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Encountering the Enlightenment: Philosophy, Science


Chapter 28 Encountering the Enlightenment: Philosophy, Science & Society Artistic developments in the 17th century Baroque Grandiose scale Dramatic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Encountering the Enlightenment: Philosophy, Science

Chapter 28
  • Encountering the EnlightenmentPhilosophy,
    Science Society

Artistic developments in the 17th century
  • Baroque   Grandiose scale   Dramatic
    theatricality   Elaborate ornateness
  • Art of absolute monarchs   Louis XIV  
    Charles I
  • Rococo      Court style      Graceful,
    delicate      Emphasis onlightness    and
  • Reaction against Baroqueart of Louis XIV
  • Began in France, popularin Germany

Beginnings and Endingsco-existent artistic
  • Artistic movements do not begin and end on
  • Renaissance style continues into 16th century in
    parts ofEurope, especially England.
  • Mannerism does not eliminate Renaissance art.
  • Baroque art does not end with the introduction of
  • The Enlightenment does not end the Rococo.
  • Older styles continue to be popular long after
    theintroduction of a new style.
  • Some styles compete during the same time period
    -e.g.classicism vs. romanticism in the early
    19th century.

What happened in the 17th century?
  • Increase in scientific investigation.
  • Establishment of ideas about individualrights
    and responsibilities.
  • Autocratic monarchs and governmentscriticized by
    writers and theorists.
  • Rise of social philosophical investigationinto
    how humans learn, reason, act, andbelieve.

Changes in Ideas
  • Medieval and Renaissance thought relied on belief
    in an all-powerful designing and controlling
  • All aspects of life were controlled by God,
    angels, saints, and demons
  • Explanations for events centred on divine will.
  • The Enlightenment sought empirical explanations
    for events.
  • Individual actions or natural causes (not related
    to God), were seen to shape the world.
  • Scientific investigation eliminated much belief
    inspirits, demons, angels, etc.

John Locke (1632-1704)
  • Empiricism the experience of the senses in
    pursuit of knowledge rather than intuitive
    speculation or deduction.
  • Mind at birth is a tabula rasa, a blank slate
    upon which experience imprints knowledge.
  • Revolution was a right, often an obligation, in
    the face of tyranny. All persons are born good,
    independent, and equal.
  • Attacked the theory of divine right of kings.
    Natural right of individuals to life, liberty and
  • Duty of the government to protect these rights.
    Believed in the rule of the majority.

Individual rights some people are more equal
than others
  • Lockes ideas of rights belonged to men, not
  • Lockes ideas did not apply to non-Europeans(such
    as Native Americans or Black slaves).
  • Lockes ideas did not apply to Catholics.
  • Lockes ideas helped to fuel the American
    andFrench Revolutions.
  • Lockes ideas contradicted Christian
    (bothProtestant and Catholic) dogma -no original

Other important Enlightenment figures
  • Voltaire (1694-1778) attacked the power and
    corruption of monarchs and church leaders.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) author of The
    Social Contract and Emile, influences
    constitutions and education.
  • Denis Diderot (1713- 1784) creator of the
    Encyclopaedia.Knowledge and reason are the basis
    for progress.
  • Adam Smith (1723-1790) Author of The Wealth of
    Nations, inspires modern liberalism and
    free-market capitalism.
  • Thomas Paine (1723- 1809) author of The Rights
    of Man.

