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New Imperialism

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New Imperialism Definition of Imperialism A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically and socially Take up the White ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Imperialism


1
New Imperialism
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Definition of Imperialism
  • A policy in which a strong nation seeks to
    dominate other countries politically,
    economically and socially
  • Take up the White Man's burden-Send for the best
    ye breed-Go bind your sons to exileTo serve
    your captives' needTo wait in heavy harness,On
    fluttered folk and wild-Your new-caught, sullen
    peoples,Half-devil and half-child.-Rudyard
    Kipling

4
Early Cause Slave Trade
  • Slave Trade
  • 7th century onward, slave trade is principal
    export
  • (Trans-Saharan, between Islamic and indigenous
    Africa and between E. Africa and Asia)
  • Trans Atlantic
  • 15th Century, Portugal then Spain
  • Slave trade picks up with conquest of New World,
    plantation system
  • Late 16th century English, Dutch, French, Danish
  • 1700-1870 80 of all slave trade

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Results of the Slave Trade
  • Decreased population
  • Disrupted agriculture, manufacturing, trade
  • Cities, villages abandoned
  • Development suffered Locally produced goods
    replaced by European made goods
  • Fostered stereotypes of racial superiority
  • Slave Trade ends by 1870 (1807, England)

9
Europeans and Africa1800-1900
  • 1800 Africa away from the coast is virtually
    unknown
  • 1900 Europeans explored nearly every part of the
    continent
  • 1783 GB discovered source of Blue Nile
  • 1800s Discoveries
  • White Nile, Lake Victoria, Victoria Falls (1855)
  • Funded by scientific and geographical societies

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Europeans and Africa1800-1900
  • Livingstone missionary, civilizing mission
  • Slave trade must end, schools, commerce, spread
    the gospel
  • Europeans develop the idea that colonialism is a
    charitable undertaking
  • Europeans are morally and technologically superior

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Immediate Causes of Imperialism
  • Industrial Revolution strengthens the West
  • New industrial nations seek new markets and raw
    materials
  • European nations compete for power and prestige
  • Europeans feel
    duty to spread
    Western culture
  • Missionary
    spirit

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More Causes for the Imperialist Impulse
  • Need for military and naval bases to protect
    interests against other European powers
  • Tension between the haves (British Empire) and
    the have-nots" (Germany Italy) who came in
    late to the imperialistic competition.

14
Social Darwinism
  • White Man's Burden Superior Westerners had an
    obligation to bring their culture to
    uncivilized peoples in other parts of the
    world. Other races are naturally inferior.

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Nationalism
  • Used in Germany and Russia
  • Imperialism diverted popular attention from the
    class struggle at home, created false sense of
    national unity.

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Cultural Impact
  • Europeans convinced they have a mission to
    civilize the world
  • The more of the world we inhabit the better it
    is for the human race . . . If there be a God, I
    think what he would like me too do is to pain as
    much of the map of Africa British red as
    possible. Cecil Rhodes

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Westernization
  • Modernization Westernization
  • Belief in Western superiority
  • Language, clothing, traditions
  • Western medicine replaces indigenous healing
    methods
  • Western schooling is seen as superior, the only
    way to get ahead
  • Languages European languages are language of
    business, education, and politics
  • Religion Christianity enforced, in some places
    there is a blend between Christianity and
    indigenous religions

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Impact on Western Culture
  • Exotic goods no longer so exotic
  • Coffee from Brazil
  • Tea from Sri Lanka
  • Banana from Honduras
  • Pineapples from Hawaii
  • More knowledge gained about ancient civilizations
  • Eastern art and other designs
    becomes popular in the West

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New Political Tensions
  • Rival peoples united under colonial government
  • Western-educated elites in colonies begin to
    question western dominance
  • Competition amongst European nations
  • Example Sudan 1898
  • British expanding south fro Egypt and French
    pushing east met at Fashoda.
  • Crisis nearly leads to war between England and
    France. Diplomatic solution.
  • Common Enemy

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Forces Enabling African and Indian Imperialism
  • European technological superiority
  • Steamboats
  • Automatic machine gun
  • Locomotive
  • Telegraph
  • Europeans had the means to control their empires
  • Easy travel
  • Wide spread communication
  • African and Indian disunity
  • Huge variety of cultures
  • Fighting among cultures

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Scramble for Africa
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The Scramble
  • 1880 90 of Africa ruled by Africans
  • 1900 only Ethiopia and Liberia are independent
  • How did it begin?
  • Portuguese maintain original trading regions
  • French angered by GBs annexation of Egypt, claim
    western Africa
  • British extended control inland from Cape of Good
    Hope
  • Congo King Leopold (Belgium) annexed the entire
    region as his personal estate in Africa

