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Institutional Effectiveness: Developing an Institutional Philosophy for the Quest for Quality


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Title: Institutional Effectiveness: Developing an Institutional Philosophy for the Quest for Quality

Institutional Effectiveness Developing an
Institutional Philosophy for the Quest for
National Council for Instructional
Administrators April 4, 2008
  • Terri M. Manning, EdD.
  • Central Piedmont Community College

Institutional Effectiveness (IE)
  • A philosophy with a set of processes
  • A combination of the content from the following
  • Assessment
  • Program Evaluation
  • Quality Assurance
  • Organizational Development
  • You combine these areas and apply the result to
    higher education and you get IE

A Definition
  • Institutional Effectiveness is
  • an ongoing, integrated and systematic set of
    institutional processes that include planning,
    the evaluation of programs and services, the
    identification and measurement of learning
    outcomes, the use of data and assessment results
    for decision-making that results in improvements
    in programs, service and institutional quality.

You have had a speaker on this topic for the last
several years yet you ask for additional
training on this topic. Why is this hard for
institutions to accomplish?
Why This is Hard for Many Colleges
  • Colleges want someone to tell them exactly how to
    do this what is expected.
  • They think they are doing it for their
    accrediting agencies.
  • They dont create processes that are valuable to
    the institution.
  • They are either too simple or too complex.
  • They try to drive it from the top down
    administration tries to tell the faculty what
    needs to be done.
  • It has no central coordination of efforts no
    natural connection between processes.

Why Its Hard, cont.
  • Their approach is like students in the classroom
    - what exactly do we have to do to get an A on
    the test. They completely miss the concept.
    They dont get it.
  • We do not measure learning outcomes so we
    can say we did it.
  • This is not an end into itself.
  • It is part of a process leading
    to a much greater end.
    Improvements in institutional

What You Are Really Doing
  • Is attempting to create institutional change by
  • Getting faculty to value something different
  • Measure themselves differently
  • Have a different philosophy
  • Reward themselves for
    something different
  • Shake up their power
  • Is it any wonder we have trouble
    with this?

Lewens Organizational Change Model
  • Unfreezing reducing the forces that maintain
    the organizations current behavior. One
    introduces information that points out
    discrepancies between what we have and what we
    want. This is supposed to motivate members of
    the organization to engage in change behaviors.
  • Moving shifts the desired behavior to a new
    level by intervening in the system to develop new
    values, attitudes and behaviors through changes
    in processes.
  • Refreezing stabilizing the new behaviors by the
    use of support mechanisms such as a new culture,
    policies, norms and structures.

Source Essentials of Organization Development
Change, Cummings Worley
What Holds Us Back
  • Barriers to Individual and Organizational Change
  • Failure to recognize the need for change
  • We are fine like we are no need for improvement
  • Habit
  • That is not how we have always done it
  • Security
  • My position or rank or the departments
    standing could be
  • Fear of the unknown
  • What if we dont meet our outcomes (our students
    arent learning), we might be held accountable
    for it
  • Previous unsuccessful efforts
  • We tried that before and it failed

What Holds Us Back, cont.
  • Threats to expertise
  • Assessment results are not going to force me to
    teach my class differently or to improvement
  • Threats to social and power relationships
  • The one on top may no longer be on top, no longer
    the favorite or in control
  • Threats to resource allocation
  • My department or program might lose funding if we
    do not perform as well as other departments or

(from Greenberg Baron, 2000 Jones, 2004

Robbins 2000)
Mandates for Institutional Effectiveness
  • In 2006, U.S. Secretary of Education
    Margaret Spellings released A Test
    of Leadership Charting
    the Future of U.S.
    Higher Education. This report
    addresses the need to transform higher
  • There is inadequate transparency and
    accountability for measuring institutional
    performance, which is more and more necessary to
    maintaining public trust in higher education.
    (p. 14)
  • To meet the challenges of the 21st century,
    higher education must change from a system
    primarily based on reputation to one based on
    performance. We urge the creation of a robust
    culture of accountability and transparency
    throughout higher education.
    (p. 21)