Mary Wollstonecraft, 1759-1797
  • Author of A Vindication of the Rights of
  • Friend of William Blake, Henry Fuseli, andThomas
  • First feminist author and thinker of the
  • Obvious debts to Locke and Paine she went
    onestep further in advocating equal rights for
    womenunder the law (equality of education

Individual Rights
  • Individual rights for men advocated by Locke
    in17th century.
  • Individual rights for women advocated
    byWollstonecraft in 18th century.
  • Revolution for rights in America 1776-1785.
  • Revolution for rights in France 1789-1796.
  • In the end, only free, white men got the rights
  • Ideas about world, rights, and God did not

The shift from theocratic to empirical reasoning
  • Medieval Renaissance society was theocratic or
  • Lockes ideas advocated empirical knowledge of
    the world
  • The 1700s saw the rise of experimental science
    based onhypothesis, test and verification.
  • Myth, superstition and tradition were not
    eliminated, butthe middle classes and some
    members of the aristocracychanged their ways of
  • These changes are reflected in the art of the
    time - both inneoclassicism and in romanticism
    in radically differentways.

28-1 Houdon, Bust of Voltaire
  • Marble, life-size portrait ofVoltaire in old
  • Sense of realism.
  • Link to ancient Romanworks-the portrait bust.
  • Voltaire worked tirelesslyagainst the ancien
    régimein France.
  • One of several busts andsculptures of Voltaire
    byHoudon, who also sculpteda bust of Benjamin

28-3 Joseph Wright of Derby (1763-65)Philosopher
giving a lecture at the Orrery
  • Orrery a mechanical device used to demonstrate
    the workings of thesolar system with a lamp as
    the sun.
  • Dramatic lighting - invests science with
    intensity of  Baroque religiousor historical

28-4 Coalbrookdale Bridge
  • Built 1776-1779 by Abraham Darby III and Thomas
    F. Pritchard.
  • First iron bridge, but it is built using
    wood-working techniques.
  • Its cast iron armature creates an arch over the
    Severn River.

28-5 Antonio CanalettoBasin of San Marco from
San Giorgio Maggiore
  • Represents Venice,1740
  • Views of the citywere popular assouvenirs
  • No mass-producedprints yet, socityscapes
    andlandscapes becamepopular for tourists a
    new phenomenonof the era.

28-6 Greuze The Village Bride 1761
  • Peasantsromanticized aspure and good.
  • Rise inpopularity of theroman
    (novel)spurssentimentalsubject matter

28-7 Chardin Grace at Table (1740)
  • Chardin-same generationas Watteau.
  • Investigated the poetryof the commonplace
  • Related to Voltairesideas about the
    innategoodness and piety of thepoor
  • Marks the establishmentof tropes or
    standardcharacters and themes.

28-8 Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun Self Portrait 1790
  • Most famous for portraitsof Marie-Antoinette
    andher children.
  • Portrays herself here inpost-revolutionaryclothi
    ng, simpler and morehumble.
  • Self-portrait represents thevirtuosity of  this
    artist,shows many brushes andher palette.
  • She was a member of theAcadémie Française.

28-9 William Hogarth Marriage à la Mode
  • Satirist of 18thcentury society inEngland, who
    usedcartoon-like images.
  • Critique here ofmarriage.
  • Obvious reference to
  • current ideas e.g.the decadence of

William Hogarth (1697-1764)
  • Gin Lane and Beer Street Etching and Engraving,

28-10 GainsboroughMrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan
  • The wife of a famousplaywright of
  • Set in a landscape similarto those used by
  • Note the simplicity of  herdress, hair, pose,
  • She represents the goodwoman, the loyal wife.

28-12 Benjamin WestThe Death of General Wolfe
  • Painted 1771, 12 yearsafter the event in
    whichthe defeat of the Frenchin 1759
    transfersCanada to Britain.
  • The heros death inguise of classicalpainting
    of death ofCaesar.
  • Wolfe died in battle,but not so cleanly
    orheroically as this imagerepresents.

28-13 John Singleton CopleyPortrait of Paul
Revere (1768-1770)
  • Interest in depictingthe skilled workingman,
    validation ofindividual effort.
  • Emphasis on eyes,thoughtfulness.
  • Note the reflection intable top, also inteapot.

28-14 Angelica KauffmannCornelia Presenting Her
Children As Her Treasures (1785)
  • Kauffmann was afounding member ofthe British
    RoyalAcademy of Fine Arts.
  • The Neoclassicalstyle.
  • Moral and civicpurpose women asmothers serve
    state asmakers and trainers offuture leaders.

Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825)
  • Neoclassical style the new classicism
    thatemphasized ancient texts, events, subject
    matterfor paining.
  • Studied in Rome.
  • Rejected Rococo artificiality.
  • He first allied himself with the French
    Revolution(1789-1798), but later became court
    painter forNapoleon Bonaparte.
  • Very effective propagandist in his art.

Jacques-Louis DavidOath of the Horatii (1784)
  • Stage setting
  • Story of conflict andsacrifice
  • Note the triangularcomposition
  • Based on mythicbinary oppositionsmen and
    women,strong and weak,active and passive

28-16 David, The Tennis Court Oath 1791
  • Records an event during the French Revolution
    (1789-1796), establishmentof the National
    Assembly. (Jefferson watches it from the balcony)
  • Study for larger work not completed because of
    instability of government.

28-17 David, Death of Marat 1793
  • Marat was a leader inthe Revolution
  • Assassinated byCharlotte Corday in1793.
  • Part of propagandacampaign of Jacobinparty
    (David was amember of theJacobins) against
    thoseopposed toRevolution.

28-18 David, The Coronation of Napoleon
28-18 David, The Coronation of Napoleon
  • Painted 1805-1808, followingthe event in 1804.
  • David had been imprisonedfor his political
  • After his release, Davidbecame the
  • first painter of the Empireunder Bonaparte, who
    seizedpower after the fall of theJacobin party
  • Napoleon saw himself as anew Charlemagne.

28-19 The Panthéon, Paris (1755-1792)
  • Also known as the Churchof Sainte Geneviève.
  • Architect Soufflot.
  • Begun 1 under Louis XVIcompleted during
    theFrench Revolution.
  • Inspired by Roman ruinsin Syria.
  • Dome recalls that of St.Peters, Rome
    façademimics Pantheon inRome.

28-21 Antonio CanovaPauline Borghese as Venus
(Completed 1808)
  • Villa Borghese, Rome.
  • Practically unknown topublic, kept in
    privateapartments of Paulineshusband
  • Depiction of her asVenus was a
    scandalhowever, the goddess ofLove was how
    Paulinesaw herself.
  • Note how the fabric ofthe couch stretches
    withher body weight.

Excavation of Herculaneum and Pompeii
  • Begun 1748, reveals two ancient Roman cities
    buried by eruption of Mount Vesuvius, 79 CE.
  • Preservation of intact painting, sculpture,
    architecture leads to romanticisation of ancient
  • Publication of books of engravings and drawings
    showing ruins.
  • Inspiration for painters from buildings and
    frescoes on walls
  • Inspiration for sculpture, furniture, silver,
    pottery and interior design.
  • Export of ancient treasures to Britain and
  • Starts a mania for all things reek or Roman!

28-26 Thomas Jefferson, Monticello
  • Made of brick and wood,designed by
    Jeffersonafter his return fromFrance and
    completed in1806.
  • Jefferson read all of
  • Palladio visitedRomantemple MaisonCarrée, in
    Nîmes, France.
  • His home has someaffinity with PalladiosVilla
    Rotunda (22-56).

28-28 Horatio Greenough,George
  • Completed long after thedeath of Washington.
  • Neoclassical style imitationof Zeus by Phidias.
  • This was a controversialdepiction seen by many
    asover the top at the time.
  • Suggested fate throwing itin the Potomac.
  • Collision of Ideology andReality.

Neoclassicism and Romanticism
  • Romanticism.
  • Rejection of reason infavour of emotion
  • Age of Sensibility 1750-1780 started trend
    towardinterest in emotion ratherthan intellect
  • Re-awakening interest inMiddle Ages and
    Gothicart and architecture -Gothic revival.
  • Neoclassicism
  • Reliance on ancientmodels.
  • Importance of Pompeiiand Herculaneum.
  • Emphasis on historypainting, especiallyancient
  • Fueled by Englightenmentinterest in rationalism.