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The Conference 1884-85
  • Rules for carving up the continent
  • No annexation without occupation
  • Sponsored by Bismarck and Jules Ferry

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Results of the Berlin Conference
  • French move inward to the east and south
  • British secure areas on western coast, move
    northward from the southern coast (Cape to
    Cairo)
  • Germans want control over East Africa
    (Tanganyika, Kenya)
  • Italy Eritrea, Somaliland, but not Ethiopia
  • Boundaries were ill conceived
  • Division of ethnic groups/traditional political
    units

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Tensions Develop
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Fashoda 1898
  • Sudan is the meeting ground between France and
    England
  • Egyptian Question France had chosen to vacate
    Egypt in 1882. they want a strong military
    presence on the Nile to thwart British
    influences.
  • Results
  • French withdraw
  • Potential bigger threat with Germany
  • British position in Africa strengthened
  • 1904 Anglo-French entente

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Battle of Omdurman (1898)
  • British defeated Sudanese tribesman and killed
    11,000 (use of machine gun) while only 28 Britons
    died

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Imperialism Post WWI
  • Germany forced to relinquish colonies
  • Other European powers get trusteeship over German
    territory
  • No other significant changes until 1960s

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The Colonial State
  • Extension of the European state
  • Policy developed in Europe, reflects Euro
    ideology, not needs of Africa
  • Colonial officials interpret, implement policy
    to each particular situation
  • Goal maintain law and order, promote development
    that benefits Europe
  • Not a goal fostering development of a
    self-reliant nations
  • Africans are seen as incapable of self-government

35
The Colonial State
  • Different styles of government
  • Kenya, Rhodesia settlers have more power, used
    to enhance their privileges
  • Example some crops can only be raised by
    settlers
  • British Colonies Indirect Rule
  • Local authorities given unpleasant tasks (tax
    collection, recruitment of labor for state
    projects)
  • Indigenous rulers really had no power, handpicked
    puppet governments
  • End result no development of local interests, no
    local power

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European Development
  • Evidence of the Civilizing Mission
  • Railroads and roads
  • Plantations and Mines cocoa, rubber, coffee,
    palm oil, tropical woods, copper, diamonds, gold
  • New cities admin and commerce centers
  • Western style education, health care

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Economic Policy
  • Direct Investment
  • Development of Mining regions (copper belt of
    Rhodesia and the Congo)
  • Commercial plantations in East Africa (white
    highlands)
  • Success has 3 elements
  • Control of desirable land
  • Supply of cheap African labor
  • Access to markets

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Economic Policy
  • Displaced People
  • Land moved to reserve lands, located in
    over-crowded, less fertile areas
  • Because they can no longer rely on farming, they
    must hire themselves out as laborers
  • Taxes and restrictions on what can be grown
    increase likelihood of becoming a low-wage
    laborer
  • Nigeria, Ghana cash crops for export (cotton)
  • Positive cash economy, money to pay taxes, can
    purchase consumer goods, food
  • Negative Must rely on cash, no incentive to be
    self-sufficient

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Human Cost of Colonial Development
  • Railway from Congo to West Africa 1921-1934
  • 12 hour days in sweltering heat (Nov. to May) and
    torrential rains (May-Oct)
  • Construction accidents due to rough terrain
  • Epidemics malaria, sleeping sickness
  • Death toll 60,000
  • recruitment quotas
  • Unwilling recruits were forced to walk from home
    village to construction site
  • 1 franc per month in 1921 1930, 100 franc per
    month (still extremely low)

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Evaluating the Colonial Legacy
  • The idea that Africa was a blank map is wrong
  • The introduction of modern medicine in Africa is
    significant however, minor compared to the
    overall destruction
  • Nationalism Africans began to create stronger
    regional identities in reaction to European
    influence
  • 1960 independent countries increased from 5 to
    22
  • South Africa, 1994 majority rule

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British Colonies
Britain had managed to get some of the most
valuable land in Africa. The most important gain
was Egypt because of the Suez Canal. This
provided a much quicker and safer route to India
the Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire.
EGYPT
SUDAN
NIGERIA
BRITISHEAST AFRICA
RHODESIA
BECHUANALAND
SOUTH AFRICA
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French Colonies
Goal Uninterrupted access from Niger River to
the Nile to control all Saharan trade. Creates
tension between Britain and France.
ALGERIA
TUNIS
MOROCCO
FRENCH WEST AFRICA
FRENCH EQUATORIAL AFRICA
MADAGASCAR
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French Reasons for being in Africa
  • British motivation was to safeguard passage to
    India and to profit from economic opportunities.
  • French motivation was different
  • France annexed huge areas of unprofitable desert
    and jungle
  • wanted to block British expansion in West Africa
  • Some economic reasons
  • Enhance the French economy to help pay the
    Prussian indemnity
  • Recover from the Great Depression of the 1870s

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France in Africa
  • Idealism Promote Enlightenment and
    Revolutionary ideals
  • Convert Africans into citizens
  • Policy of Assimilation mimic French culture,
    become French
  • Benefit not likely to revolt, less need for
    military garrisons
  • Assimilated Africans served in the lower
    levels of administration, saving the cost of
    bringing Europeans to Africa to fill their
    positions.

