight
  • Aim To measure mechanical ability (insight).
  • Rationale Assumption that the ability to make
    correct visual representation of the result of
    the operation of a mechanical apparatus or a
    physical principle depicted in a drawing, is a
    valid criterion for the measurement of mechanical
    ability.

78
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (14)
  • Test 10 Memory
  • Aim To measure an aspect of the memory factor by
    using meaningful material.
  • Rationale Assumption that the ability to
    memorise meaningful material summarised in
    written paragraphs and then to correctly answer
    questions on the content of the paragraphs, is a
    valid criterion for measuring an aspect of
    memory.

79
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (15)
  • Reliability
  • Overall reliability in the SANDF .68 -.74

80
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST NORMS (DAT) (16)
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 M T8 F T9 M T9 F T10
1 0-8 0-5 0-5 0-4 0-4 0-9 0-12 0-5 0-3 0-5 15-25 0-5
2 9-10 6-7 6-7 5-6 5-6 10-12 13-16 6-7 4-5 6-7 13-14 6-7
3 11-2 8-9 8-9 7-8 7-8 13-15 17-19 8-9 6-7 8-9 12 8-9
4 13-14 10-11 10-11 9-10 9-10 16-18 20-22 10-11 8-9 10-11 10-11 10-11
5 15-17 12-13 12-13 11-13 11-12 19-21 23-25 12-14 10-12 12-13 9 12-14
6 18-20 14-15 14-15 14-16 13-15 22-23 26-27 15-16 13-14 14-15 8 15-16
7 21-22 16-17 16-17 17-19 16-17 24-25 28 17-18 15-16 16-17 6-7 17-18
8 23-25 18-19 18-19 20-21 18-19 26-27 29 19-20 17-19 18-19 4-5 19-21
9 26-30 20-25 20-25 22-25 20-25 28-30 30 21-25 20-25 20-25 0-3 22-25
81
DIFFERENTIAL APTITUDE TEST (DAT) (17)
  • Implementation
  • Army Musterings.
  • Navy Musterings.
  • Explosive Device Disposal Operator.

82
RAVENS PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (1)
  • ORIGIN
  • United Kingdom.
  • International application.
  • Minimise cultural influences..
  • Non-verbal test.

83
RAVENS PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (2)
  • AIM
  • To measure the candidates capacity to apprehend
    meaningless figures presented for his/her
    observation, see the relations between them,
    conceive the nature of the figure completing each
    system of relations presented, and by so doing,
    develop a systematic method of reasoning.
  • Suitable for comparing candidates wrt their
    immediate capacities for observation and clear
    thinking.

84
RAVENS PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (3)
  • DESCRIPTION
  • Consists of 60 problems, which is divided into 5
    sets of 12 each.
  • In each set the first problem is as closely as
    possible self-evident.
  • Problems, which follow, become progressively more
    difficult.
  • The order of the items provided the standard
    training in the method of working.
  • Five sets provide five opportunities for grasping
    the method and five progressive assessments of a
    candidates capacity for intellectual activity.

85
RAVENS PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (4)
  • DESCRIPTION (cont)
  • Test is developed to evaluate the full spectrum
    of a candidates intellectual development.
  • Test can be applied to any age group.
  • Scale is intended to cover the whole range of
    intellectual development from the time a child is
    able to grasp the idea of finding a missing piece
    to complete a pattern to the stage of
    intellectual maturity through a process of
    comparison and reasoning.
  • The score for adults tend to be above average,
    but the scale provides sufficient discriminating
    value.
  • Where more differentiation is needed, the
    Advanced Ravens must be used.

86
RAVENS PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (5)
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • Test is included in some selection batteries and
    provides a basis for evaluation of general
    abilities.
  • No time limits for administration of the test.
  • Time taken to complete the test must be
    indicated.
  • Reliability
  • Reliability in the SANDF .80

87
RAVENS PROGRESSIVE MATRICES NORMS (6)
STANINE RAVENS (RPM)
1 0-13
2 14-26
3 27-37
4 38-43
5 44-47
6 48-51
7 52-54
8 55-56
9 57-60
88
RAVENS PROGRESSIVE MATRICES (7)
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • Special Forces Selection.
  • Apprentices.
  • Explosive Device Disposal Operator.
  • VIP Protector.