Neoclassicism and Romanticism
al HumansympathySubjectivity
andIntuitionMiddle Ages and Gothic
  • Neoclassicism
  • Reason
  • Intellect
  • Rationality
  • Calculation of courtlysocieties
  • Objectivity
  • Ancient Greece andRome

28-29 Antoine-Jean GrosNapoleon in Pesthouse at
Jaffa 1804
  • Stylistically differentfrom David!
  • Romanticism notNeoclassicism!
  • Fascination with theNear East
  • Napoleons attemptat damage controlafter trying
    to kill alldisease-strickenFrench soldiers.

28-30 Girodet-Trioson Burial of Atala, 1808
  • Based on a novel byChateaubriand.
  • Views of NativeAmerican life - thenoble savage.
  • Influence ofChristianity.
  • Tragic love.
  • Romanticism.

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
  • 1780-1867
  • Studied in Davids studio
  • Rejected Davids style, believing he wascloser
    to a true Greek style of painting, onethat was
    purer than Davids.
  • Adapted the flatness and linearity found inGreek
    vase painting to painting in oils.
  • He was a master of the controlled line,precise
    definition of shapes and forms.

28-32 Ingres, Grande Odalisque
  • Neoclassical ideal Combination of exotic, erotic
    and classical -Orientalism in full force.
  • This painting was completed in 1814- holds no
    hint of Napoleonic Wars.

28-33 Ingres, Sketch of Paganini
  • Virtuoso violinist
  • Line is key
  • Strong outlinecreatessense ofstability
  • Accurate rendering ofthe features of

Two Sketches of Paganini
  • Left Ingres, Neoclassical Right Delacroix,

28-35 Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare 1781
  • Fuseli was a Swissartist who workedin England.
  • Member of RoyalAcademy of Art(founded 1768).
  • Illustrates theRomantic attitudetoward night,
    sex,and myth.

28-36 William Blake, Ancient of Days, 1794
  • Hand-coloured etching.
  • Blake believed he wasinspired by visions of
    spiritssent by God.
  • Representation of God theFather.
  • Imposition of architecture/geometry on the
  • Note the depiction ofenergy/force in the
    swirlingcolours used by Blake.

28-38 Francisco GoyaThe Family of Charles IV
  • Contemporary of Davidwho rejected
    rationalNeoclassicism in favourof an appeal to
  • Portrait of the SpanishRoyal Family.
  • Inspired by Velazquez butfar less flattering
    theyappear satirized as acollection of
    halfwits,adulterers andauthoritarian rulers.

28-39 Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814
  • Napoleon invadedSpain and Portugal,aided by
    Ferdinand VII,son of Charles IV.
  • Goya shows the resultof resistance toNapoleons
    forces, themassacre of Spanishcitizens, both
    rebels andthe innocent.

28-41 Géricault Raft of the Medusa 1818-1819
28-44 Delacroix, The Death of Sardanapalus,1826
  • Orientalism
  • Narrative story of ancientKing who ordered all
    of hispossessions destroyedafter loss in
  • He set fire to his palaceand went up in flames
  • Delacroix depicts thedespotism and crueltyof
    the orient, not itsexotic beauty.

20-45 Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People
  • Set in Revolution of1830 painted
    almostimmediately after theevent.
  • Allegorical the womanrepresents liberty
    theboy, the working classpoor the top hatted
    manon students/middleclasses.
  • Dead and dying in front.

