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GCSE History Revision Booklet Part 2: Germany 1919-45 Unit title: Hitler s Rise to, and Consolidation of Power, 1929-33 In a nutshell: The Weimar Republic was the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GCSE History Revision Booklet


1
GCSE History Revision Booklet
  • Part 2 Germany 1919-45

2
Unit title Hitlers Rise to, and Consolidation
of Power, 1929-33
  • In a nutshell
  • The Weimar Republic was the democratic government
    set up in Germany after WW1. It had massive
    problems from the start. The Nazi party offered
    an extremist alternative. No one really took them
    seriously until 1929 when the Wall Street Crash,
    which plunged Germany into depression and made
    people vote for Hitler.
  • Hitler was made chancellor in 1933, and then set
    about consolidating his power with things like
    the Enabling Act.
  • The Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic
  • Germany lost WW1 in 1918
  • The Weimar Republic a democratic government was
    formed. One of their first acts was to sign the
    Treaty of Versailles in November. The German
    people hated the Treaty and called the Weimar
    politicians the November Criminals. The treaty,
    among other things lost Germany 13 of its land
    and committed them to pay 6.6 billion in
    reparations.
  • Weakness of the government Parties won seats in
    the Reichstag (Parliament) depending on the
    proportion of the vote they got. This is called
    Proportional Representation. No one party is in
    complete control, many parties share control.
    This means that it is very difficult to agree and
    get things done.
  • The Road to power 1929 33
  • 1. Hindenburg was the President of Germany in the
    early 1930s. The country was in chaos. massive
    unemployment and discontent A series of
    Chancellors (Bruning, Von Papen, Von Schleicher)
    tried and failed to get the country sorted out.
  • .Hindenburg sees that Hitler is popular. He and
    other politicians believe that they can make
    Hitler Chancellor and then control him.
  • 3. So Hitler is made Chancellor of Germany in Jan
    1933. But the Nazis do not have a majority in the
    Reichstag. This means that Hitler has to lead a
    coalition government, sharing power with others.
    He is not prepared to share! He has got power,
    now he needs to consolidate (strengthen) it
  • The Nazis in the 1920s
  • -, the Nazi party were only a small party before
    the Wall Street Crash. After the failure in the
    1923 Munich Putsch, Hitler knew that he needed to
    change tack if he was going to get popular
    support. This is what he did to broaden the
    partys appeal in the 1920s
  • -Decided that he would come to power through the
    ballot not the bullet i.e. the Nazi Party would
    be voted in, not seize power through rebellion.
  • -Put more emphasis on propaganda. Goebbels was
    put in charge of this public meetings, posters,
    etc. Their members were trained in public
    speaking so that they could spread the word.
  • -Appealed to working class voters with
    anti-Semitism (hatred of Jews)
  • -Appealed to middle class voters with
    anti-communism and a tough stance on trade unions
  • Appealed to women and farmers by telling them
    they would be valued in a new Nazi Germany
  • - Appealed to the old, land owning classes by
    promising to get rid of the Treaty of Versailles,
    returning Germany to its former greatness.
  • -Did it work? To some extent, yes. Their
    membership statistics doubled in the 1920s
  • BUT they still didnt do very well in elections
    (only 12 seats in 1928) until the Wall Street
    Crash boosted their support dramatically (107
    seats in 1930!)

How did Hitler consolidate power? Now that he is
chancellor (Jan 33) Hitler realises that he needs
an overall majority of seats in the Reichstag so
that he doesnt have to share power with others.
He calls another election, scheduled for March.
A month before the election, there is a fire in
the Reichstag. Hitler blames the Communists so
they lose support. He also persuades Hindenburg
to pass the Decree for the Protection of the
State and People, giving Hitler powers to
suppress opposition to the Nazis. However, in the
March elections Hitler STILL dioesnt get a
majority. So he consolidates his power by 1)
Passing the Enabling Act. He uses the SA to
intimidate his political opponents into backing
the law . Once it is passed Hitler can make any
future laws without the agreement of the
Reichstag. He uses it to ban all other political
parties, ban trade unions, and censor the press.
2) Making himself Fuhrer (combined president
and chancellor). He does this in 1934 when
president Hindenburg dies. 3) Wiping out top
members of the SA in the Night of the Long
Knives. By executing 200 people who he believed
were plotting against him, Hitler sent out a
strong message to the rest of his party dont
try and mess with me.
3
  • What does Source A show you about how Hitler
    communicated his message to the Germans in the
    1920s? 2
  • A Nazi party rally in 1927
  • HOW TO ANSWER
  • SAY TWO THINGS FROM THE SOURCE AND/OR CAPTION