89
POTENTIAL INDEX BATTERIES (1)
  • Potential Index Batteries (PIB)
  • Job Profiling Expert.
  • Comprehensive Structured Interviewing for
    Potential.
  • Situation Specific Evaluation Expert.
  • Performance Appraisal Scoring Scale.

90
POTENTIAL INDEX BATTERIES (2)
  • ORIGIN
  • South Africa.
  • Based on ongoing research that dates back to
    1964.
  • Applied research done by reputable, independent
    institutions.
  • Situation-specific norms and state-of-the-art,
    computerised standardisation procedure.
  • Generic standardisation done on a population of
    approximately 31 000 respondents.

91
POTENTIAL INDEX BATTERIES (3)
  • PROCESS
  • Job profiling.
  • Determining job-related competencies.
  • Determining NQF level and job grade.
  • Job description.
  • Critical crossfield education and training
    outcomes.
  • Comprehensive structured interviewing for
    potential.
  • Job profiling expert (basic competencies)
  • Performance appraisal scoring scale.
  • Ongoing feedback on workers performance.
  • Ongoing identification of training and
    development needs.
  • Career pathing.

92
POTENTIAL INDEX BATTERIESCSIP COMPETENCIES (4)
General knowledge Competing Driver Innovation
Creativity Collaborating Analyst Feedback
Reading comprehension Compromising Risk-taking Presentation
Calculations Avoidance Integrity Negotiation
Mental alertness Accommodating Empathy Liaison
Listening skills Time management Emotional sensitivity Analytical skills
Abstract reasoning Stress management Tact Judgement
Adaptability/Flexibility Short-term memory People development Organisational alertness
Interpersonal relations Type A/B personality Coaching Nonverbal perception
Self-image Assertiveness Interpersonal Objectivity Personal development
Clerical skills Spelling Social insight Written communication
Vocabulary Problem-solving Diversity facilitation Potential to assemble
Typing skills Coping skills Leadership Potential to classify
Filing ability Expressive Excellence orientation Environmental pressure
Social insight Comprehension Spacial resoning Hand-eye coordination
Self-motivation Supporter Customer orientation Frustration tolerance
93
POTENTIAL INDEX BATTERIES JP EXPERT COMPETENCIES
(5)
Conceptualisation Reading comprehension Listening potential Self-actualisation
Memory Demonstrative Diversity facilitation Visioning
Basic calculations Samaritan Excellence orientation Effort focusing
Advanced calculations Evaluating Customer orientation Transparency
Observance Persevering Innovation Empowerment
Assembling (Basic) Risk-taking Feedback Big picture
Assembling (Advance) Conformity Presentation Goal setting
Clerical Non-conformity Negotiation Motivation
Comparison Empathy Liason Decisiveness
Perception Emotional sensitivity Analytical thinking Strategy application
Environmental exposure Tact Judgement Action planning
Insight People development Organisational alertness Organising
Self-acceptance Mental stress Nonverbal perception Basic linguistic proficiency
Socialising Interpersonal objectivity Personal development Advanced linguistic proficiency
Adaptibility Physical stress Written communication Hand-eye coordination
94
POTENTIAL INDEX BATTERIES JP EXPERT (6)
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • Post Profiling for Specific Musterings.
  • Explosive Device Disposal Operator.
  • VIP Protector.

95
PSYCHOLOGICAL RISK INVENTORY (1)
  • ORIGIN
  • South Africa.
  • Developed by SANDF Psychologists.

96
PSYCHOLOGICAL RISK INVENTORY (2)
  • AIM
  • To scan for self-reported symptoms of
    psychopathology.
  • To determine the need for an interview.
  • To recommend the candidate for deployment or not.
  • Utilised for concurrent health assessment
    processes.
  • To confirm the mental health status in adhering
    to set standards for deployment.