28-49 Caspar David FriedrichCloister Graveyard
in the Snow, 1810
  • German landscape - aRomantic view ofGothic
    ruins (c.f.Wordworths TinternAbbey)
  • Monks in foreground
  • Unification of naturewith emotion
  • Transcendence oflandscape depicts
    thepicturesque/sublime -reflects

28-50 John Constable, The Haywain, 1821
  • Industrial Revolution inEngland
  • Traditional farminglifestyle becamemythologized
    bypainters and poets (e.g.Shelley)
  • Elimination of smallscale farms and farmersby
    commercial farmingthey move to the newfactory

28-51 J.M.W. Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840
  • Abolitionistsentiment is growingworldwide.
  • Stories of atrocitiescirculate in Europe
  • Slave ship captainthrows dead anddying
  • Based on historicalevent.

The Hudson River School
  • Begun by Thomas Cole about 1825.
  • Artists sought to depict uniquely American
    subject matter.
  • Dramatic landscape was what America had to offer.
  • Landscapes were largely from New England and the
    Hudson River Valley.
  • Panoramic landscapes combined with moral messages
    fromcontemporary literature.
  • Second generation of HRS artists traveled to
    the American west and to South America to search
    for untainted, pure landscapes  asAmerica was
    getting too crowded.

28-52 Thomas Cole, The Oxbow,  1836
  • Combination ofnature and humanityartist is
    miniscule inthe landscape.
  • Focus on thepicturesque valorizeslandscape,
    nature,visions of the divinein the natural
  • Influence of  Englishand GermanRomanticism.

28-53 Albert Bierstadt 1868Among the Sierra
Nevada Mountains, California
  • Views of theromanticized westernfrontier.
  • Purity of nature.
  • Divine light diffusesfrom the heavens.
  • Manifest Destiny.
  • No humans, no war.
  • Irony he got there byrailway!

2854 Frederic Edwin ChurchTwilight in the
Wilderness 1860s
  • Romantic view of the landscape - wide-angle lens
  • Church sought pure unaltered land.
  • Elimination of conflict from workno war.
  • Coincides with  Darwins Origin of Species.

28-55 Winslow HomerVeteran in the New Field, 1865
  • Subtle references to Civil War
  • Veteran returns to idyllic farming scene
  • Death present in use of single blade scythe
    (grim reaper figure)
  • Intersection of human with landscape is peaceful.

28-60 The Crystal Palace, London
  • Designed by Joseph Paxton, 1850-1851
  • Intended as main building of the Great Exhibition
    of 1851
  • English Imperial power is at its apex
  • Shows to the world  the superiority of English
    industry, design, commerce,and  technology.

Photography Writing with Light
  • First photograph produced 1827continues to be
    exposed and darkens to obscurity.
  • Photographic process required two elements
  • Use of chemical tocreate image on paper
  • Use of fixative toprevent image fromcontinuing
    to develop
  • 1839 Daguerre discovers how to fix an image
    (stop the action of the light) -his work called
    the daguerreotype.
  • 1835 Talbot produces calotype with a negative,
    allowing picture to be produced more than once
    His process not refined until 1844 but proved the
    more economical and lasting of the two.

28-61 Draped Nude
  • Photographer Durieuand the artistDelacroix
    worked tocreate photographic art
  • What is the logicalsubject matter
    ofphotography? Thesame as art!
  • Draped nude, classicalsubject matter

28-62 Daguerre, Still Life in Studio, 1837
  • One of the earliestdageurreotypes.
  • Daguerre patentedhis process.
  • Nature seen asreproduced intruthful way.

28-64 Nadar, portrait of Delacroix, c. 1855
  • Modern print fromoriginal negative.
  • Pose he hides hishands.
  • Conveys strength,upper class pretensions
  • Wet plate technologyrequired more effort,but
    yielded moreintense effects.

28-65 OSullivan, Harvest of Death, Gettysburg
  • Photography from U.S.Civil War - not the
    firstwar in photographs asoften claimed
    (CrimeanWar, 1854 was).
  • Prints made on the spot.
  • Apparent reportage -as ifyou are there
  •  Important to rememberphotography could be-and
    was- staged

Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt
Ansel Adams
Ansel Adams
Dorothea Lang
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