Mandates for Institutional Effectiveness
  • The commission supports the development of a
    privacy-protected higher education information
    system that collects, analyzes and uses
    student-level data as a vital tool for
    accountability, policy-making, and consumer
    choice. (p. 22)
  • Faculty must be at the forefront of defining
    educational objectives for students and
    developing meaningful, evidence-based measures of
    their progress toward these goals. (p. 24)
  • The results of student learning assessments,
    including value-added measurements that indicate
    how students skills have improved over time
    should be made available to students and reported
    in the aggregate publicly. (p. 24)

Accreditation Has Changed
  • Over the past 3-5 years, all six accrediting
    agencies have made significant changes in their
    processes all requiring assessment and
    evaluation and the inclusion of student learning
    outcomes. The words institutional effectiveness
    are mentioned in the criteria for most
    accrediting agencies.
  • College and universities can no longer wait until
    1-2 years before an accreditation visit and gear
    up for it.
  • Colleges and universities are starting to get in
    trouble with their accrediting agencies.
  • Its going to get worse before it gets better .

What Do The Accrediting Agencies Want
Mandate for Identifying, Measuring and Using Outcome Data Mandate for Identifying, Measuring and Using Outcome Data Mandate for Identifying, Measuring and Using Outcome Data Mandate for Identifying, Measuring and Using Outcome Data Mandate for Identifying, Measuring and Using Outcome Data
  Identify Assess Analyze Use For
Accrediting Body Outcomes Outcomes Results Improvement
Middle States 7, 11, 12, 13, 14 X X   X
New England 4.18, 4.28, 4.44, 4.45 X X   X
North Central 2c, 3a, 4b, 4c X X   X
Northwest 2b, policy 2.2 X X   X
Southern 2.5, 3.3.1, 3.5.1 X X X X
Western 4.6, 4.7, 4.8 X X X X
Source Gita Wijesinghe, Florida AM
The Reality
  • At our institutions, our policies and practices
    are set up to perfectly deliver the results we
    are currently achieving.
  • Are they good enough?

I ask you if you are going to ask your
faculty to participate in and embrace
institutional effectiveness, to invest the time
to develop effective processes, to assess,
analyze and use results - - - .once it is all
done, what would you want to know?
Here is what others have said
  • What characteristics should our graduates have
    and do they have them?
  • Are our students learning?
  • Are our students succeeding?
  • Are some programs having trouble?
  • What will programs need to succeed in the future?
  • What is new and innovative coming our way (by
  • Where should our enrollments be (growing vs.
  • What are the costs?

Institutional Effectiveness
  • Is a way of thinkinga philosophy
  • Is the way an institution keeps its finger to the
    pulse of its various communities.
  • It is about student success and student learning.
  • It is mostly about an institutions continuous
    quest for quality, efficiency, effectiveness and

Institutional Effectiveness
  • It answers the questions
  • Are our students learning what we intended for
    them to learn
  • Can they apply what they learned in the real
  • Are we serving our students well
  • How can we improve, innovate and create
  • What is the real value of an education obtained
    from this institution

Institutional Effectiveness
  • There is no prescription no commonly accepted
    set of practices or processes
  • Can be culturally changing to serious
  • Is a unique system of questions and inquiry
  • Means looking at the questions before we come up
    with answers
  • Means looking at the data
  • It facilitates a culture of evidence

Educating Students
  • Is a developmental process
  • Unique to each institution
  • Yet with some common core values
  • It is like parenting
  • Would you want anyone to give your children an
    exam that measured how good of a parent you were,
    the quality of your family life
  • Your first question would be who made the
    decision on what a good parent is or what
    qualities are acceptable in families. While we
    all hold some common values about families and
    children, we are very different.

Difficulty for Faculty
  • Issues to discuss/work on
  • What do we value?
  • How do we operationally define it?
  • Can we all agree on a few characteristics we
    value and measure them?
  • Is that enough?
  • Who decides if it is enough?
  • How much more are we going to add to their plate
    without removing anything?