97
PSYCHOLOGICAL RISK INVENTORY (3)
  • DESRIPTION
  • Consists of 92 multiple-choice items.
  • Each item consists of a short statement with
    three possible answers.
  • Screening is focused on identification of
    psychopathology.
  • Psychological fitness
  • The concurrent health assessment defines
    psychological fitness as the absence of
    diagnosable psychopathology.

98
PSYCHOLOGICAL RISK INVENTORY (4)
  • Psychopathology
  • SANDF mental health standards are based on the
    Diagnostic and Statistical Manuel of Mental
    Disorders (Revised) (DSM-IV-R).
  • The United Nations (UN) indicates that members
    should not deploy if they have a history of
    substance dependence, situational maladjustment,
    anxiety disorder or are on chronic medication.

99
PSYCHOLOGICAL RISK INVENTORY (5)
  • CATECORIES OF SCALES
  • C Coping scales Less serious pathology scales
    and consists of -
  • C1-Stress indicator The experience of pressure
    from the environment ranging from work pressure,
    work environment pressure, financial pressure,
    family problems and interpersonal pressure.
  • C2-Coping indicator Reflects the subjective
    experience of negative emotions indicating that
    the candidate is not emotionally coping well.

100
PSYCHOLOGICAL RISK INVENTORY (6)
  • C3-Ego strength Provides an indication of the
    candidates stress tolerance and inner resources
    to deal with daily challenges.
  • D-Pathology scales More serious pathology
    scales.
  • D1-Mood disorder Indicates symptoms of
    depression.
  • D2-Anxiety Indicates symptoms of anxiety.
  • D3-Psychotic features Indicates thought process
    and content disorder and other symptoms related
    to psychosis.

101
PSYCHOLOGICAL RISK INVENTORY (7)
  • D4-Somatic disorder Indicates pre-occupation
    with symptoms of a physical nature.
  • P-Interpersonal scale
  • P1-Interpersonal conflict Indicates symptoms of
    interpersonal conflict, lack of interpersonal
    trust and unstable relationships.
  • R-Psychological risk scales Indicate specific
    risks that must be noted w.r.t. deployment.
  • R1-Control risk Indicates tendencies to be
    unstable or impulsive and not well controlled by
    self and authority.
  • R2-Suicide risk Indicates suicidal ideation and
    negativity about life in general.

102
PSYCHOLOGICAL RISK INVENTORY (8)
  • R3-PTSD risk Indicates that the candidate has
    been exposed to one or more traumatic event(s)
    which has not been resolved.
  • R4-Substance abuse risk Indicates self-reported
    excessive drinking over a recent period of time.
  • R5-Aggression risk Indicates tendencies to
    express aggressive behaviour due to frustration
    or interpersonal conflict.

103
PSYCHOLOGICAL RISK INVENTORY (9)
SCALES RELIABILITY
COPING SCALES
C1 STRESS 0.82
C2 COPING INDICATOR 0.86
C3 EGO STRENGTH 0.50
DISORDERS
D1 MOOD DISORDER 0.83
D2 ANXIETY DISORDER 0.80
D3 PSYCHOTIC FEATURES 0.66
D4 SOMATIC DISORDER 0.67
INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONING
P1 INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT 0.77
RISK INDICATORS
R1 CONTROL RISK 0.73
R2 SUICIDE RISK 0.52
R3 POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER RISK 0.82
R4 SUBSTANCE ABUSE RISK 0.72
R5 AGGRESSION RISK 0.70
OVERALL RELIABILITY INDEX 0.94
104
PSYCHOLOGICAL RISK INVENTORY (10)
  • IMPLEMENTATION
  • Pre-deployment mental health assessments.

105
CHALLENGES (1)
  • Development of a SANDF Competency Assessment Test
  • Explore the feasibility and the requirements of
    instituting a competency assessment test for
    enlisted soldiers.
  • Develop and sustain a competency assessment
    program for evaluating soldiers technical and
    tactical proficiency in the military occupational
    specialty and leadership skills for their rank.
  • Include situational judgment test items.

