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Livelihood Vulnerability and Nutritional Assessment of Rural Kassala and Red Sea State

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Livelihood Vulnerability and Nutritional Assessment of Rural Kassala and Red Sea State Sudan June 2005 Main Objectives Determine if current livelihood conditions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Livelihood Vulnerability and Nutritional Assessment of Rural Kassala and Red Sea State


1
Livelihood Vulnerability and Nutritional
Assessment of Rural Kassala and Red Sea State
  • Sudan
  • June 2005

2
Main Objectives
  • Determine if current livelihood conditions
    indicate an impending crisis
  • Assess levels of chronic structural vulnerability
    and poverty and malnutrition in Eastern Sudan
  • Determine current level of food deficit
  • Recommend food aid and non-food aid interventions

3
Methodology
  • HH livelihood survey to gain a greater
    understanding of livelihood systems and to
    quantify the depth and breadth of food insecurity
    and livelihood vulnerability.
  • Nutritional survey including anthropometric
    measurements of children under 5 and pregnant
    and/or lactating women, consumption patterns, and
    morbidity and mortality data.

4
Methodology Cont.
  • Qualitative survey to provide an in-depth
    understanding of the livelihood context for to
    interpret the quantitative results and to
    identify underlying causes of food insecurity and
    vulnerability.

5
Modified from Scoones, 1998
6
Sampling Framework
  • 2 states Kassala and RSS
  • Nutritional survey 30 clusters of 30 children
    each in both states
  • HH livelihood survey 30 clusters of 15 HHs in
    both states
  • Qualitative survey 6 villages per state -
    representative of each locality (12 in total)

7
Cluster Selection
  • Random selection of clusters proportional to
    population size.
  • Based on GoS census data projection.
  • Selected 40 clusters in each state (including 10
    back up clusters).

8
Household Selection
  • Random selection of HHs upon arrival.
  • Identified center of the cluster and spun a pen
    to identify initial sampling direction.
  • Randomly selected first HH from direction of pen
    next HH was first on the right when facing out
    of the HH door.
  • Marked HHs with numbered paper for identification
    by both survey teams.

9
Household Selection cont.
  • Continued until reached intended sample for each
    cluster
  • 32 children for nutrition survey (2 back up)
  • 15 HHs for livelihood survey
  • Livelihood survey conducted interview in first 15
    HHs selected.

10
Household Selection cont
  • The Livelihood survey interviewed first 15
    randomly selected HHs regardless of HH
    composition. (914 HHs total)
  • The Nutrition survey completed questionnaire and
    anthropometric measurements for all HHs with
    children lt 5 (1900 HHs and 1875 children under 5
    total)
  • Anthropometrics data also collected for HHs with
    pregnant and/or lactating women
  • Mortality data was collected for all households
    surveyed (1948 HH total)

11
Linking Data
  • The Livelihood and Nutrition data for all of
    first 15 randomly selected HHs with children lt 5
    were linked by cluster and HH numbers.
  • Total of 852 HHs linked. (i.e. nutrition
    information and household livelihood information
    collected from the same household)

12
Quantitative Data Analysis
  • Data provided livelihoods profile including HH
    demographics, income, production, assets , and
    reliance on negative coping strategies.
  • Data provided state-level nutritional statistics
    for children lt 5 and pregnant and lactating women
  • Data identified HH livelihood factors and
    characteristics which were significantly related
    to the presence of both moderate and severe
    malnutrition of children lt 5.

13
Qualitative Data Analysis
  • Data collected through PRA techniques including
    key informant interviews, interactive tools and
    direct observations.
  • Qualitative data provided in-depth understanding
    of local livelihood systems.
  • Data provided context and constraints leading to
    food insecurity.

14
Lessons Learned I
  • Census data was often outdated as communities had
    migrated or dispersed and back up clusters were
    utilized. This may have skewed representation at
    locality level.
  • Dispersed settlement patterns of the communities
    increased time required for sampling procedure.

15
Lessons Learned II
  • Difficult to avoid duplication of interview
    questions basics of demographics were starting
    point for both Livelihood and Nutrition surveys.
  • Difficulty in conveying importance of random
    sampling - village leaders wanted sample to
    include members of each of multiple tribes.

16
Lessons Learned III
  • Used MoH list for causes of mortality and
    morbidity. Many respondents cited other as cause
    for mortality actual causes of death not
    accurately recorded in many cases.

17
Survey Findings
  • Factors with a significant relationship to the
    presence of malnutrition in children lt5 in HH
  • Literacy of head of household
  • High Dependency ratio
  • Low total household income
  • High Household coping strategies index

18
Survey Findings Cont.
  • Factors with a significant relationship to the
    presence of malnutrition in children lt5 in HH
  • Time required to reach water source
  • Average amount of money spend on water per week
  • Main water source (unprotected)
  • Number of months of household food insecurity in
    the last year
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