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German Colonies
Germany did not enter the race for colonies until
very late and, as a result, much of the land
gained was not very valuable. Despite this,
Kaiser William II was determined that Germany
should have a major empire.
KAMERUN
GERMANEAST AFRICA
GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA
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Italian Colonies
Failed in Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
TUNIS
LYBIA
ERITREA
ABYSSINIA
ITALIAN SOMALILAND
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Belgian Colonies
Even Belgium had an African colony the Belgian
Congo. This was one of the reasons that Kaiser
William II of Germany decided that his country
must also have colonies.
BELGIANCONGO
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  • "There are no small nations .... only small
    minds
  • Congo is 80 times the size of Belgium
  • Leopolds personal empire (paid for by him)
  • Taxes could be paid in rubber
  • Congolese natives mutilated, whipped, and
    executed for not producing enough wild rubber for
    their (taxes)
  • Eventually Belgian parliament demands a takeover
    of the Congo

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New Imperialism in Asia
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New Imperialism in Asia
  • France Indochina
  • Britain Burma, Malay Peninsula, North Borneo
  • Germany Pacific islands
  • Russia Persia, outlying provinces of China
  • United States Spanish-American War, 1898
  • US defeated Spain, took Philippines, Guam, Hawaii
    and Cuba

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England and India
  • Sepoy Mutiny, 1857-58
  • India administered by a small, all-white civil
    service in India.
  • British reforms in India
  • Progressive secondary education (to train Indian
    civil servants)
  • Economic (irrigation, railroads, tea and
    jute/cotton plantations)
  • Creation of unified and powerful state
  • Use of English as primary language

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Indian National Congress (formed in 1885)
  • Educated Indians, predominantly Hindu, demanded
    increasing equality and self-government
  • India became independent in 1946

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China
  • Carved into spheres of influence in late 19th
    century
  • End of the Ching Dynasty

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Opium Wars
  • New Triangular Trade
  • Indian opium and cotton to China next,
    Chinese tea to Britain and, then, British
    textiles and machinery back to India
  • Early 1800s,  British treasury was being
    depleted due to its dependence upon imported tea
    from China.
  • China did not want to trade for British goods.
    Britain unable to make up trade deficit.
  • Britain imported opium into China.
  • Chinese officials attempted to ban opium, but
    ultimately failed.
  • Limits on British trade.
  • The British declared war on China in a series of
    conflicts called the Opium Wars (British win).

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Unfair Treaties
  • 1842 Treaty of Nanjing
  • Reimburse Britain for costs incurred fighting the
    Chinese
  • Open several ports to British trade
  • Provide Britain with complete control of Hong
    Kong
  • Beginning of Spheres of Influence
  • Other European nations demand access to China

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Chinese Reaction to Western Influence
  • Emperor cannot rid China of opium or foreign
    influence
  • Taiping Rebellion, 1850-1864.
  • Chinese officials turned to foreigners for help
    in putting down the rebellion, killing millions
    of Chinese in the process
  • 1900 Chinese nationalists staged Boxer Rebellion
  • Anti dynasty, anti-foreigner
  • Leads to overthrow of last dynasty in 1911 and
    the era of Chinese nationalism

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Sino-Japanese War
  • 1894-95 War revealed Chinas helplessness

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Japan
  • Unlike China, Japan quickly modernized and became
    an imperial power by late 19th century
  • Meiji Restoration, 1867 resulted in series of
    reforms to compete with the West
  • 1850s
  • Restored Imperial Power, consolidated government,
    military, and economics
  • "Enrich the country, strengthen the military"
  • Allowed industrialization to occur
  • End of the Samurai era all classes more equally
    distributed

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Russo-Japanese War (1904)
  • Russia and Japan both had designs on Manchuria
    and Korea
  • Europeans had nurtured Japan as a buffer to
    Russian expansion
  • Japanese concerned about Russian Trans-Siberian
    Railway across Manchuria.
  • Japan destroyed Russian fleet off coast of Korea
    and won major battles on land although Russians
    turned the tide on land subsequently.
  • England allied with Japan.
  • Westerners horrified that Japan had defeated a
    major Western power

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