Source questions on Hitlers Rise to and
Consolidation of Power
D) How useful is source D to an historian
studying the importance of the Enabling Act in
Hitlers consolidation of power? 6 It was the
Enabling Act that truly allowed the Nazis to deal
the final blow to democracy in Germany. After the
Enabling Act, the Nazis were supreme the only
party in a country where criticism from the
press was non-existent. The act wiped out the
possibility of political opposition to the
Nazis. From a GCSE textbook, by B Brenning and C
Gatley, 1999 HOW TO ANSWER CONTENT Give a
sentence on WHAT the source says and say that
this is useful to an historian ORIGIN Say WHO
wrote it and WHEN. How does this make it more or
less useful? Was the person who wrote it close
to the events, or did they live through the
period? If it was written more recently, would
the author have done research/ have the benefit
of hindsight? PURPOSE Does the author have any
reason to mislead the reader? Are they trying to
promote themselves or their beliefs? Maybe they
have no reason to lie? If it was written more
recently, is the purpose to inform?
B) Using source B and your own knowledge,
explain how the Nazis appealed to the German
people Hitler believed strongly in the
importance of propaganda. He believed that the
message needed to be kept simple, and repeated
again and again. Speeches and posters were
favoured methods. When it came to appealing to
the working classes, Hitler played on their
existing distrust of the Jews. From a GCSE
revision book, 2008 HOW TO ANSWER SAY THREE
THINGS FROM THE SOURCE AND ONE FROM YOUR OWN
KNOWLEDGE
  • E) Why do sources E and F have different ideas
    about the Reichstag Fire? 8
  • HOW TO ANSWER
  • Summarise what the two authors say and how it is
    different.
  • Say how the origin of the sources and purpose of
    the authors might affect what they say.

The communists have shown themselves for what
they really are filthy plotters who want to
bring down our great country. The fire has shown
us that, more than ever, it is the time to stand
up to these traitors. Source E Goebbles, a
leading Nazi, speaking in 1933.
It is not known who started the fire, but the
Nazis arrested Marinus Van der Lubbe, a Dutch
communist. Most historians now agree that it was
probably the Nazis. This was a wonderful for
Hitler and Goebbles, who claimed that the
communists were about to stage a takeover Source
F J Wright, Germany 1929-47, a textbook
published in 2010
C) How far does source C support the view that
people voted for Hitler because he promised them
jobs? 5 A Nazi election poster 1933, with
the caption Workers vote for the front soldier
Hitler HOW TO ANSWER SAY HOW THE SOURCE
DOES SUPPORT THIS VIEW. THEN SAY WHAT IT
LEAVES OUT
4
Unit title Changing Life in Nazi Germany
  • In a nutshell
  • Hitler did create jobs and he did help big
    businesses. However, in the 1930s German people
    lost their freedom as Nazi ideals came to
    dominate their schools, churches, and even their
    homes and families. Minority groups, especially
    the Jews, faced horrific discrimination and
    violence. The SS and the Gestapo kept tight
    control over people, particularly potential
    political opponents, who were dealt with
    ruthlessly.