Effective Institutions
  • Dont make decisions, change policy or practice
    without the evidence to give them direction
  • When they start something new, they evaluate it
    heavily to make sure it produces the desired
  • When things dont work they fix it
  • Dont set students up to fail (policy and
  • They create a continuous flow of information to
    the opinion leaders, decision-makers and
  • Anticipate change and are prepared
  • Listen to their front-line employees those most
    in touch with their students/customers/clients
    (faculty and counselors/advisors)

Good Practices
  • Institutions who fully participate in IE
  • Figure out why students are not progressing and
    make changes
  • Discover student barriers to success and remove
  • Assess effective teaching modalities and expand
    and enhance them
  • Openly uncover their weaknesses and work toward

It is all about
  • Your students
  • Their success
  • Faculty and staff as facilitators
  • The quality of your institution
  • The responsibility we have to tax payers,
    students, our community and state
  • A desire for continuous improvement

It is Not About
  • Doing what we have always done but in a different
  • A prescribed set assessment tools
  • Filling out forms and putting documents in order
  • Paying lip-service to processes
  • Getting through an accreditation visit
  • This is so much bigger than an accreditation
    process or agency

Four Most Important Elements
  • Support from the administration
  • Buy in and trust from the grassroots level
    the development of relationships
  • Freedom and fairness for those being reviewed
  • Effective processes that work for your
    institution - that are supported and followed

Support from the Administration
  • If you dont have it nothing works
  • It is hardest where there is the unspoken rule
    no bad news
  • Faculty/staff cant fight like salmon swimming
  • You have to be creative and develop perseverance
  • You are there to get the job done
  • Some times it takes more than once for your
    message to get across

Support from the Administration
  • To obtain this support, you have to
  • Know what you are doing
  • Develop simple and clear processes
  • Fit the administrative response into your
  • Report results to gain visibility
  • Show how this relates to the bottom line and will
    increase enrollment growth and retention

Buy In From the Grassroots Level
  • Allow the faculty to create the process
    themselves (as much as possible)
  • You have to believe that what they are doing is
    critical to the success of the institution
  • You have to understand and validate that they
    dont have time for this
  • Build friendships and trust. Function as a
  • Be a faculty advocate and be proactive for their

Buy In From the Grassroots Level
  • Never be perceived as the one who is grading
    their performance
  • Roll up your sleeves and get involved
  • Seek to understand their issues
  • Give them tools and templates put things online
  • Create rewards
  • Realize their 1 role is to teach, not to be
    assessment experts

Freedom and Fairness
  • Never use data against them
  • Give them as much input as possible give them
    flexibility when you can
  • Allow them to measure what they believe is
  • Aggregate data when necessary
  • Try to get the message across This is a process
    with the goal of a continuous quest for quality.
    It is okay if things are not perfect then we
    know where strategies for improvement need to be

Effective Processes
  • Why develop a process?
  • There is an expectation of a due date
  • There is a format to follow that utilizes
  • Processes usually have outlines and calendars
  • Processes can be revised to include everything
    important to the institution

Typical Processes
  • A Mission Statement
  • A Strategic Plan
  • Institutional Goals and Outcomes
  • Annual Goal/Objective Cycle for All College
  • Annual Research and Assessment Reports
  • Program, Learning and Administrative Outcomes
  • Collect through processes
  • General Education Assessment
  • Program/Unit Review
  • Outcome Assessment Matrices

Today we are going to talk about
  • Two areas critical to instruction/academic
  • The Development and
    Assessment of Learning
  • The Development and
    Assessment of General
    Education Learning

Why are We Moving from Goals to Outcomes?
  • Outcomes are program-specific
  • They measure the effect of classroom activities
    and services provided.
  • Outcomes represent a new way of thinking
  • Outcomes have become widely accepted by our
    various publics
  • They are here to stay
  • They are skills-based variables you can observe,
    measure, scale or score

Program Outcome Model
Resources Services Products or Results of
Activities Staff Education (classes) Numbers
served FTE Services FTE (input next
year) Facilities Counseling Classes
taught State funds Student activities Students
recruited Ability of Students Constraints Laws
State regulations
Theory of Change Model
Program Outcomes Model
Benefits for People
New knowledge
Increased skills Changes in
values Modified behavior
Improved condition Altered
status New opportunities
(Outcomes answer the so what question)
Inputs through Outcomes The Conceptual Chain
Different Types of Outcomes
  • Learning Outcomes (can be at course, program or
    institutional level)
  • Program Outcomes
  • Administrative Outcomes

