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The Cold War at Home

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The Cold War at Home The Cold War at Home With the Great Depression tens of thousands of Americans joined the Communist Party. After FDR s Works Projects and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Cold War at Home


1
The Cold War at Home
2
The Cold War at Home
  • With the Great Depression tens of thousands of
    Americans joined the Communist Party.
  • After FDRs Works Projects and WWII most quit
    the Party.

3
1950s The NEW Red Scare
  • Fears of conspiracy.
  • China fell to the Communists in 1949.
  • Were the Communists going to try to overthrow the
    American government?

4
Commie Spies in the US?
  • Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
  • 1950
  • American Communists
  • Accused of passing atomic bomb secrets to the
    Soviets
  • Executed 1953
  • Only civilians in the 20th century executed for
    espionage.

5
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
  • Did they do it?
  • Historical debate
  • They were spies.
  • Julius more than Ethel
  • But did they get the bomb secrets?
  • Unlikely.
  • Did they deserve death?
  • ????

6
Other spies Alger Hiss
  • Former State Department official
  • Accused by an editor for TIME magazine of being a
    Communist.
  • Had been a Communist in the 1930s.
  • Was he a spy as accused?
  • Unlikely but not clear

7
Alger Hiss Tragedy
  • Alger Hiss had the right to be a Communist Party
    member.
  • His civil rights were violated in the pursuit of
    finding Communists.
  • Spent 4 years in prison and a lifetime in
    disgrace.
  • 1904 - 1996

8
Public Reaction to Hiss / Rosenbergs?
  • The Loyalty Program
  • HUAC
  • The Hollywood Ten
  • McCarran-Walter Act

9
The Loyalty Program
  • Truman created in 1947
  • Background checks on all federal workers done by
    FBI
  • Anyone with questionable activities were
    accused of disloyalty

10
The Loyalty Program
  • Those accused were sent in front of the Loyalty
    Review Board.
  • Violated rights of privacy and freedom to
    associate.
  • Considered guilty until proven innocent.

11
The Loyalty Program
  • Millions were investigated.
  • Few hundred removed from jobs.
  • Added to the climate of suspicion in the nation.

12
HUAC
  • House Un-American Activities Committee
  • Congressional committee to find Communists.
  • Focused more on Hollywood.

13
Hollywood in the 1950s
  • A number of actors had been Communists in the
    1930s.
  • The US govt. had encouraged films that were
    pro-Soviet during WWII.
  • Now they were out for the actors / writers /
    directors of un-American shows.

14
The Hollywood Ten
  • Celebrities accused of having radical politics.
  • Witnesses against the actors / directors /
    writers used flimsy evidence and rumors.
  • Then they would call the accused.

15
The Hollywood Ten
  • Are you now or have you ever been a member of
    the Communist Party?
  • An illegal question!
  • When some tried to answer they were denied the
    right to respond.
  • Not responding cited for contempt of Congress.

16
The Blacklist
  • Anyone with associations with the Hollywood Ten
    were afraid of being called Communist.
  • Backed off on films dealing with racism and
    anti-Semitism.

17
The McCarran-Walter Act
  • Senator McCarran thought all Communists were
    immigrants from Communist areas of the world.
  • Passed a law reestablishing the 1924 quotas on
    immigration.
  • Vetoed by Truman as most Un-American law Ive
    ever seen.
  • Congress overrode his veto and made the law.

18
The McCarthy Era
  • I hold in my hand a list of 205 people who were
    known to the Secretary of State as being members
    of the Communist Party and who, nevertheless, are
    still working and shaping policy at the State
    Department.
  • Senator Joe McCarthy (1950)

19
Joseph McCarthy
  • 1908 1957
  • Only asked himself 2 questions for anything he
    did
  • What do I want?
  • How do I get it?

20
Senator Joe McCarthy
  • 1950- Wisconsin senator in trouble for his
    upcoming re-election.
  • Needed an issue to keep people from looking at
    the lies about himself.

21
McCarthyism
  • Used innuendo and wild accusations against
    increasingly big targets.
  • The Army
  • Former General Marshall and then Secretary of
    State
  • Journalist Edward R. Murrow
  • President Eisenhower!

22
McCarthyism
  • Hundreds were accused.
  • Lost jobs, lost families, ruined reputations.
  • NO CHARGES WERE EVER FILED AGAINST ANYONE!

23
McCarthys Fall
  • 1954
  • Accusations of trying to keep an assistant from
    being drafted.
  • Accusations of homosexuality.
  • Accusations against people that the public
    respected.

24
McCarthys Fall
  • 1954 censured by the Senate.
  • Lost credibility and respect.
  • No power.
  • Died of alcoholism in 1957.

25
Rights of Americanism
  • The Right to criticize
  • The Right to hold unpopular beliefs
  • The Right to protest
  • The Right of independent thought.
  • Declaration of Conscience Margaret Chase Smith

26
McCarthys heir J. Edgar Hoover
  • Served 1924 - 1972 as director.
  • DONT CONFUSE WITH PRESIDENT HERBERT HOOVER!
  • 1930s set up first crime lab and hunted famous
    bank robbers.
  • 1940s investigated treason and espionage.
  • 1950s - 1972 Sought communists subversives.

27
Hoovers FBI
  • Developed own ideas of Americanism.
  • Collected dirty laundry on politicians, judges,
    senators, presidents, etc.
  • Hunted communists, homosexuals, or anything
    un-American.
  • Civil Rights Protests

28
Cold War in the US
  • Hunt for Communists continued into the 1980s.
  • 1975 government and the courts allowed for
    Declaration of Conscious

29
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