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Colorado Radionuclide Abatement and Disposal Strategy (CO-RADS)

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Title: Colorado Radionuclide Abatement and Disposal Strategy (CO-RADS)


1
Colorado Radionuclide Abatement and Disposal
Strategy(CO-RADS)
  • A compliance assistance project
  • sponsored by
  • Water Quality Control Division
  • Colorado Dept. of Public Health and Environment

2
Outline
  • Radionuclides 101
  • MCLs and EPA Risk Assessment
  • CO-RADS Project Background
  • CO-RADS Project Details
  • Discussion / Brainstorming Session

3
Radionuclides What Are They and How Are They
Formed?
  • Occur naturally as trace elements in rocks/soils
    due to radioactive decay of uranium and thorium
  • As radioactive atoms release or emit energy,
    decay occurs and the radioactive atom transforms
    into a new atom
  • Emission Types
  • Alpha particles (2 protons and 2 neutrons bound
    together)
  • Beta particles (electron)
  • Gamma rays (light ray)
  • Notable products of uranium and thorium decay
  • Radon-222
  • Radium-226 and -228
  • Uranium-238 and -234
  • Most commonly found in groundwater
  • Manmade radionuclides not a concern in Colorado

4
Simplified Decay Series
Thorium-232 decay series (radium series)
Uranium-235 decay series (radium series)
Uranium-238 decay series (radium series)
Uranium-238
Thorium-232
Uranium-235
Radium-228
Thorium-231
Uranium-234
Thorium-230
Thorium-228
Radium-223
Radium-226
Radium-224
Radon-219
Radon-222
Radon-220
Lead-207
Lead-208
Lead-206
5
Radionuclide Primary Drinking Water Maximum
Contaminant Levels
Contaminant Current MCL MCLG Drinking Water Health Effects Sources Best Available Technology (BAT)
Combined Radium 226 and 228 5 pCi/L Zero Bone Cancer Naturally occurring Ion exchange Lime softening Reverse osmosis
Uranium 30 ug/L Zero Kidney toxicity, Bladder cancer Naturally occurring Coagulation/filtration Anion exchange Lime softening Reverse osmosis
Adjust gross alpha emitters 15 pCi/L Zero Cancer Naturally occurring and manmade Reverse osmosis
Gross beta and photon emitters 4 mrem/yr Zero Cancer Naturally occurring and manmade Ion exchange Reverse osmosis
6
Risk Assessment
  • Maximum Contaminant Levels based on lifetime
    increased cancer risk of approx. 1 in 10,000
  • Lifetime consumption 2 Liters/day for 70 years
  • Linear No Threshold dose-response model

7
Project Background Historical Perspective
  • Rule applies to all Community Water Systems
  • Gross alpha and radium standard effective 1976
  • Uranium Standard and revised radium monitoring
    effective in 2003

8
Project Background Historical Perspective
  • 36 systems currently in violation
  • 20 open enforcement orders
  • Treatment options are available
  • Waste disposal is complex and expensive
  • Worker safety and licensing may be required
  • Limited guidance previously available

9
CO-STAR
Colorado Water Systems with Radionuclide
Violations
Map of Colorado Counties                        
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                       
Map of Colorado Counties                        
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                       
Map of Colorado Counties                        
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                       
10
(No Transcript)
11
CO-RADS Participants not in Violation
12
Project BackgroundRecent Efforts
  • In Feb 2007, the Department issued
  • Interim Policy and Guidance Pending Rulemaking
    for Control and Disposition of Technologically
    Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive
    Materials in Colorado
  • TENORM Manual for short, available at
  • http//www.cdphe.state.co.us/wq/DrinkingWater/pdf
    /TENORM/FinalPDFMaster.pdf
  • Division has gained more resources
  • and is in a position to assist
  • Radionuclide compliance is a high priority for
    new resource allocation

13
Project Background
  • CDPHE launched CO-RADS in 2007
  • Colorado Radionuclide Abatement and Disposal
    Strategy

13
14
Project Background
  • CO-RADS Overview
  • Phase 1 Identify Affected Systems
  • Phase 2 Source Water Characterization
  • Phase 3 Treatment and Waste Disposal
    Evaluations
  • Phase 4 Financial and Compliance Assistance
  • Phase 5 Implementation Assistance
  • Target completion date December 31, 2009

14
15
Project OverviewBasic Approach
  • Project is designed to find practical solutions
    for radionuclide violations
  • Sponsored by the Water Quality Control Division
  • Funding will come primarily from Federal dollars
  • Participation is optional
  • and at no cost to systems

16
Phase 1 Identify Potential Participants
Participant Recruitment
  • Internal Data Review
  • Identify systems affected by radionuclides
  • Contact systems
  • Host local meetings
  • Recruit systems
  • 33 systems are participating

17
Phase 1 Identify Potential Participants Service
Procurement
  • Later phases will use contracted services
  • Contractor selection
  • WQCD posted a Request for Proposal
  • 5 bids received
  • Selected firm
  • Malcolm Pirnie in conjunction with
  • Colorado School of Mines
  • Contract was approved August 24, 2007

18
Phase 2 Source Water Sampling Water System
Source Sampling
  • Sampling was performed at each system to provide
    data for engineering evaluations
  • Sampling plan was developed by Malcolm Pirnie in
    conjunction with WQCD
  • Sampling will include
  • Radionuclides
  • Other constituents affecting treatment
  • Fe, Mn, pH, Alk, Ca, TDS, SO4, etc.
  • Source water variability