Definitions and Examples
  • Learning Outcomes
  • What changes in knowledge, skills, attitude,
    awareness, condition, position (etc.) occur as a
    result of the learning that takes place in the
    classroom. These are direct benefits to students.
  • Examples general learning skills (e.g. improved
    writing and speaking abilities), ability to apply
    learning to the work environment (e.g.
    demonstrate skills in co-op), program-specific
    skills developed or enhanced (e.g. take blood

Definitions and Examples
  • Program Outcomes
  • The benefits that results from the completion of
    an entire program or series of courses. Are
    there benefits for students who get the entire
    degree versus those who take a few courses? If
    so what are they?
  • Typical examples are licensure pass rates,
    employment rates, acceptance into 4-year schools
    or graduate programs, lifelong learning issues,
    content mastery, contributions to society, the
    profession, etc.)

Definitions and Examples
  • Administrative Outcomes
  • Units/programs want to improve services or
    approach an old problem in a new way.
  • They want to become more efficient and effective.
  • They establish an outcome objective for the
  • Typical examples are
  • All faculty will attend one professional meeting
    annually so they can stay up-to-date in their
    field, or
  • Counseling wants to recruit a new counselor with
    expertise in working with first-generation
    students, or
  • Facilities services wants students, faculty and
    staff to feel that they are safe on

Why is This Hard?
  • Because it is education
  • Because the best results may not happen for years
  • Because we are so busy doing what we are doing.
    we forget why we are doing it

  • The assessment of student learning can be
    defined as the systematic collection of
    information about student learning, using the
    time, knowledge, expertise, and resources
    available, in order to inform decisions about how
    to improve learning. (p.2)

SourceAssessment Clear and Simple A Practical
Guide for Institutions, Departments and General
Education by Barbara E. Walvoord, 2004
Assessment Characteristics
  • It is intended not to generate broad theories but
    to inform action.
  • Educational situations contain too many variables
    to make proof possible.
  • Assessment gathers indicators that will be useful
    for decision making.
  • It is not limited to learning that can be
    objectively tested. A department can state its
    highest goals and seek the best available
    indicators about whether those goals are being
  • It does not require standardized test or
    objective measures.
  • Faculty regularly assess complex work in their
    fields and make judgments about its quality.
  • Faculty can make informed professional judgments
    about critical thinking, scientific reasoning, or
    other qualities in student work, and use those
    judgments to inform departmental and
    institutional decisions. (page 2)

SourceAssessment Clear and Simple A Practical
Guide for Institutions, Departments and General
Education by Barbara E. Walvoord, 2004
Assessment Characteristics
  • Assessment means basing decisions about
    curriculum, pedagogy, staffing, advising and
    student support on the best possible data about
    student learning and the factors that affect it.
  • A lot of assessment is already going on in
    responsible classrooms, departments, and
    institutions, though we have not always called it
  • Assessment can move beyond the classroom to
    become program assessment
  • Classroom assessment faculty evaluates her own
    students assignments in the capstone course and
    uses the information to improve her own teaching
    the next semester
  • Program assessment faculty evaluated her own
    students assignments in the capstone course,
    outlining the strengths and weaknesses of the
    students work in relationship to departmental
    learning goals. The department uses the data to
    inform decisions about curriculum and other
    factors that affect student learning. (page 2-3)

SourceAssessment Clear and Simple A Practical
Guide for Institutions, Departments and General
Education by Barbara E. Walvoord, 2004
Methods of Assessment
  • Course imbedded assessments
  • Written works
  • Student journals
  • Speeches
  • Skills-based assessment (demonstrated skills)
  • Observation checklists
  • Teamwork assessments
  • Surveys that ask about specific behaviors
    indicative of changes in values and attitudes
  • Not self-evaluation of actual learning

Great Fallacy 1
  • Grades
  • In this day of social promotion, grade inflation
    and different teaching/learning philosophies,
    grades tell you virtually nothing.
  • They are not a measure of outcome achievement.
  • Two teachers will grade a student
    differently for the exact same work.
  • They cannot be used!