German workers. In a nutshell, it was OK if you
were an Aryan business owner, although the Nazis
would tell you what to do, because they wanted
total control of the economy. Everyone else was
pretty stuffed. Aryan business ownersJewish
shops were closed, lowering competition. Hitler
also banned new department stores, which helped
the other, smaller shops survive. Some big
business owners e.g. factory owners -were a bit
annoyed about being told what they should
produce. But all in all these people were the
winners. Autarkythe idea that Germany should be
self-sufficient benefited big businesses as it
meant that they didnt need to compete so much
with foreign goods. Also, in the run up to war,
these businesses made money producing war
materials. Farmers The farmers were made out to
look like heroes in Nazi propaganda. But they had
choice taken away from them about what they could
produce. Industrial workersThere were more
factory jobs around because of rearmament. Also,
leisure activities were provided in the Strength
Through Joy program. However, wages hardly
increased and people worked increased hours for
little money. They also lost their trade union
rights instead they had to join the DAF (The
German Labour Front) which controlled German
workers.. UnemployedThere was the RAD (The
National Labour Service) where you had to work if
you were aged 18-25 or out of work. It was hard
labour, mostly building roads.
The Church Hitler needed religion to make him
look legitimate and conservative. He agreed with
some Christian ideas , like the importance of
family. He also wanted to tap into the support of
the large church going population. HOW DID HE
TREAT THE CHURCH? CATHOLICS In July 1933 Hitler
signed a CONCORDAT (with the Pope. Catholic
children were allowed to go to Catholic youth
groups and Catholic schools, instead of the
Hitler Youth. However the Nazis didnt keep to
this agreement long term Catholic schools and
youth groups were banned by 1939. PROTESTANTS
Different Protestant churches were united into
one German Christian Church. The swastika was put
at the front of churches. BUT hundreds of pastors
rejected this and joined the Confessional
Church THE GERMAN FAITH MOVEMENT was Hitlers
vision for a completely new religion based on
pagan practices. People didnt like it much and
it never really took off
WomenWomen in top jobs were sacked their role
was to stay at home The was summed up in the
phrase Kinder, Kucheund Kirche Children
Kitchen and Church!.Lots of things were done to
make women have children and behave like
housewives, like Marriage Loans for new brides
and medals for women with many babies -Nazi
organisations included bridal schools to make
perfect mothers and wives and mother care and
house craft lessons. -Women were expected to have
a traditional German appearance. From 1935, you
had to get a certificate showing you were fit to
marry I.e. Aryan, to make sure your kids were
racially pure. Women with mental illness or
disabilities were sterilised. Selected unmarried
mothers were asked to Donate a baby to the
Fuhrer by getting pregnant by an SS officer, as
part of the Spring of Life program.
Children and Education The Nazis took complete
control of the education system, and used this to
indoctrinate the children with Nazi ideas. They
set up a Ministry of Education which took control
of schools away from state governments. . IN
SCHOOL The curriculum emphasized Nazi ideas
about German supremacy etc. In girls schools,
girls learnt how to be good wives and
mothers. OUT OF SCHOOL The Hitler Youth grew,
indoctrinating children. It was made compulsory
after 1939. DID IT ALL WORK?The membership of
youth groups did grow, but this was partly
because it was increasingly forced on children.
There were some opposition youth groups, like the
Edelweiss Pirates.
Jewish people Jews were persecuted (discriminated
against and attacked) in schools, in propaganda
and through laws and policies 1933 Jewish civil
servants (government workers) sacked. A boycott
of Jewish shops was organised. Signs started
appearing on public places like swimming pools
saying NO JEWS ALLOWED 1935 NUREMBERG LAWS
removed citizenship from Jews and forbade
relationships with Aryans 1938 Kristallnacht
Jewish businesses attacked in one night of
extreme violence.
5
  • What does Source A show you about how the Nazis
    kept control in Germany? 2
  • Members of the Gestapo dealing with
    suspected political opponents
  • HOW TO ANSWER
  • SAY TWO THINGS FROM THE SOURCE AND/OR CAPTION

Source questions on changing life in Nazi Germany
D) How useful is source D to an historian
studying Nazi policy towards children? 6 They
did everything they could to make sure we grew up
into good Nazis. At school there were endless
lessons on racial science and the greatness on
Germany. But it didnt stop there. We were
expected to take part in the Hitler Youth after
school. It was brainwashing, nothing less. Herr
Bruntz, who grew up in Nazi Germany, interviewed
for a BBC documentary in 1994. HOW TO
ANSWER CONTENT Give a sentence on WHAT the
source says and say that this is useful to an
historian ORIGIN Say WHO wrote it and WHEN. How
does this make it more or less useful? Was the
person who wrote it close to the events, or did
they live through the period? If it was written
more recently, would the author have done
research/ have the benefit of hindsight? PURPOSE
Does the author have any reason to mislead the
reader? Are they trying to promote themselves or
their beliefs? Maybe they have no reason to
lie? If it was written more recently, is the
purpose to inform?
B) Using source B and your own knowledge,
explain how the Nazis appealed to the German
people The Nazis believed that the Germans were
a pure race of Aryan descent a master race.
They were shown in art as blond, blue-eyed, tall,
lean and athletic a people fit to master the
world. However, this race had been contaminated
by subhumans. From a GCSE history textbook,
2010 HOW TO ANSWER SAY THREE THINGS FROM THE
SOURCE AND ONE FROM YOUR OWN KNOWLEDGE
  • E) Why do sources E and F have different ideas
    about Christianity in Nazi Germany? 8
  • HOW TO ANSWER
  • Summarise what the two authors say and how it is
    different.
  • Say how the origin of the sources and purpose of
    the authors might affect what they say.