19
Phase 2 Source Water Sampling Onsite
Evaluations
  • Additional information gathered while onsite
  • Solicited input from the system
  • Records and data review
  • User demands and well production capacities
  • Growth trends
  • Financial status and user rates
  • Current system infrastructure and condition
  • Information will be used to develop engineering
    reports for each system

20
Phase 3 Engineering Evaluations Phase 3
Overview
  • Desktop Treatment Evaluations
  • Waste Handling and Disposal Options
  • Pilot Studies
  • Interim Measures Investigation
  • Residuals Management Plan Template
  • Final report to systems

21
Phase 3 Engineering Evaluations Treatment
Evaluations
  • System specific evaluations will be performed for
    all participating systems
  • Desktop analysis
  • Will be based upon raw water data and onsite
    information collected in Phase 2
  • Will be done with input from the Divisions
    Engineering Section

22
Phase 3 Engineering Evaluations Treatment
Evaluations
  • Options that will be evaluated
  • Non-treatment (new source, blending, etc.)
  • Ion exchange
  • Reverse osmosis
  • POU/POE
  • Proprietary systems, to extent possible (WRT,
    Virotec)
  • Other innovative technologies (lime softening,
    HMO, barium co-precipitation etc.)

23
Phase 3 Engineering Evaluations Waste Handling
and Disposal Evaluations
  • Theoretical prediction of wastes
  • Intermediate processing of waste
  • Review of disposal options and receiving
    facilities
  • Identification of licensing requirements
  • Design recommendations
  • General cost information

24
Phase 3 Engineering Evaluations Waste Handling
and Disposal Evaluations
  • Waste handling falls under many jurisdictions
  • Requires coordination with multiple agencies
  • Engineering Section
  • Wastewater Permits Section
  • Solid Waste Unit
  • Radiation Management Unit
  • Laboratory Services Division

25
Phase 3 Engineering Evaluations Pilot Studies
  • Representative source waters have been selected
    for bench and pilot studies
  • Will be performed by the School of Mines
  • Finished water and waste content will be compared
    to theoretical predictions
  • Information will be used to support treatment
    designs

26
Phase 3 Engineering Evaluations Interim
Measures Investigation
  • Evaluation of potential interim measures
  • Public education
  • Bottled water recommendation
  • Water system providing bottled water
  • Point-of-use devices
  • WQCD working on policy regarding required interim
    measures based on radionuclide levels and time to
    achieve compliance
  • Arkansas Valley Conduit Project

27
Phase 3 Engineering Evaluations Final Report
  • Individual report for each system
  • Will contain design information
  • Analysis of alternatives
  • Recommended compliance options
  • Preliminary design criteria
  • Capital cost estimates
  • Life cycle cost estimates including capital,
    operating, and disposal costs
  • Will be developed to satisfy PER requirements for
    State Revolving Fund Loans

28
Phase 4 Compliance Assistance Financial
Planning
  • Identify funding options
  • WQCD Capacity Coaches
  • Assistance preparing grant and loan applications
  • Challenges associated with funding privately
    owned water systems

29
Phase 4 Compliance Assistance Capacity
Development
  • Capacity Capabilities
  • Increase technical, managerial, and financial
    capabilities of systems
  • Operator training
  • Development of SOPs
  • Updating/revising water rate structures
  • O M (including waste disposal) budgeting
  • Encourage regionalization efforts

30
Phase 4 Compliance Assistance Public Outreach
  • Public support will be critical to the success of
    a systems project
  • Department workgroup established
  • Multi agency effort
  • Water Quality Control Division
  • Office of Local Liaison
  • Comprehensive Cancer Prevention Program
  • Disease Control and Environmental Epidemiology
  • Evaluate cancer occurrence and other health
    statistics in affected areas
  • Begin to develop public outreach campaign

31
Phase 4 Compliance Assistance Public Outreach
  • Opportunity for additional partnerships and
    collaboration with local health agencies
  • Developing appropriate message
  • Disseminating information to the public
  • Other possibilities?
  • WQCD hopes to develop a relationship with CDEH
    and other local health agency organizations to
    help accomplish mutual goals
  • Dissemination of information
  • Improved public and environmental health

32
Phase 5 Implementation Phase 5 Overview
  • Division will provide technical assistance to
    help systems select an appropriate compliance
    option
  • Funding application and plans and specification
    reviews
  • Operator certification compliance

33
Project OverviewProject Timeline
34
CO-RADS Project Credits
  • Rads Systems of Concern Team
  • Jon DeBoer
  • Jon Erickson
  • Glenn Bodnar
  • Ron Falco
  • Cathy Heald
  • Dave Knope
  • Paul Kosik
  • Jeff Lawrence
  • Jackie Whelan
  • Carolyn Schachterle
  • Sharon Williams
  • Additional Support
  • Tom Armitage
  • Gene Bissett
  • Donna Davis
  • Jorge Delgado
  • Heather Drissel
  • Phil Egidi
  • Faith Erickson
  • James Grice
  • Charles Johnson
  • Brad Simons
  • Joey Talbott
  • Steve Tarlton

35
Discussion / Brainstorm
Jon Erickson Drinking Water Engineer, Water
Quality Control Division, CDPHE 4300 Cherry
Creek Drive South, B2 Denver, CO 80246 Phone
303-692-3593 Email jon.erickson_at_state.co.us
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