Great Fallacy 2
  • The evaluation of teaching
  • Only tells you who is happyhappiness
  • Measures more about the business and science of
    teaching not learning
  • Learning outcomes are not measures of teacher
    effectiveness or students satisfaction with the
    teaching/learning process
  • Learning outcomes are skills based
  • Students opinions are poor indicators if asked to
  • In your opinion, are you more accepting of
    cultural differences in people since completing
    your coursework at the college?
  • It is why we dont ask faculty On a scale of
    1-5, how good of a teacher do you feel you are?

Great Fallacy 3
  • I have 65 learning objectives
    on my syllabus
  • The faculty has established
    that when students complete
    ENG 111, they will have met
    these 65 objectives so we
    are establishing and
  • What is the problem with this?

How to Get Faculty On-board
  • Get them involved at the first step
  • Give them as much control as possible
  • Allow for a few tantrums then hit it again
  • Allow them to create over an adequate period of
  • Make use of opinion leaders
  • Help them understand why
  • Expect them to do an excellent job
  • Start with what you have what youre already
  • There is no magic bullet
  • There is no one-size-fits-all with outcomes

To Move Quickly
  • Create Several Committees made up of mostly
    faculty and your IR/IE/Assessment officers
  • Examples
  • General education committee
  • Learning outcomes committee
  • Program review committee
  • Give them an assignment
  • Find as many good examples of learning outcomes
    from various sources as you can. other colleges,
    accrediting agencies, the literature,
    standardized tests (my least favorite), national
    organizations and bring it back to the group.

From That List Establish Values
  • Are any of these relevant to our students?
  • Can we reword them to make them relevant to our
  • Are we teaching these concepts/constructs?
  • If so, where?
  • How can we assess them?
  • How can we use the results?
  • Of this list, what is the most important to us?
  • What would it be best to know?
  • How much can we do with our current
    staffing and resources?

Sources of Ideas for Outcomes
program documents program faculty and
staff national associations/credentialing
boards key volunteers former
students parents of students records of
complaints programs/agencies/employers that are
the next step for your students other
colleges with similar programs, services and
students as yours outside observers of your
program in action
How Often
  • Should we measure student learning outcomes every
    year every semester?
  • Benefits and barriers with timing?
  • When does measurement become too time consuming?
  • Units need time to put into effect the changes
    made as a result of outcome assessment before
    they are thrown back into another cycle. They
    need time to reflect on changes and results.

Disappointing Outcome Findings Why Didnt We
Meet Our Objectives?
Internal Factors
  • Sudden faculty/staff turnover
  • New teaching philosophy/strategy
  • Curricular change (campus move)
  • Unrealistic outcome targets
  • Measurement problems (lack of follow-through,
    no effective tracking)

Disappointing Outcome Findings
External Factors
Community unemployment increases State
funding changes Related programs (BS or MS
programs) close Public transportation
increases fares or shuts down some routes
serving your campus or time slot Employment
trends change
Failing to meet your learning
outcome objectives is
sometimes the best
thing that can happen to
you! Why?
Use Your Findings
Internal Uses for Outcome Findings
  • Provide direction for curricular changes
  • Improve educational and support programs
  • Identify training needs for staff and students
  • Support annual and long-range planning
  • Guide budgets and justify resource allocations
  • Suggest outcome targets (expected change)
  • Focus board members attention on programmatic
  • Help the college expand its most effective
  • Facilitates an atmosphere of change within the

An Example from One College Program
  • Workplace Literacy Program
  • This program is a literacy initiative that goes
    directly into the worksite and teaches ESL
    classes, GED prep and GED classes. Serves mostly
  • During their first attempt at outcome assessment,
    they surveyed both employers and students.
  • This was the first time they had ever done this.

What They Learned
  • Employers said
  • 43.8 of employers reported increases in employee
    performance as a result of participation in the
  • 31.3 reported a reduction in absenteeism by
  • 87.5 said classes improved the morale of their
  • 37.5 said participants received raises
  • 50 said communication had improved.

What Students Said
  • 70.2 reported being able to fill out job forms
  • 35.5 said they could now help their children
    with their homework
  • 91.1 said they felt better about themselves
  • 44.4 said they had received a raise, promotion
    or opportunity as a result of the courses
  • 86.3 said their ability to communicate in the
    workplace had improved

What Has Happened Since
  • Their assessment data has shown up in their
    marketing brochures to employers.
  • Their enrollment has grown dramatically.
  • They have received funding and marketing support
    from their local Chamber and are considered a
    model adult literacy program.