C) How far does source C support the view that
women were valued in Nazi Germany? 5 A Nazi
poster emphasising the role of women as
mothers HOW TO ANSWER SAY HOW THE SOURCE
DOES SUPPORT THIS VIEW. THEN SAY WHAT IT
LEAVES OUT
We must show loyalty to the Furher who has saved
us from communism and given us a better future.
Support the German Christian church. Source E
A Protestant pastor speaking in a German
Christian Church in 1937
A lot of important opposition to the Nazis came
from the Christian community. Men like Niemoller
and Galen risked everything to publicly criticise
Hitler, while many more did so in private Source
F J Hemming Germany under Hitler, a textbook
published in 2002
6
Unit title Germany and WW2
  • In a nutshell
  • In the early days of the war, morale was high as
    Germany took a number of European countries with
    Blitzkreig (lightening war). However, after 1942,
    once America entered the war and Germany took on
    Russia, the war became much more difficult for
    the Germans. Shortages and bombing affected life
    on the home front and opposition to the Nazis
    grew.

Before the war Germany built up its war supplies
(the 4 year plan) and introduced the policy of
Autarky (self-sufficiency) in preparation for the
War. The armed forces were expanded, and
conscription was introduced. The good years
(1939-41) Although their was rationing,
shortages were not too bad. Resources from
conquered countries helped. Morale was high
propaganda and the early victories ensured that
people believed they would win the war. The bad
years (1942-45) Fighting Russia and America was
too much for Germany. The country now
concentrated all its resources on war (Total War)
but this was still not enough. Shortages got
worse- essentials like clothes/fuel and everyday
items like coffee and loo roll. Attempts to get
women into work mainly failed because of pre-war
propaganda emphasising womens role as
homemaker/mother. (only 1million of the 3million
women called upon to work actually did). Germany
had to rely on slave labour from concentration
camps The Volkstrum, (home guard) was formed in
1944 to Germany but its members were often
old/sick and badly trained. From the 1940s,
Allied bombing on German cities cost thousands of
lives and impacted upon morale. Goebbles
launched an intensive propaganda campaign, but it
began to become clear that Germany was losing.
Jewish People during the War The Nazis policies
towards the Jews changed during the war. After
they invaded Poland, 3 million more Jews were
brought under Nazi control. Jews were at first
forced into ghettos. From 1941, after the Soviet
Union was invaded Einsatzgruppen(killing squads)
began to round up and shoot Jews. In 1942 at the
Wannsee Conference the decision was made to
expand the concentration camps and use gas as a
killing method. This was known as the Final
Solution(to the Jewish problem)
  • Opposition
  • It was hard to oppose the Nazis within Germany.
    As the war continued resistance grew.
  • The Edelweiss Pirates -these were young people
    who objected to the Nazis. Their leader was
    hanged.
  • The Swing Youth -these were middle class young
    people who wanted to listen to Jazz music. They
    restricted the impositions of the Nazi regime.
  • The White Rose Group were university students who
    distributed leaflets about how badly the Nazis
    were really doing in the war. Their leaders were
    arrested and executed.
  • The Confessional Church was set up by Pastor
    Niemoller, he was imprisoned by the Nazis.
  • The July Bomb Plot In July 1944as plot to
    assassinate Hitler codenamed Operation
    Valkyriewas launched. Colonel Claus von
    Stauffenbergtried to blow up Hitler with a bomb
    in a briefcase. However The bomb went off but
    failed to kill Hitler.
  • Over 5000people suspected of being involved in
    the plot were executed.