106
CHALLENGES (2)
  • Sample item for assessing performance dimensions
    (Benchmarking)
  • Problem Solving and Decision Making Skills
  • Motivating, Leading and Supporting Sub-ordinates
  • Directing, Monitoring and Supervising Work
  • Training Others
  • Relating to and Supporting Peers
  • Team leadership
  • Concern for Soldier Quality of Life
  • Cultural Tolerance
  • Computer-based testing

107
ROLE AND FUNCTION OF ASSESSMENT CENTRES IN THE
SANDF
108
SCOPE
  • ASSESSMENT CENTRE DEFINED
  • HISTORY AND BACKGROUND
  • LEGAL AND STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS
  • METHODOLOGY
  • VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY
  • DIVERSE APPLICATIONS
  • APPLICATION OF PRINCIPLES TO ASSESSMENT CENTRE
    DESIGN
  • MILITARY COUNCIL DECISIONS ROLE OF SAMHS

109
ASSESSMENT CENTRE DEFINED
  • An Assessment Centre consists of a standardised
    and validated evaluation of behaviour and
    competencies based on multiple inputs.
  • Multiple trained observers and techniques are
    used.
  • Judgments about behaviour and competencies are
    made from specifically developed assessment
    simulations.
  • Judgments are pooled in a meeting among assessors
    or by a statistical integration process.
  • Integration discussions result in evaluations of
    the performance of the assessees on the
    competencies and/or dimensions or other variables
    which the assessment centre is designed to
    measure.

110
HISTORY AND BACKGROUND (1)
  • First conceptualised on a large scale by the
    German High Command in World War I to select
    officers with exceptional command or military
    abilities.
  • British Army War Office Selection Board (WOSB)
    developed a similar process.
  • During World War II it was used by the Office of
    Strategic Services (OSS) to select spies.
  • OSS 3 ½ day assessment centre involved an
    intensive evaluation Sentence completion test,
    health questionnaire, work conditions survey,
    vocabulary test, personal history evaluation, a
    projective questionnaire and various simulations.

111
HISTORY AND BACKGROUND (2)
  • In the early 1950s, the American Telephone and
    Telegraph Company adapted the OSS concept to the
    selection and identification of management
    personnel.
  • By the late 1960s, a number of major corporations
    were using the AC for selecting managers.
  • In the early 1970s, law enforcement agencies
    began experimenting with AC, with the fire
    service following shortly thereafter.
  • ACs are now used internationally.

112
LEGAL AND STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS
  • White Paper on Public Service Training and
    Education
  • Government Gazette
  • Employment Equity Act
  • Health Professions Act
  • Military Council Decision

113
WHITE PAPER ON PUBLIC SERVICE TRAINING AND
EDUCATION (1)
  • All public service institutions will be required
    to conduct job evaluations or re-evaluations of
    all posts, with the purpose of ensuring that they
    are expressed in terms of the essential
    competencies required for effective job
    performance.
  • This will involve both functional or
    sector-specific competencies and core transversal
    competencies.

114
WHITE PAPER ON PUBLIC SERVICE TRAINING AND
EDUCATION (2)
  • In the case of transversal competencies, the
    definition of competence will encompass a broad
    range of skills, knowledge and attitudes,
    including
  • The ability to carry out effectively the routine
    task of the job.
  • The ability to transfer skills, knowledge and
    attitudes to new situations within the same
    occupational area.
  • The ability to reflect on ones work, learn from
    ones actions, and innovate and cope with
    non-routine activities.
  • The personal effectiveness to deal effectively
    with co-workers, managers and customers.

115
WHITE PAPER ON PUBLIC SERVICE TRAINING AND
EDUCATION (3)
  • The introduction of a competency-based approach
    will assist the development of an outcomes-led
    model of training and education in a number of
    important ways. This will include forming an
    effective and measurable basis
  • For the objective evaluation of current
    performance, and the effective assessment of
    current and future needs.
  • For the design and delivery of training
    programmes and courses, as well as other staff
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