External Uses of Outcome Findings
  • Recruit talented faculty and staff
  • Promote college programs to potential students
  • Identify partners for collaboration (hospitals,
    businesses, etc....)
  • Enhance the colleges public image
  • Retain and increase funding
  • Garner support for innovative efforts
  • Win designation as a model or demonstration site

Good Sources for Outcomes (besides your own
If you cant come up with anything good..
  • Steal it from someone who else who did.
  • Two Good Sources
  • Longwood University

    201 High Street

    Farmville, Virginia 23909

    Phone (434) 395-2000

  • Pellissippi State Technical Community
    College 10915 Hardin Valley Road Knoxville, TN
    37933-0990 865-694-6400 http//
    artments/curriculum_and_ instruction/currinfo/gen

Typical General Education Goals
  • Basic computer/technology skills
  • Information literacy
  • Critical thinking/analytical thinking
  • Effective communication (both oral and written)
  • Moral character and values
  • Cultural diversity
  • Workforce skills
  • Reading and comprehension
  • Appreciation for the fine arts
  • Computational skills
  • Oral presentation skills
  • Teamwork skills
  • Leadership skills
  • Social awareness Interpersonal skills
  • Self management
  • Understand scientific reasoning/the scientific
    process or way of knowing
  • Lifelong learning skills

Look at Two General Education
Processes in Your Handouts
Top Ten Skills for the Future
  • Work ethic, including self-motivation and time
  • Physical skills, e.g., maintaining one's health
    and good appearance.
  • Verbal (oral) communication, including one-on-one
    and in a group
  • Written communication, including editing and
    proofing one's work.
  • Working directly with people, relationship
    building, and team work.
  • Influencing people, including effective
    salesmanship and leadership.
  • Gathering information through various media and
    keeping it organized.
  • Using quantitative tools, e.g., statistics,
    graphs, or spreadsheets.
  • Asking and answering the right questions,
    evaluating information, and applying knowledge.
  • Solving problems, including identifying problems,
    developing possible solutions, and launching

The Futurist Update (Vol. 5, No. 2), an
e-newsletter from the World Future Society,
quotes Bill Coplin on the ten things employers
want young people to learn in college
Learning Outcomes for the 21st Century
  • Students in the 21st Century will need to be
    proficient in
  • Reading, writing, speaking and listening
  • Applying concepts and reasoning
  • Analyzing and using numerical data
  • Citizenship, diversity/pluralism
  • Local, community, global, environmental awareness
  • Analysis, synthesis, evaluation, decision-making,
    creative thinking
  • Collecting, analyzing and organizing information
  • Teamwork, relationship management, conflict
    resolution and workplace skills
  • Learning to learn, understand and manage self,
    management of change, personal responsibility,
    aesthetic responsiveness and wellness
  • Computer literacy, internet skills, information
    retrieval and information management

(The League for Innovations 21st Century
Learning Outcomes Project.)
  • Identifying and defining outcomes is the easy
  • The devil is in the details.
  • How do we track it, where does it all go, how do
    we score it, compile it, turn it into a
    comprehensive report.
  • How do we demonstrate improvement in
    institutional quality.

Things to Remember
  • Outcome measurement must be initiated from the
    unit/department level (promotes ownership of
  • Measure only what you are teaching or
  • Measure what is important to you or your
  • Be selective (2-3 outcomes only for a course, a
    select list for programs and institutional
  • Put as much time in to thinking through the
    tracking process as you do into the definition of
  • Spend the time up front in planning and the
    process will flow smoothly.
  • It will prove to be energy well spent.

  • We do not do outcome assessment/evaluation so we
    can say we did it.
  • We do it only for one reason
  • To Improve Programs and Services

Where Colleges Get In Trouble
  • Overkill they evaluate everything that walks
    and breaths every semester in every area.
  • No time to reflect before they enter back into
    another assessment cycle.
  • No focus on use of results.
  • No ability to track results and tally them across
    the College.

Contact Information
  • Copy of presentation
  • Click on studies and reports
  • Posted as AACC NCIA session
  • CPCCs IE site
  • Terri Manning
  • (704) 330-6592