The End of the War and Denazification The Allies
reinvaded mainland Europe in 1944 (D-Day). The
Germans were squeezed from the East and West. In
1945, when the Russians were already in Berlin.
Hitler finally killed himself and Admiral Doenitz
signed the surrender agreement. Berlin was
divided into a French, American, Russian and
British section. The city was in ruins and people
were desperate. The Nuremberg Trials lasted from
Nov 1945-1946. Major Nazis like Goering and Hess
were put on trial for crimes like genocide and
conspiracy to wage war. Many were sentenced to
death, while others committed suicide before they
could face justice. Denazification was the
process of wiping all traces of Nazism from
German life. The process differed in the
different sections of Germany e.g. in the
Russian section, former Nazis were allowed to
keep important jobs if they converted to
communism.
7
  • What does Source A show you about German tactics
    in the early years of the war? 2
  • Amsterdam after
  • Nazi bombing
  • 1940
  • HOW TO ANSWER
  • SAY TWO THINGS FROM THE SOURCE AND/OR CAPTION

Source questions on Germany in WW2
D) How useful is source D to an historian
studying the treatment of Jews during the Final
Solution? 6 As we huddled together the SS
quickly separated the men from the women. They
took the old and the sick and put them in a
special line. My entire body was shaved and after
I was given clothes which had huge red marks
painted on them. This was so that I could be
easily spotted if I tried to escape. Errikos
Sevillias describes his arrival at Auschwitz in
1943. He was interviewed for a book of survivors
memories, published in 1978. HOW TO
ANSWER CONTENT Give a sentence on WHAT the
source says and say that this is useful to an
historian ORIGIN Say WHO wrote it and WHEN. How
does this make it more or less useful? Was the
person who wrote it close to the events, or did
they live through the period? If it was written
more recently, would the author have done
research/ have the benefit of hindsight? PURPOSE
Does the author have any reason to mislead the
reader? Are they trying to promote themselves or
their beliefs? Maybe they have no reason to
lie? If it was written more recently, is the
purpose to inform?
B) Using source B and your own knowledge,
explain how the Nazis prepared Germany for war.
4 From the mid-thirties, organisational
structures were put in place to prepare Germany
for a major war. Autarky, or self-sufficiency,
ensured the the country would not need to import
goods, while conscription ensured plenty of men
for the growing armed forces. From a GCSE
textbook, 2009 HOW TO ANSWER SAY THREE THINGS
FROM THE SOURCE AND ONE FROM YOUR OWN KNOWLEDGE
  • E) Why do sources E and F have different ideas
    about the Reichstag Fire? 8
  • HOW TO ANSWER
  • Summarise what the two authors say and how it is
    different.
  • Say how the origin of the sources and purpose of
    the authors might affect what they say.

The German people are prepared to endure hardship
and total war. They are committed to success in
this war. It is their belief, their unswerving
loyalty, that will carry this country onward to
victory. Source E Goebbles a leading Nazi,
speaking in 1943
By the later years of the war, we had lost our
belief and our patience. We willed it to be over,
whatever the outcome. We were poor and hungry,
and many of us were beginning to question the
promises that Hitler had made. Yes, I knew many
men who would have been happy to surrender by
1943. Source F K Schultz, remembering his time
in the Germany army, speaking in 2000
C) How far does source C support the view that
life in Germany continued as normal in the early
years of the war? 5 Berlin in
1939 HOW TO ANSWER SAY HOW THE
SOURCE DOES SUPPORT THIS VIEW. THEN SAY WHAT
IT LEAVES OUT
8
Practice questions for parts B and C of exam
(non-source questions)
TOP TIPS For a 4 mark question, mention 2-3
factors and explain them well For a 5 mark
question, mention 3-4 factors and explain them
well For a 10 mark question, weigh up both sides
of the argument (mentioning a number of factors)
and then come to a mini-conclusion
Hitlers Rise to and Consolidation of
Power Explain why the SA was so important to the
Nazi Party (4) Explain why propaganda was so
important to the Nazi Party (4) Describe how the
Nazi Party increased its support between 1929 and
1932 (5) Explain how the failure of traditional
politicians helped the Nazis come to power
(4) The Night of the Long Knives was the most
important factor in Hitlers consolidation of
power. Do you agree? (10) Life in Nazi
Germany Describe the Nazi treatment of Jews,
1933-39? (5) Explain why the Nazis appealed to
women to have more children (4) Explain why the
SS and the Gestapo played an important role in
the Nazi state (4) Life improved for Germans in
the period 1933-39. Do you agree? (10) Germany
and WW2 Describe how the Nazis prepared Germany
for war (5) Explain why rationing was needed in
Germany during the war(4) Explain what is meant
by Denazification (4) Describe how Hitler tried
to eliminate Jews from German territories (5)
Was Allied bombing the most important factor in
the defeat of Germany in 1945? (10)
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